Threadfin breams belongs to the family-Nemipteridae, orderPerciformes. They are also known as Whiptail breams and Falsesnappers.It’ constitutes an important demersal finfish resource in the IndianEEZ.They are found in tropical waters of the INDIAN and WESTERN PACIFICWATER.The threadfin breams, also called pink perch… Kilimeen in Malayalam,Rani in Marathi, Madhumal meenu in Gujarati, Gulivindalu inTelugu..
There are about sixty species in five genera: Genus Nemipterus swainson(1839), Genus Parascolopsis boulenger(1901), Genus Pentapodus gaimard(1824), Genus Scaevius whitley, Genus Scolopsis cuvier (1814)Here in INDIA the most dominant sp. are N. japonicus & N. mesoprion distinctive characteristic Caudal fin moderately forked, upper lobe slightly longer than lower and produced into a short or moderately long filament. Three transverse scale rows on preopercle. Axillary scale present. A prominent red-suffused yellow blotch below origin of lateral line. Eleven to twelve pale golden-yellow stripes along body from behind head to base of caudal fin. Pectoral fins very long, reaching to or just beyond level of origin of anal fin. Color: Upper body pinkish, silvery below.
distinctive characteristic s<Nemipterus mesoprion>•Lower edge of eye lies below a line drawn from tip of snout to upperbase of pectoral fin. Dorsal fin origin about 4-7 scale rows from animaginary line projected upwards from posterior edge of suborbital todorsal profile.•Axillary scale present.Color: Oblique golden yellow stripe from beneath eye to middle ofmaxilla. Upper body pinkish, silvery white below.This species closely resembles N. marginatus, but lacks the filamentousextension to the upper lobe of the caudal fin; the posterior margin of thesuborbital is more or less straight, rather than evenly curved; and theupper stripe on the body is not divided anteriorly.
Six species are known from the seas around INDIA. They areNemipterus japonicus (Japanese threadfin bream), N. mesoprion (Red-filament threadfin bream), N. delagoae(Delagoan threadfin bream)N.metopias ,N.nematophorus and N.tolu (Notched threadfinbream).Out of these the first two species only contribute to the bulkof the landings.Threadfin bream is extensively found in tropical indo-pacificregions between 34°N - 11°S latitudes and 31°E - 133°W longitudes.They mainly occur in muddy sandy bottom. Occur mostly in shallowwater b/w 5 m -80 m depth(recorded upto 300 m depth). Nemipterusjaponicas occur up to 40 m depth , N. mesoprion occur beyond 40 mdepth.
Countries it occurs are- coastal waters of Eastern Africa north of Durban,Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius, countries bordering red sea andPersian gulf, Pakistan, India including Lakhshadweep Andaman &Nicobarislands, SriLanka, Myanmar, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand,Indonesia, Cambodia, NorthernAustralia, Polynesia, Micronesia,Newguinea, China, Taiwan, Philippines and Hawaiian islands. In INDIA more or less well defined peaks along WEST COAST (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala)..
Most species are benthic(bottom feeding), carnivorous, eating small fishes, cephalopods, crustaceans and polychaetes; however, a few species eat plankton. N. japonicus prefered to feed large number of crustacean like penaeid and non-penaeid shrimps. N. japonicus are asynchronouscyclic feeder ie. there is no particular feeding time in a day for the population but individual fishes may follow a cyclic pattern of active feeding followed by cessation in feeding N. japonicus are opportunistic feeders.
As we can see from length of the females are larger than the males.Mature males commenced to appear at 140 mm length and themature females dominated up to the 260-269 mm with gradual increasein the length of fish.The length at first maturity is 14 c.m.published weight: 596 g ; max. reported age: 8 years ; Source:( www.fishbase.org)
Reproduction of Nemipterus japonicus Mode - Dioecism Fertilization – ExternalDescription of life cycle and mating behaviorFemales predominate at larger sizes and males atsmaller sizes, due to faster growth rate in males .
The females out numbered males in the commercialcatches.Percentage of males was low in most of the months exceptin March, May, September, November and December.The sex ratio was different from the expected ratio 1:1 inalmost all the months showing the predominance of femalesin the catches
They are fractional spawners.Releasing ripe eggs in 2 spawning periodsSpawning seasons varies from locality to locality and among differentsp.Males dominated over females during Spawning Sp. Name COAST MONTH Japonicus N.W. COAST SEP-OCT S.E. COAST NOV-APR Mesoprion NOV-MAR N. Delagoae & S.E. COAST FEB-MAR tolu AUG-OCTIn the sea off Kerala, N.japonicus and N.mesoprion spawn duringmonsoon and postmonsoon periods with peaks during monsoon in the formerand during postmonsoon in the latter species.
The annual fecundity (2 batches) ranges from 23,000to 139,000 eggsFecundity of the fish increases with the increase inthe length and weight of the fish while ova per gram offish body weight has no relationship with the length ofthe fish.
Average Landing(‘000 tonnes)-Throughout the India Avg. landing during 1961 - 2005 YEAR QUANTITY 200 180 1961- 1970 10.96 160 140 1971- 1980 29.53 120 100 1981- 1990 75.36 80 1991-2000 60 145.2 40 2001-2005 20 184 0 (India profile, CMFRI)
State wise landings in year 2000 50,000 45,000Avg. landings tons 40,000GUJARAT 45,642 35,000 30,000KERALA 37,437 25,000 20,000KARNATAKA 19,100 15,000MAHARASTRA 9,273 10,000 5,000TAMIL NADU 3,284 0ANDHRA P. 1,201WEST BENGAL 69 *Status of exploited marine fishery resource
COASTAL Tons(‘000) ZONE NE 1.8 Avg. landing during 1961 - 2005 200 SE 20.4 150 100 50 SW 43.9 0 NW 33.9
Basically Threadfin breams is a by-catch species. So, it is caught with other species…. The most popular fishing gears are gillnet, longline, lift-net, push net and traps. In Kerala mainly- Bottom trawl net, Gill nets are used
Marketed mainly fresh, but alsofrozen, steamed, dried-salted, dry-smoked, fermented or made into fish ballsand fish meal.
Fishing mortality rate of 2 major species are within reasonablepermissible level, although cod end and mesh size of presenttrawl net can affect fish stock in long run.Increase in cod end mesh sizes can input landing in long run.Thread fin bream fishery contributed reasonably large catch inwest coast and trawl ban in this region during SW monsoon willimprove the stockUse of non-selective gear in inshore water should bediscouraged.Cont. Monitoring of exploitation, stock assessment, biologicalassessment and sp composition should effectively practised forsustainability the stock
Handbook Of Fisheries &Aquaculture, I.C.A.R.,p. 78Joseph Mohan M. & Jayaprakash A.A., StatusOf Exploited Marin Fishery Resources OfIndia, C.M.F.R.I, India, p. 153MANOJKUMAR P.P., Some aspects on thebiology of Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch) fromVeraval in Gujarat, Calicut Research Centre of CentralMarine Fisheries Research Institute,Calicut, India
SRIRAMACHANDRA MURTY, K . V. SOMASEKHARANNAIR, P. A. THOMAS, S. LAZARUS, S. K.CHAKRABORTY,S. G. RAJE, C. GOPAL, P . U. ZACHARIAAND A. K. VELAYUDHAN,PRESENT STATUS OF EXPLOITATION OF FISH ANDSHELLFISH RESOURCES : THREADFIN BREAMS,C.M.F.R.I, Cochin – 682031www.fishbase.orgwww.fao.orgwww.wikipedia.org