Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Quality planning
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Quality planning


Published on

These slides contain topics covered in lecture of quality planning. …

These slides contain topics covered in lecture of quality planning.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Quality Planning
  • 2. Introduction
    • “ Quality must be defined and measure if improvement is to be achieved.”
    • Facts about quality:-
      • Quality is a multidimensional concept
      • Their is a level of abstraction(depends on individual).
    • We should not treat quality measurement as the last step (before delivery and after assembly/development)
    • Like effort and schedule estimated we can estimate quality.
    • Software Quality
    • Quality is recognized as lack of “bugs” in the product(i.e conformance to requirements)
    • The above statement can be expressed by two ways:
      • Defects rate (number of defects per million LOC , per function point etc)
      • Reliability rate (number of failures per n hours of operations, mean time to failure etc)
  • 3. Cont..
    • Quality is measured with customer satisfaction
    • For instance IBM monitors satisfaction with its s/w CUPRIMSO(capability[functionality],usability,performance,reliability,install-ability,maintainability,documentation,service, and overall).
    • Hwelett-Packard focused on FURPS(functionality,usability,reliability,performance and serviceability).
    • Quality attributes depends upon the type of software and customers we have.
    • Further topic deals with “how a project manager set the quality goal for their project and plan to achieve that goal.”
  • 4. Quality Concept
    • The ultimate goal of the project manager is to ensure that the final s/w is of high quality.
    • How to define software quality? (as s/w has so many quality characteristics)
    • First understand Defect Injection and Removal Cycle.
      • Errors are obvious – S/w involves so many people for long duration of time
      • Defects Injection stages – all the transformation stages(analysis,design coding testing)
      • The high quality s/w must remove these defects
      • We have introduce defects removal after each transformation stage.
    Requirement Analysis R Design R Coding R UT IT/ST AT Defects Removal Defects Injection
  • 5. Quality Management
    • Defects removal managed by quality management.
      • Quality management is to plan suitable quality control activities and then properly execute and control them to achieve the project's quality goals.
    • Procedural approach to quality management
    • The defects are detected by performing reviews or testing.
    • In procedural approach we define the procedures for testing or review.
    • This method could not able to provide the quantitative measurement of quality , just provide the project manager is that whether the quality control task are executed or not.
    • Quantitative approaches to quality management
    • For better assessment of quality we require metrics data for evaluation.
    • It not only execute the quality control procedure but also looks at metrics data to evaluate effectiveness of quality control activities.
  • 6. Cont..
    • Quantitative quality management has following two aspects :-
      • Setting a quantitative goal
      • Then managing the software development process quantitatively (so that this quality goal is met with a high degree of confidence)
    • Early warning signs
  • 7. Cont.
    • Approaches can be used for quantitative quality control
      • Software Reliability Models
        • It use the failure data during the final stage of testing
        • Use to estimates the reliability of the software
        • It indicates whether the reliability is accepted or more testing is required
        • Not provide intermediate goals for the early detection
      • Defects Removal Efficiency (DRE)
        • In QC activity DRE can be defined as the % of existing total defects that are detected by the QC activity.
          • DREi=Ei)/(Ei+Ej)
        • It is carried out in full life cycle of the project before the s/w is delivered
  • 8. Cont.
      • Quality Prediction
        • Predict the defects as per the estimated defects level.
        • Process step has defect detection point
        • We find % of total defects detected at various detection stages
      • Statistical Process Control (SPC)
        • Set performance expectation of the various quality control processes (testing and reviews) in terms of control limits
        • If at any stage the actual number of defects are less than the target then it may be possible that the removal process was not executed properly
  • 9. Quantitative Quality Management Planning
    • It is a three step process perform my the project manager.
      • Setting the quality goal
      • Prediction of defect levels at intermediate milestones
      • Planning for suitable enhancements to the quality process
  • 10. Cont.
    • Setting the quality goal
      • Set during the planning stages by the project managers
      • Its noting but expected number defects found during acceptance testing (AT)
      • Their are two primary source for setting quality goal
        • Past data from similar projects
        • Data from the process capability baseline (PCB)
  • 11. Quality Goal
    • If we uses past data from similar projects approach then,
      • We can estimates the number of defects found in the current by following formula
        • Estimate for AT defects in CP=(AT defects in SP * estimated effort in CP)/Actual effort in SP
    • If use data from the PCB then(if we set the quality target as the number of defects per function point)
      • Sequence of steps as follows :-
        • 1) set the quality goal in terms of defects per FP.
        • 2) Estimate the expected productivity level for the project.
        • 3) Estimate the size of FP as (expected productivity * estimated effort )
        • 4) Estimate the number of AT defects as (quality goal * estimated size)
      • Productivity is a ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it.
  • 12. Quality Goal
    • Sometime it is more useful to set the target in terms of the process's defects removal efficiency.
    • Set as follows:
        • Set the quality goal in terms of defect removal efficiency.
        • Estimate the total number of defects from the defect injection rate and estimated size,or by the effort-based defect injection rate and the effort estimate.
        • Estimate the number of AT defects from the total number of defects and quality goal.
  • 13. Quality Process Planning
    • It all about the setting the quality goal of the current project with respect to the similar project.
    • Two main task of quality control
      • Review -> need good review process (By PM)
      • Testing -> need good testing method (By PM)
  • 14. Defects Prevention Planning
    • Defects prevention (DP) activities are intended to improve quality and improve productivity.
    • For a given process and its removal efficiency, the quality of the final delivered software can be improved if fewer defects are introduced while the s/w is being built.
    • DP also has productivity benefits [How]
        • Its a cycle of defects injection and remove ...without adding any value to the software.
  • 15. How
    • How is DP done ?
        • The premise of the DP is that there is some cause behind the injected defects.
    • To implement DP
      • A project manager may start with the set of
        • recommendations available at the organization level and
        • recommendations based on analysis of the project's defect data
  • 16. Defect prevention steps At Infosys
    • Identify a defect prevention team within the project.
    • Have a kick-off meeting and identify existing solutions.
    • Plan for defect prevention.
      • Set defect prevention goals for the project.
      • See that the DP team is trained on DP and causal analysis, if needed.
      • Define the frequency at which defect prevention activities will be carried out.
    • · Do defect prevention.
      • At defined points, collate defects data.
      • Identify the most common types of defects by doing Pareto analysis.
      • Perform causal analysis and prioritize the root causes.
      • Identify and develop solutions for the root causes.
      • Implement the solutions.
      • Review the status and benefits of DP at the project milestones.
    • Capture learning.
  • 17. Case Study
    • Read Case study given in
      • Book :- Software Project Management in Practice
        • By Panjak Jalote