Central Power Research Institute
Annual Report2010-11
CPRI
Prof. Sir.C.V.Raman Road,
P.B.No. 8066,
Bangalore – 560 080,
In...
Annual Report, 2010-11
Central Power Research Institute 3
FOREWORD
The performance of CPRI during the year 2010-11 has
sur...
Annual Report, 2010-11
4 Central Power Research Institute
In the area of Research & Development, 20 projects were under in...
Annual Report, 2010-11
Central Power Research Institute 5
Contents
Members of CPRI Governing Council as on 31st
March, 201...
Annual Report, 2010-11
6 Central Power Research Institute
Remaining Life Assessment studies..................................
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Central Power Research Institute 7
Activities in official language - Hindi ...........................
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Members of CPRI Governing
Council as on 31st
March, 2011
Shri. P...
Annual Report, 2010-11
10 Central Power Research Institute
Shri. B.P. Rao
Chairman & Managing
Director/Director
IS & P, BH...
Organisation
This section provides information on:
The objectives of CPRI.
The management.
The organisation.
The different...
Annual Report, 2010-11
12 Central Power Research Institute
Introduction
The Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) was es...
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Management
The management of the institute vests in its governi...
DirectorGeneral
N.Murugesan
CentralPowerResearchInstitute
OrganisationChartason31stMarch2011
Annual Report, 2010-11
Central Power Research Institute 15
Table of officers for CPRI divisions
AD RRB Dr. R. Ramesh Babu
...
Annual Report, 2010-11
16 Central Power Research Institute
The Central Research and Testing Laboratory,
Bangalore
Centre f...
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Non-destructive Testing Laboratory.
Condition Monitoring Labora...
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Diagnostics, Cables and Capacitors Division
This division has f...
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the past six years. The activities of the RGGVY and R-APDRP rel...
Annual Report, 2010-11
20 Central Power Research Institute
High Voltage Division
This division has facilities for testing ...
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Analytical facilities.
Power station technology and field engin...
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Training and HRD
The training and HRD division is headed by the...
Annual Report, 2010-11
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Ultra High Voltage Research Laboratory (UHVRL),
Hyderabad
This ...
Research and Development
This section provides information on:
The in-house research projects.
The Research Scheme on Powe...
Annual Report, 2010-11
26 Central Power Research Institute
The institute takes up research and development programmes keep...
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Design & development & fabrication of co-axial shunt
for measur...
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Study of GPS synchronized end-to-end testing of
distance protec...
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Study of smart grids and impact of renewable
integration.
Objec...
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Progress:
The software tools have been identified and are being...
Annual Report, 2010-11
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been completed. A sample of the polycarbonate insulator was fab...
Annual Report, 2010-11
32 Central Power Research Institute
apparatus and related areas has been undertaken. A roadmap for ...
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Progress:
The methodology of pultrusion of thin wires has been ...
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34 Central Power Research Institute
Research Scheme on Power (RSoP)
projects
These project proposal...
Annual Report, 2010-11
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Performance analysis and trading of wind power
generation in an...
Annual Report, 2010-11
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Optimal placement of sectionalizing switches and
distributed ge...
Annual Report, 2010-11
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Progress:
Mi-power software has been procured and analytical st...
Annual Report, 2010-11
38 Central Power Research Institute
Wide area measurement and control for improving
observability a...
Annual Report, 2010-11
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were carried out on 40,000 liters of oil. The electrical tests ...
Annual Report, 2010-11
40 Central Power Research Institute
Study on furanic compounds in transformer oil
Implementing agen...
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Progress:
It is observed that in non-corrosive soils, the embed...
National Perspective Plan
Research Projects
This section provides information on:
The development of silt erosion resistan...
Annual Report, 2010-11
44 Central Power Research Institute
Introduction
Power sector, being highly technology intensive, R...
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Progress:
It is well known that 13Cr-4Ni steel has a tempered m...
Annual Report, 2010-11
46 Central Power Research Institute
Patent Ref: 0384/2011
Application for patent is in process with...
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Hardware development
Design of the 500kvar converter module. Te...
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Development of technology for custom power devices
(Static comp...
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The developed STATCOM has been installed and commissioned oppos...
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Routine tests
Measurement of winding resistance phase to phase ...
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Patent filed:
The research work carried out is jointly filed pa...
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Application of the polarization principle in the field of power...
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Annual report 2010-11_eng

  1. 1. Central Power Research Institute Annual Report2010-11 CPRI Prof. Sir.C.V.Raman Road, P.B.No. 8066, Bangalore – 560 080, India. Phone: 080-2360 2919/2360 1905 Fax: 080-2360 1213/2360 2277 www.cpri.in
  2. 2. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 3 FOREWORD The performance of CPRI during the year 2010-11 has surpassed all earlier records. The year also celebrated year long Golden Jubilee Year and it is my privilege to be part of valedictory of the Golden Jubilee celebrations on 16th January 2011 which was celebrated in a befitting manner. On the occasion, former Director Generals and Directors were felicitated by Sri P. Uma Shankar, Secretary (Power) in the presence of Dr. P Balaram, Director of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. On the revenue front, the performance during the year exceeded all records. The revenue earning for the year stood at Rs.139.71 Crores against the corresponding revenue earnings of Rs.96.00 Crores for the year 2009-10 registering a growth of 45%. The expenditure of the Institute for 2010-11 was Rs.139.56 Crores after making provision of an amount of Rs.59.00 Crores towards Superannuation fund and Rs.22.01 crores for depreciation. In our pursuit to offer best services and for meeting the requirements of the dynamic power sector, the Institute has been augmenting its facilities and also setting up of new test facilities in line with growing needs of the power sector of the country. During the year, a new Mobile facility has been set up for testing performance of Thermal Power Stations at site which caters to performance studies on Coal, ESP and Boilers. CPRI has also added 50 MVA Short Circuit Generator which is completely indigenous. The other important Test Facilities which are under implementation are: Establishment of 800kV AC and DC Transmission System at UHVRL, CPRI, Hyderabad. Augmentation of Power Transformers and Switchgear Test facilities at High Power Laboratory, CPRI, Bangalore A unique facility for testing of EMI/EMC and LED test facilities CPRI has ventured in many new areas as the Third Party independent Evaluation Agency – Energy Accounting (TPIA-EA) for the state of Karnataka and the SCADA-DMS consultant for the State of Andhra Pradesh under the R-APDRP program of Govt. of India. As a Consultant for the first Smart Grid Pilot Project in India we have prepared, the DPR for implementation of the Smart Grid in the Electronic City area for Bangalore City in association with BESCOM under US Aid project. During the year 2010-11 the Institute undertook over 120 Consultancy assignments covering the areas of Generation, Transmission & Distribution. Some of the important assignments were Tower design validation for Kerala State Electricity Board, Chattisgarh State Electricity Board, Punjab State Transmission Company etc. Condition monitoring of power equipments for various power utilities and power station related field services, Energy Audit services. Under UNIDO, project on eradication of Persistent Organic Pollutants, CPRI has created a National data and also Awareness Program on harmful aspects of Persistent Organic Pollutants. The Institute as a “Management Consultant” is actively working towards establishing of on- line test Station for testing Large Power Transformers at Bina, Madhya Pradesh being executed by National High Power Test Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., a Joint Venture Company of PGCIL, NTPC, NHPC and DVC. The laboratories of the Institute continued to be accredited under ISO 17025 for testing and ISO 9001 for Research Schemes. The Institute also continued its accreditation under INTER TEK, ASTA and is a Member of prestigious Short Circuit Testing Liaison (STL).
  3. 3. Annual Report, 2010-11 4 Central Power Research Institute In the area of Research & Development, 20 projects were under investigation and 5 projects have been completed under In-house research projects. Under the Research Scheme on Power, 20 projects under investigation and 7 projects have been completed. Under National Perspective Plan research projects, 10 projects were under implementation and 3 projects have been completed. The officers of the Institute participated in National & International Conferences & Seminars and presented 144 technical papers which were well appreciated by the technical fraternity, as against 107 papers during the corresponding year 2009-10. The Institute has filed 3 patents during the year. CPRI conducted 50, a multitude of continuing Educational Programmes during the year covering Seminars/Workshops/Tutorials/Training Programmes, which include one Training Programme on maintenance & Testing of Power equipments for engineers from Utilities. At the International level, Training Programmes on MV/HV Cable Testing, Reactive Power Compensation at Kuala Lampur, Malaysia were organized. CPRI aspires to be the best Laboratory in the world and this would happen with the active and continued support of Ministry of Power. I look forward for very good performance in the coming years. (N.Murugesan) Director General
  4. 4. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 5 Contents Members of CPRI Governing Council as on 31st March, 2011 .....................................9 Organisation..............................................................................................................11 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 12 Objectives of CPRI..................................................................................................................................... 12 Management ............................................................................................................................................. 13 About the organisation............................................................................................................................... 13 The Central Research and Testing Laboratory, Bangalore .......................................................... 16 SwitchgearTesting and Development Station, Bhopal ................................................................ 16 Regional Testing Laboratory, Noida.......................................................................................... 16 Thermal Research Centre, Nagpur ........................................................................................... 16 UHV Research Laboratory, Hyderabad...................................................................................... 17 Regional Testing Laboratory, Kolkata ....................................................................................... 17 Regional Testing Laboratory, Guwahati .................................................................................... 17 Units and their activities............................................................................................................................. 17 Central Research and Testing Laboratory (CRTL), Bangalore ..................................................... 17 Switchgear Testing and Development Station, Bhopal ............................................................... 22 Regional Testing Laboratory, Noida.......................................................................................... 22 Thermal Research Centre, Nagpur ........................................................................................... 22 Ultra High Voltage Research Laboratory (UHVRL), Hyderabad.................................................... 23 Regional Testing Laboratory, Kolkata ....................................................................................... 23 Regional Testing Laboratory, Guwahati .................................................................................... 23 Research and Development.......................................................................................25 In-house research projects......................................................................................................................... 26 Ongoing In-house research projects......................................................................................... 26 Completed In-house research projects ..................................................................................... 32 Research Scheme on Power (RSoP) projects ............................................................................................... 34 Ongoing RSoP projects............................................................................................................ 34 Completed RSoP Projects ........................................................................................................ 38 National Perspective Plan Research Projects ...........................................................43 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 44 Development of silt erosion resistant material for turbines of hydro generators ............................................. 44 National effort to develop technology for custom power devices (STATCOM)................................................. 46 Development of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) distribution transformers..................................... 49 To develop a prototype of 132 kV optical current transformer for use in the 132 kV system ........................... 51 Development of silt erosion resistant nano-composite coatings..................................................................... 52 Tunneling in water charge zones under high hydro static pressure................................................................ 53 Development of DVR based voltage source stabilizers for process industry.................................................... 54 Improvement in reliability, safety and long term performance of power and converter transformers ............... 56 A study on stability & reliability of the power system with large penetration of wind power ............................ 56 Design and development of high temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) ......................... 57 Evaluation and Certification......................................................................................59 New testing facilities .................................................................................................................................. 60 Conversion of 2500 MVA generator into motor less system........................................................ 60 Climatic ageing facility for aerial bundled cable accessories ....................................................... 60 Expansion of Device Language Message Specification (DLMS) lab setup..................................... 61 Smart Grid.............................................................................................................................. 61 Mobile diagnostic facility.......................................................................................................... 62 Evaluation distance relays on RTDS.......................................................................................... 63 Short time over current test..................................................................................................... 63 Glow wire test ........................................................................................................................ 64 Special tests conducted.............................................................................................................................. 64 Evaluation highlights.................................................................................................................................. 65 Evaluation Of Equipment For Overseas Customers:...................................................................................... 66 Consultancy Activities ...............................................................................................69 Energy audit services................................................................................................................................. 70 Tower design validation ............................................................................................................................. 70 R-APDRP Programme................................................................................................................................. 70
  5. 5. Annual Report, 2010-11 6 Central Power Research Institute Remaining Life Assessment studies............................................................................................................. 71 Stress measurements on rail wheel components ....................................................................... 71 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study on cooling water intake sump.................................. 72 Witnessing of initial capacity test ............................................................................................. 72 Development and evaluation of high strength concrete ............................................................. 72 Failure analysis of Re-heater tubes........................................................................................... 73 Power System Studies................................................................................................................................ 74 Sub-Synchronous Resonance (SSR) studies .............................................................................. 74 Dynamic testing of distance protection relay P 546 ................................................................... 74 Testing of 2.5 MVAR STATCOM................................................................................................ 74 Soil resistivity measurement .................................................................................................... 74 Protection audit and study of DTL transmission system ............................................................. 75 125MVA, 220kV/ 33kV transformer charging studies for M/s. Reliance Infrastructure Ltd., Mumbai75 Measurement of soil resistivity of earth resistance for Terec+Electrode for M/s. SGI Engineers Pvt., Ltd., Bangalore............................................................................................................................... 75 Measurement of earth resistance at Koteshwar hydro electric project for M/s THDCIL, Tehri ....... 75 Load flow and stability study for Synchronization of 600 MW thermal units to KPTCL Grid ........... 75 Condition monitoring and diagnostic tests ................................................................................................... 76 Grounding studies...................................................................................................................................... 77 Power station related field services ............................................................................................................. 77 Special Consultancy activities ..................................................................................................................... 79 National Implementation Plan on POP’s – PCB’s........................................................................................... 80 Promotional Activities ...............................................................................................81 CPRI on internet........................................................................................................................................ 82 CPRI participation in National and International exhibitions .......................................................................... 82 India International Trade Fair – 2010....................................................................................... 82 India Electricity 2010............................................................................................................... 83 ELASIA 2011........................................................................................................................... 84 Energy and Power India (EPI) 2011 ......................................................................................... 85 WETEX 2011........................................................................................................................... 85 Advertisements released during the year..................................................................................................... 86 Important persons/foreign delegations visiting CPRI .................................................................................... 87 Training activities......................................................................................................93 Seminars/Conferences/Workshops/............................................................................................................. 94 Training Programmes organised by CPRI during 2010-2011 ......................................................................... 94 Training of CPRI staff................................................................................................................................. 97 Lectures delivered ................................................................................................................................... 116 Capital Projects .......................................................................................................121 Physical progress of capital projects.......................................................................................................... 123 Modernisation of the Short Circuit test facilities and augmentation of the power transformer test facilities ........................................................................................................................................... 123 Modernisation and augmentation of the Switch-gear test facilities at CPRI, Bangalore............... 124 Augmentation of test facilities for optimization of the 800 kV AC and 800 kV DC transmission systems 124 Centre for excellence for Lifecycle Management and Condition assessment of high voltage substation and power plant electrical equipment ........................................................................................... 125 Setting up test facilities for a Pre-Qualification test on 400 kV XLPE cable system ..................... 126 Centre for Excellence for Dielectric studies ............................................................................. 126 Mechanical Strength Test facility............................................................................................ 127 Centre for Creep and Mechanical testing ................................................................................ 127 Centre for Advanced energy research in the areas of Energy efficiency and Energy audit .......... 127 Collaborative Research on emerging technologies ................................................................... 128 Quality Accreditation for new facilities and business development for CPRI............................... 128 Augmentation of High voltage, Diagnostic, Relay, Vibration, LED test facilities and Infrastructure protection. ........................................................................................................................................... 129 Administrative Matters............................................................................................131 Governance............................................................................................................................................. 132 CPRI celebrates Golden Jubilee................................................................................................................. 132 Visit of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Energy ................................................................................ 133 Activities Related to Women Employees .................................................................................................... 134 Liaison Officer SC/ST & Persons WithDisability (PWD)................................................................................ 135 Deputation of CPRI officers abroad........................................................................................................... 137 Membership of CPRI Officers in International/National Committees............................................................. 137 Research Publication by Officers ............................................................................................................... 137 Finance and Accounts..............................................................................................139
  6. 6. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 7 Activities in official language - Hindi ......................................................................143 Awards ................................................................................................................................................... 144 NTPC Award ......................................................................................................................... 144 Inspection by the Second Sub-Committee of Parliament on Official Language.............................................. 145 Workshops and Seminars ......................................................................................................................... 146 Health seminar ..................................................................................................................... 146 Expression development workshop......................................................................................... 147 Publications............................................................................................................................................. 147 Vigyan Deepti ....................................................................................................................... 147 CPRI news............................................................................................................................ 147 Promotional Activities............................................................................................................................... 147 Technical articles competition ................................................................................................ 147 Incentive scheme.................................................................................................................. 147 Facilities Provided .................................................................................................................................... 147 Multilingual software in server ............................................................................................... 147 Supply of forms .................................................................................................................... 147 CPRI website ........................................................................................................................ 148 Compliance ............................................................................................................................................. 148 Hindi Month and Hindi Divas..................................................................................................................... 148 Town’s Official Language Implementation Committee (TOLIC) activities...................................................... 148 Rajbhasha Shield for the year 2009-10................................................................................... 148 Kaveri .................................................................................................................................. 148 Inter organizational competitions ........................................................................................... 148 Joint Hindi Divas celebration.................................................................................................. 148 Regional Rajbhasha Award-First............................................................................................. 149 Appendix – 1............................................................................................................150 The Standing Committee as on 31st March, 2011 ....................................................................................... 150 Appendix – 2............................................................................................................151 The Committee on Research as on 31st March, 2011.................................................................................. 151 Appendix – 3............................................................................................................153 The Committee on Testing and Certification as on 31st March, 2011............................................................ 153 Appendix – 4............................................................................................................155 The RSoP Expert Committee as on 31st March, 2011................................................................................ 155 Appendix – 5............................................................................................................157 Personnel Deputed Abroad for Meeting/Training/Pre-despatch Inspection of Equipment during2010-2011 .... 157 Appendix– 6.............................................................................................................159 Membership of CPRI Officers on International/National Committees............................................................ 159 Appendix – 7............................................................................................................169 PapersPresented/Published Indicating Venue/Journal................................................................................. 169 Appendix – 8............................................................................................................181 Auditors’ Report....................................................................................................................................... 181 Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 .................................................................................... 183 Income and Expenditure Account for the year ended 31st March 2011..................................... 184 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 185 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 187 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 188 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 190 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 191 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 192 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 193 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 194 Schedules forming part of Balance Sheet as on 31st March 2011 ............................................. 195 Schedules forming part of Income & Expenditure for the year ended 31st March 2011............... 196 Schedules forming part of Income & Expenditure for the year ended 31st March 2011.............. 197 Schedules forming part of Income & Expenditure for the year ended 31st March 2011.............. 197 Schedules forming part of Income & Expenditure for the year ended 31st March 2011.............. 198 Schedules forming part of Income & Expenditure for the year ended 31st March 2011.............. 199 Schedules forming part of Income & Expenditure for the year ended 31st March 2011.............. 200 Schedules forming part of Income & Expenditure for the year ended 31st March 2011.............. 201 Schedule 17.......................................................................................................................... 202 Schedule 18.......................................................................................................................... 204
  7. 7. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 9 Members of CPRI Governing Council as on 31st March, 2011 Shri. P. Uma Shankar- President, Governing Council, Secretary (Power), Ministry of Power, Shram Shakti Bhavan, NEW DELHI-110 001. Shri. Gurudayal Singh Vice President, Governing Council, Chairperson, Central Electricity Authority, Sewa Bhavan, NEW DELHI-110 066. Shri. A.S. Bakshi Member (Planning), Central Electricity Authority, Sewa Bhawan, NEW DELHI-110 066. Dr. Ravi Kanth Joint Secretary, Ministry of Power, Shram Shakti Bhavan, Rafi Marg, NEW DELHI-110 001. Shri. Rakesh Jain Joint Secretary & FA, Ministry of Power, Shram Shakti Bhavan, Rafi Marg, NEW DELHI-110 001. Shri. R.R. Abhyankar Head TPDU, Ministry of Science & Technology, Technology Bhavan, New Mehrauli Road, NEW DELHI-110 016. Shri. Ajit K. Gupta Advisor & Head (Power Group), (MNRE), Lodhi Road, NEW DELHI-110 003.
  8. 8. Annual Report, 2010-11 10 Central Power Research Institute Shri. B.P. Rao Chairman & Managing Director/Director IS & P, BHEL Ltd. BHEL House, Siri Fort, NEW DELHI-110 049. Shri. N N Mishra Director (Operations), NTPC Ltd., NTPC Bhawan, SCOPE Complex, NEW DELHI-110 003. Shri. I.S. Jha Director (Projects), Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd., Saudamini, Gurgaon, HARYANA-122001. Shri. Vimal Mahendru President-IEEMA, 501, Kakad Chambers, 132, Dr. A. Besant Road, Worli, MUMBAI-400 018. Shri. V.K. Kanjilia Secretary, Central Board of Irrigation & Power, Chanakyapuri, NEW DELHI-110 021. Shri. C.P. Singh Chairman, Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Anna Salai, CHENNAI-600 002. Shri. V.P. Joy Chairman, KSEB, Vidyuthi Bhavanam, Pattom, THIRUVANANTHPURAM -695 004. Prof. Lawrence Jenkins Department of Electrical Engineering, IISc, BANGALORE-560 012. Prof. A.K. Chaturvedi Head of Department, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, KANPUR. Prof. J.K. Chatterjee Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, NEW DELHI-110 016. Dr. Ajay Mathur Director General, Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 4th floor, Sewa Bhavan, Ramkrishna Puram, NEW DELHI-110 066. Shri. N. Murugesan Director General, Member Secretary, Central Power Research Institute, BANGALORE-560 080.
  9. 9. Organisation This section provides information on: The objectives of CPRI. The management. The organisation. The different units and their activities. 1
  10. 10. Annual Report, 2010-11 12 Central Power Research Institute Introduction The Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) was established by the Government of India in 1960, with its headquartersin Bangalore. The Institute was re-organised into an autonomous society in the year 1978 under the aegis of the Ministry of Power, Government of India. The main objectives of setting up the institute was for it to serve as a national level laboratory for undertaking applied research in electrical power engineering, besides functioning as an independent national testing and certification authority for electrical equipment and components to ensure reliability in the power system and to innovate and develop new products. Objectives of CPRI Function as a national level power research organisation for undertaking and/or sponsoring research and development projects in the fields of generation, transmission, distribution and operation of electricity supply systems. Provide the necessary centralised research and testing facilities for evaluation of materials and the performance of power equipment. Serve as a testing and certification authority at the national level, for the purpose of certification of rating and performance to ensure availability of quality equipment for use under conditions prevalent in Indian power systems. Co-ordinate R&D activities in the various state electricity boards and utilities and maintain liaison with other institutions engaged in research connected with power systems and/or power equipment. Act as an apex body for initiating and coordinating the research & development in the field of electric power, the research scheme on power. Evolve criteria for the standards of operation under Indian conditions of various equipments, and effectively participate in the formulation of national standards. Identify problems in the areas of basic and applied research and arrange such studies in-house and in academic institutions. Collect information and maintain documentation in the field of power engineering and publish papers, periodicals or reports in furtherance of the objectives of the institute. Establish, maintain and manage laboratories, workshops and other facilities for furthering scientific and technological research and conduct experiments for exploiting the invention or discoveries to the cause of power development in the country. Enter into an agreement with any enterprise or institution or person or persons and provide funds to them to carry out the research and development programme of the institute. Carry out consultancy projects/ field studies and third party inspection of equipment and all other related activities relevant to the power utilities in India and abroad.
  11. 11. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 13 Management The management of the institute vests in its governing council comprising members representing different ministries of the Government of India, Central Electricity Authority, State Electricity Boards, Power Supply utilities, Indian Electrical & Electronics Manufacturer's Association, and academic and R&D organizations of national importance in electrical power engineering. The Secretary, Ministry of Power and Chairman, Central Electricity Authority are the President and Vice-President of the Governing Council respectively. The Director General of the institute is the Member-Secretary of the governing council. A standing committee under the Chairmanship of Member (Power Systems), Central Electricity Authority, with the Joint Secretary (T&R) and Joint Secretary (Financial Advisor), from the Ministry of Power as members and the Director General as member convener, takes decisions on behalf of the governing council from time to time on administrative and financial matters. The composition of this committee is at Appendix - 1. The committee on research and committee on testing & certification are the two committees constituted by the governing council to oversee and guide the respective activities of the institute. The member (Planning) and the member (Power Systems) of the CEA are the chairmen of these two Committees respectively. The composition of these committees is at Appendix - 2 & 3. CPRI coordinates and monitors the Research projects viz. Research Scheme on Power which are undertaken by academia, power utilities and industries. An expert committee chaired by Director General, CPRI evaluates the proposals received and recommends for approval of the Governing Council. The composition of this committee is at Appendix – 4. The governing council meets at least twice a year to deliberate and guide the working of organization on policy matters. The meetings of other committees are held as and when required. About the organisation As a premier research organization in the field of power engineering, the institute has several research laboratories and testing installations engaged in different, specialised fields. The head office and its largest unit - Central Research and Testing Laboratory (CRTL) - are located at Bangalore. The other units are the Switchgear Testing & Development Station at Bhopal, Regional Testing Laboratory at Noida, UHV Research Laboratory at Hyderabad, Thermal Research Centre at Nagpur, Regional Testing Laboratory, Kolkata and Regional Testing Laboratory at Guwahati. The details of the organizational set-up of the institute are indicated in the organization chart. The unit comprises various laboratories to cater to the different fields of specialised activities.
  12. 12. DirectorGeneral N.Murugesan CentralPowerResearchInstitute OrganisationChartason31stMarch2011
  13. 13. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 15 Table of officers for CPRI divisions AD RRB Dr. R. Ramesh Babu AD SSR Dr. S. Seetharamu AD AS Mr. A. Sudhindra AD PVB Dr. P.V. Balasubramanyam AD RSA Dr. R.S.Shivakumar Aradhya AD MMB Mr. M.M. Babu Narayanan AD MSB Mr. M.S.Bhat AD KBM Mr. K.B.Manjunath AD VA Mr. V. Arunachalam AD GSG Mr. Gautam Sengupta AD BHN Mr. B.H.Narayana AD BG Mr. B.Gunasekaran AD BVR Mr. B.V.Raghavaiah AD VKR Mr. V.K.Ramu JD SVK Mrs. S. Vijaya Kumari JD SBS Mr. Suhas. S. Bagalkotker JD RSK Mr. R. S. Kamalakar JD JS Dr. J. Sundararajan JD BNR Mr. B. Nageshwar Rao JD BMM Mr. B.M.Mehra CACO IVR Mr. I. Venkateshwara Rao CADO NRP Mr. N.R.Padmanabha
  14. 14. Annual Report, 2010-11 16 Central Power Research Institute The Central Research and Testing Laboratory, Bangalore Centre for Collaborative and Advanced Research. Diagnostic, Cables, Capacitors Division. Dielectric Materials Division. Distribution Systems Division. Electrical Appliances Technology Division. Earthquake Engineering and Vibration Research Centre. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Division. High Voltage Division. High Power Laboratory. Instrumentation Division. Materials Technology Division. Mechanical Engineering Division. Power Systems Division. Short Circuit Laboratory. Training and HRD. Utility Automation Research Centre. SwitchgearTesting and Development Station, Bhopal Direct Short Circuit Testing Laboratory (1500 MVA). On-line Testing Station (100 MVA). High Voltage Laboratory. Temperature Rise Testing Laboratory. Energy Meter Testing Laboratory. Ingress Protection Testing Laboratory. Supplementary Test Laboratory. Transformer Oil Laboratory. Regional Testing Laboratory, Noida Cables and Capacitors Laboratory. High Voltage Laboratory. Insulation Laboratory. Liquid Dielectrics Laboratory. Energy Meters Testing Laboratory. Thermal Research Centre, Nagpur Coal Analysis Laboratory. Metallurgy Laboratory. Water Chemistry Laboratory.
  15. 15. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 17 Non-destructive Testing Laboratory. Condition Monitoring Laboratory. Environmental Monitoring Laboratory. Mobile environmental monitoring station. UHV Research Laboratory, Hyderabad Pollution Laboratory. Impulse Laboratory. Power Frequency Laboratory. Vibration Laboratory. Regional Testing Laboratory, Kolkata Transformer Oil Testing Laboratory. Regional Testing Laboratory, Guwahati Transformer Oil Testing Laboratory. Units and their activities Central Research and Testing Laboratory (CRTL), Bangalore Centre for Collaborative and Advanced Research (CCAR) This division was established in 2006 with a view to promote advanced research, which will benefit the power sector with advanced technologies. The main objectives of the centre are to: Provide infrastructure for professionals to carry out research in power development. Create a conducive environment for collaborative research between R&D institutions, industry and academia. Execute projects based on multi - disciplinary expertise from different institutions. Disseminate expertise through a continuing education initiative and an advanced degree programme. Increase interaction globally among research organizations and groups.
  16. 16. Annual Report, 2010-11 18 Central Power Research Institute Diagnostics, Cables and Capacitors Division This division has facilities for carrying out R&D work and also for testing and evaluation of all types of capacitors, cables, cable accessories, motor and transformer insulation, and for partial discharge measurement of HV equipment as per the relevant national and international standards. Expertise is also available for diagnostic, RLA and LE (life extension) studies on electrical equipment and for detailed investigations of specific research and developmental problems in these areas. The division has the following laboratories: Cables laboratory. Power capacitors laboratory. Diagnostics laboratory. Flame retardant low smoke testing laboratory. Heat run laboratory. Insulation laboratory. Dielectric Materials Division This division has comprehensive testing and evaluation facilities on insulating materials and systems. The insulating materials are evaluated and tested for electrical, mechanical, physical and electro-chemical thermal properties. This division undertakes consultancy work and sponsored projects for different power utilities and industries. This division is involved in R&D of polymeric insulators for electric equipment. The division has developed several polymeric materials, namely epoxy novolok resin for insulators and electrical grade laminates, and FRLS cables for critical safety applications. The division also developed dielectric fluids based on rapeseed oil. The polymer laboratory has well-experienced, technical personnel to advise the polymer industries on setting up plants, process improvement, etc. This division has transferred the technology of transformer oil reclamation to state electricity boards, manufacturers and entrepreneurs. The liquid dielectric lab has developed new techniques for dissolved gas analysis. This division has the following laboratories: Liquid dielectrics laboratory. Polymer laboratory. Lubricating oil laboratory. Distribution Systems Division (DSD) With state-of-the-art facilities and software tools, the Distribution System Division of CPRI has been rendering consultancy services in finding solutions to various problems faced by the electricity utilities and industries in the area of power distribution. The division has been rendering consultancy to the Electricity Regulatory Commission in estimation of losses in distribution to enable them to finalize a tariff structure. Besides, CPRI has been functioning as advisor cum consultant in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala under the Accelerated Power Development & Reforms Programme (APDRP) of the Government of India during
  17. 17. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 19 the past six years. The activities of the RGGVY and R-APDRP related works at CPRI are being coordinated by the Distribution System Division. Consultancy assignments, related SCADA and distribution reforms are taken up by this division. Electrical Appliances Technology Division The important activities of this division include performance testing and certification on low-voltage equipment like switches, bulbs and heaters. The laboratories operating under this division are: Domestic electrical appliances laboratory. Ingress protection laboratory. Battery testing laboratory. Illumination laboratory. Fan testing laboratory. Flame - proof testing laboratory. Rotating machine testing laboratory. Refrigerator and air conditioner testing laboratory (established under the standards and labelling programme of Bureau of Energy Efficiency). Earthquake Engineering and Vibration Research Centre This division is equipped with facilities for providing testing, research and consultancy services in the area of seismic and vibration qualification of instruments/equipment for nuclear power plants and other generating stations as per national and international standards. In addition, this centre offers consultancy in checking the design adequacy of structures/bridges and models for seismic qualification. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Division This division studies and investigates problems pertaining to the energy audit, energy conservation and field engineering services of power plants. This is a virtual division created with experts drawn from various disciplines within CPRI. This division also provides interdisciplinary field study packages to thermal power stations and process industries on remaining life estimation, renovation, modernisation, and up gradation and life extension of components, sub-systems and plants. This division has been accredited by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) and PCRA for conducting energy audit in power plants and other industries. The laboratory has facilities for testing and certification of: Solar photovoltaic lantern. Compact florescent lamps and LEDs. Solar home lighting and street controllers.
  18. 18. Annual Report, 2010-11 20 Central Power Research Institute High Voltage Division This division has facilities for testing and certification of high voltage electrical equipment and for performance, evaluation and investigation of R&D problems in the area of HV & EHV transmission of electric power. The following laboratories operate under this division: High voltage laboratory. Pollution laboratory. Impulse current laboratory. High Power Laboratory This laboratory provides facilities for development, testing and certification of EHV circuit breakers, power transformers, current transformers, isolators, line (wave) traps, reactors, insulator strings, etc., for performance evaluation under short circuit and other switching conditions. The facilities available under this laboratory are as follows: Direct testing facility up to 2500 MVA, 72.5 kV, 3 phase and 1400 MVA, 245 kV, single phase. Synthetic testing facility for extra high voltage circuit breakers rated up to 400 kV, 63 kA. Instrumentation Division This division has facilities for research and development of electronic instrumentation for power systems. The following laboratories operate under this division: Laser and fibre optics laboratory. Microprocessor based instrumentation laboratory. Calibration laboratory. Energy meter testing laboratory. The division has established a mobile laboratory for calibration of energy meters at site and for helping Central Electricity Regulators Commission, Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission, etc. Materials Technology Division This division has different laboratories for testing and development of organic and inorganic materials, and evaluation of coal, water, etc. The laboratories operating under this division are: Materials characterization and engineering laboratory. Corrosion laboratory.
  19. 19. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 21 Analytical facilities. Power station technology and field engineering application laboratory. Wear & erosion and mechanical test facilities. Fuel analysis and combustion research laboratory. Remaining life assessment and renovation & modernization laboratory. Industrial solid waste utilization centre. Mechanical Engineering Division This division is engaged in the study of mechanical engineering problems in the transmission systems so as to achieve economy and reliability and also to offer solutions to the problems experienced by the electrical utilities. Design and consultancy services for evolving optimized tower design are also undertaken by the Design Cell. In addition, this division has laboratories to conduct R&D work and also to provide testing facilities to the manufacturers of transmission towers, line components and accessories, vibration dampers, spacer/spacer dampers, energy meters, etc. The laboratories operating under this division are: Prototype tower testing station. Model tower testing laboratory. Structural materials testing laboratory. Tower foundation testing centre. Vibration laboratory. Wake simulation laboratory. Power Systems Division This division is involved in the study of various problems encountered by manufacturers and utilities in the design, installation and operation of electric power systems, using both the mathematical and physical models. The division has the following facilities: Power System Simulation centre with High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) simulator and Transient Network Analyser (TNA). Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). Relay testing laboratory. Short Circuit Laboratory This laboratory has facilities to undertake testing, certification and development of LT switchgear fuse gear and power system apparatus. Applied research is also undertaken to lend a helping hand in the development of indigenous products.
  20. 20. Annual Report, 2010-11 22 Central Power Research Institute Training and HRD The training and HRD division is headed by the Joint Director who identifies the training needs of CPRI, and the staff are regulary deputed for undergoing specific training programmes organized in-house as well as outside agencies. The division also co-ordinates the training needs of personal working in state power sector utilities. The experts from CPRI imparts both theotrical and practical training for personal of utilities during the training programme organized by the division. Utility Automation Research Center This division is the backbone of all information technology activities at CPRI, which cater to both software and hardware needs of the organisation. The division is built with state-of-the-art dedicated servers, which run on various platforms like Sun Solaris, SCO Unix, Linux and Windows. The division also maintains NAS storage devices and takes care of the LAN built with a fiber optic backbone and the Internet services. This division has also established a state-of-the-art communication protocol laboratory, which is unique in this part of the world, with the facility to test the energy meter and substantial communication equipment as per the IEC / MODBUS / DNP protocol standards. The laboratory also offers consultancy on automation related to substations, distribution automation, SCADA etc. to all major utilities in the country. Switchgear Testing and Development Station, Bhopal The laboratory provides facilities for testing and certification of EHV circuit breakers, power transformers, isolators, line (wave) traps, reactors, insulator strings etc., for performance evaluation under short circuit and other abnormal conditions. A 100 MVA on-line testing station is a special facility, which enables testing and certification of LT and HV switchgear, in addition to the 1500 MVA short circuit alternator and energy meter testing laboratory. Transformer oil testing laboratory to conduct in-service oil testing. Regional Testing Laboratory, Noida The important facilities under this unit are cables testing up to 33 kV, a high voltage laboratory for testing insulators and transformers and a transformer oil testing laboratory. New facilities for testing of energy meters and diagnostic testing facilities of power equipment have been created at the new centre. Thermal Research Centre, Nagpur This centre situated near Koradi Thermal Power Station, Koradi is mainly intended for taking up R&D work pertaining to thermal power stations. The centre is also equipped to take up consultancy work in the area of environmental impact assessment, and investigations on fuel treatment, ignition studies, coal characteristics, pilot scale studies for coal gassification, slurry fuels, life estimation of thermal power plant components, renovation & modernisation of thermal power plants, etc. The thermal research centre mainly undertakes Remaining Life Assessment and Renovation & Modernization of thermal power stations and has provided consultancy services to more than twenty thermal power stations.
  21. 21. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 23 Ultra High Voltage Research Laboratory (UHVRL), Hyderabad This laboratory has the necessary infrastructure to simulate actual operating voltage conditions on an experimental line in the range of 220 kV to 1200 kV, to evaluate the suitability and adaptability of UHV systems to Indian power systems taking into account the climatic, environmental, ecological and biological conditions prevailing in our country. The facility can evaluate corona loss, audible noise, radio and television interference, electric field etc., under various voltage and climatic conditions. Besides, the laboratory has the capacity to cater to electrical manufacturers for their investigatory and commercial tests of equipment rated up to 1200 kV class. This is a unique facility in this part of the world. Regional Testing Laboratory, Kolkata This was set up with a view to cater to the testing, certification and evaluation needs of the electrical power equipment manufacturing industries, utilities and consumers in the eastern region. The laboratory is equipped with facilities to carry out testing of insulating oils in power transformers as per IS 1866-2000. The dissolved gas analysis of transformer oil in the power transformers, an important diagnostic tool, is available at RTL, Kolkata for assessing the internal condition of the transformers. The laboratory has the test facilities like High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate Furfural content (Furan Content), which is an important diagnostic tool for assessing the condition of solid insulation in power transformers. The facility is also being used for assessing the inhibitor level in the transformer oil. Regional Testing Laboratory, Guwahati This laboratory has a transformer oil testing facility as per IS 1866-2000 and dissolved gas analysis of transformer oil in power transformers is also available at Regional Testing Laboratory, Guwahati for internal assessment of condition of transformers for the benefit of power utilities of the North Eastern region.
  22. 22. Research and Development This section provides information on: The in-house research projects. The Research Scheme on Power (RSoP) projects. 2
  23. 23. Annual Report, 2010-11 26 Central Power Research Institute The institute takes up research and development programmes keeping abreast with the latest technological developments in the areas of generation, transmission and distribution of power. CPRI brings together its scientists and engineers as well as experts from academia and industry to help address challenges in power / electricity, including reliability, efficiency, safety and environment. CPRI also provides technology to drive research and development, undertakes research in emerging technologies. CPRI scientists and engineers represent in formulating national and international standards. The research and development projects undertaken are of two types: In-house research projects. Research scheme on power. In-house research projects These projects are undertaken to develop the technology and expertise to serve the power sector. These projects are planned keeping in mind the needs of power industry as well as the utilities. The projects proposed by scientists and engineers are approved by committee on research chaired by Member Planning, Central Electricity Authority. During this year (2010-2011) twenty projects were under investigation and five projects were completed. Ongoing In-house research projects Assessment and mapping of corrosion in boiler tube components Objective: To design and develop a crawling system with specific contour attachments and to identify the critical factors affecting the service life of the boiler water wall tubes. Progress: The development of reference tubes for the calibration of equipment has been completed. The generation of phase valve readings with respect to the waveform signal response for the calculation of tube water thickness is being undertaken.
  24. 24. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 27 Design & development & fabrication of co-axial shunt for measurement of short circuit currents up to 200 kA r.m.s of one second Objective: To develop a co - axial shunt for the measurement of short circuit currents up to 200 kA rms for 1 second. Progress: The design and development of a co - axial shunt for measurement of short circuit currents up to 200 kA rms for 1 second were undertaken to meet the needs of testing at STDS, Bhopal. The design and development of co-axial shunts for short circuit currents up to 200 kA (rms) for one second were taken up. A few world leaders like M/s CESI, Italy and M/s Hafely Test AG, Switzerland have such design and manufacturing capability. For indigenous development of a shunt, this project was initiated; the preliminary investigations on design have been completed and the fabrication of the shunt is in progress. Seismic qualification of transformers Objective: To create awareness among engineers about the risk involved in qualifying the substation equipment for seismic loads. Progress: The modeling of a cylindrical post insulator of 420 kV using the finite element method has been completed. A bushing current transformer and potential transformer were tested using a tri - axial shaker for seismic qualification. The transformer bushing was modeled and analysis of the porcelain insulator and bushing was taken up. Development of tracking wheel test facility & evaluation of polymeric insulators Objective: To develop tracking wheel test facility to evaluate the polymeric insulators. Progress: The design of IEC 62217 "Tracking Wheel Test" equipment has been completed. Preliminary tests on the tracking and erosion of silicone rubber with and without UV radiation have been completed.
  25. 25. Annual Report, 2010-11 28 Central Power Research Institute Study of GPS synchronized end-to-end testing of distance protection scheme and evolving field test methodology Objective: To verify the complete functionality of the communication aided scheme. Progress: The performance of a PC controlled protective relay test system with a GPS receiver / antenna was studied. The installation and commissioning of the relay test system was completed. A five-day training program was arranged on “PC controlled protective relay test system", for imparting training to personnel involved. The end-to-end testing of distance protection relays at Hoody- Nelamangala 400 kV substation and Hoody-HAL 220 kV substation was completed. White LED – technology assessment Objective: To take up the technology assessment of the LED lighting scheme. Progress: The literature survey on the LED technology has been completed and a few, locally available LED lamp fixtures have been evaluated. The LED modules for auto corridor/street light controllers have been developed. Representative LED lamp/fixture assemblies have been evaluated for illumination and luminaries/lux requirements. A layout for installation of different types of LED has been made. Polymer composite sections for compact transmission line towers Objective: To develop next generation, high voltage transmission line tower/cross arm with composite materials and evaluate its techno - economic advantages. Progress: The preliminary design and evaluation of the cross arm have been completed for different voltages and wind speeds. The design software has been installed and the preliminary work on design has been completed. The mechanical and electrical parameters of the polyester resin -glass reinforced material for the cross arm were evaluated. Based on a typical 220 kV tower, the cross arm was designed and fabricated using epoxy and glass fiber material and mechanical performance tests were carried out.
  26. 26. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 29 Study of smart grids and impact of renewable integration. Objective: To establish a pilot smart grid at CPRI by installing smart meters, sensors, etc.; to create a real time, digital gateway for monitoring electricity usage and to participate in the energy efficiency programme. Progress: Simulation studies on the impact of renewable integration on 11 kV distribution feeders are under progress. Laboratories have been identified for the implementation of this project. Discussions on “Identifying features of the present day smart meters extensive literature survey” with Indian and international manufacturers has been completed and necessary equipment required for the project are being procured. Two technical papers on Smart Grid were presented at national conferences. Development of miniature specimen test techniques and advanced NDE approach for damage assessment of in-service high temperature power plant components Objective: To evolve the methodology for extraction of a miniature specimen from the thick sections of a plant component and development of a small punch test device for the evaluation of mechanical and creep properties using the small punch test. Progress: The development of the small punch test method has been completed. Specimens from new and in-service boilers and turbine components like 1- Cr- ½ Mo steel and ¼ -Cr 1- Mo steel (Cr: Chromium, Mo: Molybdenum) have been collected and are under evaluation and standardization. The creep test equipment was upgraded and it is being used for material evaluation. The evaluation of material properties using the positron annihilation method is in progress. The design of miniature specimen extraction device is in progress. Design and testing of HV electrode for EHV/UHV system equipment Objective: To design high voltage electrodes and corona rings and to analyze electric fields; to complement the design through optimization and validation of the substation bus post insulator and transmission line insulator string configurations.
  27. 27. Annual Report, 2010-11 30 Central Power Research Institute Progress: The software tools have been identified and are being procured along with the 3D electric field software and workstation. Collection of data on the “line hardware and equipment/electrode systems for the 765 kV transmission systems” is in progress. Design, development and validation of test suites for IEC 62056 (DLMS/COSEM) compliant energy meters Objective: To custom design, develop and install an energy meter supporting the IEC 62056 protocol with communication interface and to study the performance system. Progress: The protocol stack for the server stack and client stack has been identified and hardware procurement is in progress. Development of high performance polymeric components based on PEEK & PC for power sector applications Objective: To develop polymer composites for insulators, supporting insulators and structural parts of power equipment, using PEEK, poly carbonates and polyurethanes. Progress: A torque rheometer was identified and it is being procured. Samples of PEEK offered by several vendors were evaluated for chemical and electrical characteristics and the best material was identified and procured for the fabrication of laboratory samples. The technological issues concerning development of electrical components based on PEEK were discussed with experts from the industry and the background work for taking up the fabrication of samples has
  28. 28. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 31 been completed. A sample of the polycarbonate insulator was fabricated and evaluated for tracking and erosion resistance. A sample wire from PEEK has been extruded and its evaluation is in progress. Conversion of transformer heat losses into useful electrical energy Objective: To design and fabricate a heat pipe to tap the heat energy from the transformer core and to carry out trials on an actual transformer. Progress: Extensive literature survey on the subject has been completed and the study of the theoretical background of a heat pipe is in progress. Design of a heat pipe to tap energy from the condenser and fabrication of the heat pipe are in progress. Development of high resolution impulse recorder for high impulse voltage and current measurements Objective: To fabricate a high resolution impulse recording system for high voltage impulse and current measurements comprising four independent channels with a sampling rate of 200 M Sa/sec 12 - bit resolution digital recording, with an embedded controller for data acquisition, storage and processing. Progress: The hardware specifications were prepared as per the requirement of IEC and the required hardware / software was identified. The integration of the data acquisition system is in progress. Analyzing tools like the fast fourier transform, difference function and transfer function have been incorporated into the system design and features like user friendliness, graphical user interface for operation and test report generation have been added. Technology for design and development – engineering of HTS power apparatus HTS transformer and superconducting fault current limiter Objective: To design, develop and evaluate a HTS fault current limiter prototype 11kV / 100kVA HTS transformer. Progress: A literature survey of available technologies on high temperature superconducting transformers and fault current limiters was carried out and a status report is under preparation. A comparative evaluation of software available for the design of HTS power apparatus was undertaken and suggestions were made to the vendors to include material characteristics of available superconducting tapes like 1G and 2G tapes. Networking of specialists in superconductivity, cryogenics, HTS power
  29. 29. Annual Report, 2010-11 32 Central Power Research Institute apparatus and related areas has been undertaken. A roadmap for development of superconducting fault current limiter has been finalized by the core group of the project. Completed In-house research projects Polymer-ceramic composites with high dielectric constant for electrical applications Objective: To process polymer – ceramic composites with high dielectric constant. Progress: High dielectric constant calcium copper titanate CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) has been developed by microwave processing. The developed ceramic material has been systematically characterized for its structure and morphology using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dielectric measurements. Polymer composites with CCTO were prepared and properties studied for capacitor applications. Study on integration issues of a multi-in feed HVDC system into one AC system Objective: To study the parametric sensitivity on commutation failure for a multi-in feed HVDC system and to arrive at an appropriate CF immunity index. Progress: HVDC links, NER-Agra and Balia-Bhiwadi, were chosen for the study of integration issues that are present in a multi-in feed HVDC system. The Commutation Failure Immunity Index (CFII), Multi Infeed Interaction Factor (MIIF) and Multi Infeed Effective Short Circuit Ratio (MIESCR) were studied to estimate the interaction of the inverters in a multi-in feed HVDC system. The CFII values for three inverters at Agra, Bhiwadi and Dadri were computed and it was found that among the three inverters, the Bhiwadi inverter is sensitive to commutation failure. From the MIIF value, it is found that the interaction between Agra and Bhiwadi inverters is more. Development of high strength composite core material for overhead transmission line conductor applications Objective: To develop methodologies for the synthesis of temperature resistant aluminum and carbon fiber reinforced aluminum composite material for overhead transmission application.
  30. 30. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 33 Progress: The methodology of pultrusion of thin wires has been established. A carbon fiber reinforced, high temperature cynate ester resin based composite core with 3 mm diameter was pultruded and used for fabricating a composite core conductor. The tensile strength of the composite wire is on par with that of a steel core wire. Evaluation of gassing characteristics, sulphur levels and electro-static charging tendencies of transformer oils Objective: To correlate gassing characteristics with sulphur and aromatic content in oil. Progress: A gassing tendency experimental apparatus was designed and fabricated. A number of transformer oil samples were evaluated for gassing tendency. The effect of composition of liquid dielectrics on gassing tendency was evaluated. Power Line Communication (PLC) for power sector applications (both LV & MV) Objective: To evaluate the performance of the existing LV broadband over broadband power line (BPL) modems to set up a BPL based local area network (LAN) in the CPRI colony. Progress: The system level design and specification for PLC communication components for broadband were made. The establishment of LAN using PLC for identified houses / points in the CPRI colony / campus was taken up. The development of a few applications like meter reading and streetlight control using PLC was demonstrated.
  31. 31. Annual Report, 2010-11 34 Central Power Research Institute Research Scheme on Power (RSoP) projects These project proposals are invited from academia, power utilities, industries as well as research institutes. The proposals are approved by an expert committee on research scheme on power chaired by the Director General, CPRI. During this year (2010-2011), twenty projects were under investigation and seven projects were completed. Ongoing RSoP projects Life enhancement of the underwater parts of the hydro power station Implementing agency: SJVNL, Shimla. Objective: To carry out studies to enhance the life of the underwater parts of the hydro power station, which are affected by silt erosion. Progress: The modification of the silt erosion test chamber for circumventing the problem of overflow of water has been undertaken and a tubular heat exchanger onside the slurry has been made, along with tower type cooling. The design and fabrication of a new carbide lined sample holder for the silt erosion test rig was completed. The silt erosion resistance of the base stainless steel (16/4 grade), clad, high velocity oxygen fuel coated samples were carried out at 30, 45, 60 and 75 degree impact angles, at 30 m/s, using a modified test setup. Three varieties of coating samples (WC_Co-Cr3C2/NiCr and Ni Cr B Si) were prepared and the silt erosion resistance was evaluated. Feasibility study on “Midget Transformers” in 11 kV/433 V network – I PHASE Implementing agency: TNEB, Chennai. Objective: To conduct a computer simulation study and evolve the specification for Midget transformers. Progress: The simulation of midget transformers has been completed and the results were analyzed with reference to design, safety and certain manufacturing aspects of the Midget transformer.
  32. 32. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 35 Performance analysis and trading of wind power generation in an emerging power system Implementing agency: IIT, Kanpur. Objective: To develop a suitable model of wind generators for simulation and performance analysis, and also to explore a new slip power recovery scheme with series line compensation. Progress: A mathematical model was developed along with a SIMULINK model in Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) to study the performance of the wind power generation system. A new slip power recovery scheme was analyzed for improving the dynamic performance. The proposed scheme is being compared with the conventional DFIG scheme. A new slip power recovery scheme has been developed and its performance is being investigated. Development of appropriate algorithms for efficient management of energy control centers Implementing agency: DayanandSagar College of Engineering, Bangalore. Objective: To provide uninterrupted quality power to customers.To ensure the efficient operation of substations by enabling fast decisions on disconnection and reconnection; to conserve energy through demand side management and distribution automation. Progress: A mathematical model for load flow analysis was developed and an algorithm based on the mathematical model has been worked out. Stabilization of AC/DC network with a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) Implementing agency: Banaras Hindu University-IT, Varanasi. Objective: To study and develop load models for different power components in distribution systems and to study the impact of load models on power quality. Progress: A real life mathematical model of UPFC looking into the discrete time operation along with all associated controls and firing circuits were conducted.
  33. 33. Annual Report, 2010-11 36 Central Power Research Institute Optimal placement of sectionalizing switches and distributed generation resources for improving the service reliability in the power distribution system Implementing agency: IIT, Roorkee. Objective: Development of an optimal placement strategy for sectionalizing switches and distributed generation (DG) resources, for improving the service reliability in a high voltage, balanced radial power distribution system. Progress: The framework for the standard distribution system load flow, incorporating distributed generation using a backward/forward technique, was completed. The development of an interval load flow distribution system with DG continued. Work on sensitivity analysis has been initiated. The work is in progress. Condition monitoring of generators in power stations using the on-line partial discharge measurements and off-line Tan Delta measurements Implementing agency: TNEB, Chennai. Objective: To formulate methods of test and fault diagnosis of the power station generators use. a) On – line PD measurements. b) Condition assessment of the stator winding insulation using the capacitance and Tan Delta measurements. Progress: The specification for procurement of the devices has been prepared. Product catalogues of various manufacturers for on-line PD monitoring devices and Tan Delta measurements for generators were obtained and studied. Analysis of sub synchronous resonance and design of controllers for Ramagundam – Kadapa TCSC Implementing agency: Vel Tech College, Chennai. Objective: To develop and validate accurate modeling of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) for Sub – Synchronous Resonance (SSR) studies, to carry out damping torque, Eigen value analysis and detailed transient simulation for various operating conditions.
  34. 34. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 37 Progress: Mi-power software has been procured and analytical studies have been conducted. From this analysis, it is inferred that a TCSC device can be preferably located near the load centre (Kadapa) for conducting Sub – Synchronous Resonance (SSR) observation. Evaluation of efficacy and long term performance of locally available clay of Kerala as an encasement in earthing systems in high soil resistivity areas Implementing agency: KSEB. Objective: To study the chemical characteristics, anticorrosive nature and the long term stability of different samples of clay, locally available in Kerala, in order to determine its suitability for use as an encasement of earthing electrodes to reduce earth resistance and to assess the techno economic feasibility of using the successful samples in earthing systems. Progress: Collected samples of clays from different parts of Kerala. A workshop on power system grounding practice and also training on measurement of PH and conductivity of clay samples were attended. An in-house lab facility has been set up in the research station. Design and development of a FPGA based adaptive distance relay for flexible ac- transmission systems Implementing agency: Voice Of America (VOA) University, Bhubaneshwar. Objective: To develop FPGA/DGP based relaying hardware and the corresponding relay software for the shunt controlled, STATCOM based transmission lines. Progress: A power system model with the facility to vary the system strength, fault location, type of fault, load flow and direction of load has been developed to simulate all possible system conditions.
  35. 35. Annual Report, 2010-11 38 Central Power Research Institute Wide area measurement and control for improving observability and stability of power systems Implementing agency: IIT, Kanpur. Objective: To develop a suitable model of wind generators for simulation and performance analysis and to explore a new slip power recovery scheme with series line compensation. Progress: Suitable mathematical models of the wind generators with the suitable controllers (conventional and AI based) have been developed to integrate in the power system studies. Performance evaluation of a new device for electricity production Implementing agency: IIT, New Delhi. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a machine named as “Sohrab capsule station power device” developed for electivity production, by quantifying the mechanical, electrical and overall efficiency of the device under laboratory conditions. Progress: The mechanical, electrical and overall efficiency of the device for electricity generation have been estimated based on experimental measurements. Completed RSoP Projects Performance of reclaimed oil from power and distribution transformers Implementing agency: TNEB, Chennai. Objective: To study the performance of reclaimed oil from different power and distribution transformers of TNEB. Progress: Reclamation process is undertaken and standardized. The reclaimed oil samples were evaluated at CPRI. In all, 25,600 liters of reclaimed oil samples were despatched for replacement in Villupuram circle of TNEB. Investigations such as Tan, insulation resistance on transformers and tests on oil have been carried out on both power and distribution transformers of TNEB. A double reclamation process was tried in Tirunelveli and Thiruvannamalai reclamation plants. It was agreed in principle to adopt the percolation through gravity process and initial tests
  36. 36. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 39 were carried out on 40,000 liters of oil. The electrical tests on transformers and oil testing was carried out on 33/11 kV transformers at Ural and Marur. Development of an expert system for coupled fields (structural and thermal) analysis and design optimization of high speed steam turbine rotor shrink fit assemblies Implementing agency: Bangalore Institute of Technology, Bangalore. Objective: To develop an expert system analysis of the coupled fields (structural and thermal) and to achieve design optimization of the high speed, turbine rotor shrink fit assemblies. Progress: Structural and couple field analyses at extreme temperatures for various ranges of power and identification of stress ranges at various speeds has been undertaken. The effect of blades on the stress development on turbine during operation has been studied. Stresses developed at the root of the blades for various power ranges have been recorded at various speeds and length of blades. A detailed modal analysis has been carried out for various power ranges, estimating the crucial critical speeds and resonant conditions. An analysis of five typical rotors was carried out and the stresses at the root of blades were estimated. Two international journal papers were published. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) implementation for determining critical speeds of multi sectioned rotors has been completed. Study on online condition monitoring of transformer bushings Implementing agency: TNEB, Chennai. Objective: To monitor the online loss factor of power transformers in service and carry out the condition monitoring studies on bushings. The project aims at the establishment of norms for improving the reliability of power transformers. Progress: Online tan delta measuring apparatus was installed and data on tan generated for power transformer (50 MVA)/110 kV transformer and 145 kV bushings. It is established that online systems are useful and essential for condition monitoring of EHV transformer bushing. The study highlights the need for low cost support systems like remote monitoring units for online monitoring of bushing. A replacement strategy based on hourly trends/alerts has been established. SCDA and remote access of bushing health through Tan delta monitoring or a leakage current is verified and proved useful.
  37. 37. Annual Report, 2010-11 40 Central Power Research Institute Study on furanic compounds in transformer oil Implementing agency: TNEB, Chennai. Objective: To make an in-depth study of Furanic compounds in transformer oil. Progress: The literature on furanic compounds in transformer oil has been reviewed and a status report is under preparation. A research programme implementation plan has been drawn in consultation with CPRI and it is being executed. Many technical aspects like the number of transformers to be selected for the study and the criteria for selection have been finalized and the chemical analysis of oil samples is in progress. The history of transformers selected and included in the study has been received from different sub-stations and the data was complied. A total of 170 transformers were evaluated under the programme of work. Dissolved gas analysis and Furan analysis were completed on the transformers and the results were analyzed. Study on cause of failure of S/S batteries and evolving condition monitoring technique Implementing agency: TNEB, Chennai. Objective: To study the performance of substation and power station batteries used in TNEB. Progress: Single cell charge/discharger units were procured and installed at the different distribution circles of TNEB. Battery testing was carried out in the Trichy and Madurai circles. A total of 2584 cells were tested and new condition monitoring parameters were identified. It is concluded that the float voltage and specific gravity should not be relied upon totally for identifying the state of health (SOH) of a battery. It is recommended that humidity and temperature have marked influence on the life of the battery and hence, new batteries will have to be put into service at the earliest. It is recommended that each distribution circle be provided single cell charge/discharge equipment. The chargers shall incorporate both constant current and constant voltage mode of operation. To determine the effective life of ground mat by using “ANTIDOTE” technique/ inhibitors, etc. Implementing agency: PSEB. Objective: To study the effective life of ground mats in corrosive and non-corrosive soils by using antidote technique and inhibitors.
  38. 38. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 41 Progress: It is observed that in non-corrosive soils, the embedded ground mat serves for about two to three decades, but, in corrosive soils, the effective life of a ground mat is very much reduced. Hence, to enhance the life of the ground mat and ground electrode "Antidote", the technique of inhibitors or other effective means was adopted. An experimental setup to study the effect of corrosion has been completed at four, 66 kV substations. Samples of soils from these four substations were analyzed for different parameters including the soil resistivity. Tests were also carried out on non-corrosive soil in which mild steel was used. Further, chemical tests are in progress to understand the correlation between soil resistance and electrodes. The tests were also repeated on corrosive soils. Condition monitoring of transformer signature UHF sensors and some novel ideas on using fluorescent technique for characterizing thermally aged transformer oil. Implementing agency: IIT, Chennai. Objective: To design and develop a UHF sensor for condition monitoring of high voltage transformers. Progress: The amplitude and frequency content of the UHF signal generated due to partial discharges were analyzed under AC/DC voltages and increase in the intensity of corona with increase in applied voltage and reduction in input current ripple. Some of the important conclusions of the study are: (1) UHF signals are generated due to partial discharges caused by motion of the conducting particles in the transformer oil under AC and DC. (2) The UHF amplitude is higher due to the particle movement under negative DC as compared to positive DC. (3) The partial discharges are intermittent under the positive DC as compared to negative DC. (4) Acoustic emission measurement is only a confirmatory test for the identification of partial discharges. (5) Narrow band measurement of the UHF signal generated due to partial discharge under particle movement at 1 GHz in presence of a barrier leads to increase in the PD pulses with increase in voltage. (6) Particle levitation voltage of macroscopic particles under DC is constant irrespective of the temperature of the transformer oil.
  39. 39. National Perspective Plan Research Projects This section provides information on: The development of silt erosion resistant material for turbines of hydro generators. The national effort to develop technology for custom power devices (STATCOM). The development of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) distribution transformers. The development of a prototype of 132 kV optical current transformer for use in the 132 kV system. The development of silt erosion resistant nano-composite coatings. The tunneling in water charge zones under high hydro static pressure. The development of DVR based voltage source stabilizers for process Industryindustry. The improvement in reliability, safety and long term performance of power and converter transformers. The study on stability & reliability of the power system with large penetration of wind power. The design and development of high temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL). 3
  40. 40. Annual Report, 2010-11 44 Central Power Research Institute Introduction Power sector, being highly technology intensive, Research and Development (R and D) plays a major role in developmental plans, especially when technology up gradation is considered for strengthening of power sector. New technologies would need to be adopted and implemented in a proactive manner to achieve the objective of optimum utilization of the available resources. In the present scenario there is an emerging need for R and D in different areas of power engineering. With the background, the Ministry of Power has constituted a standing committee on R & D (SCRD). The main objective is to formulate the R & D for power sector under “National Perspective Plan (NPP) for R & D in Indian Power Sector” with a view to create and upgrade the R & D infrastructure and promote and encourage in the development of equipment for application and power sector. The standing committee comprising of the Chairman of standing committee is the chairperson CEA, the member convener is DG, CPRI and the other members are drawn from CPSUs of MOP (Ministry of Power) and BHEL (Bharath Heavy Electricals Limited). Under NPP scheme, projects have been initiated during 10th plan and new projects have been undertaken during 11th plan. 11 projects have been taken up covering Hydro, transmission, distribution, and renewable energy. Four projects have been completed so far and seven projects are ongoing. Two patents have been applied. The organisations involved in carrying out the collaborative R & D projects are: NML, Jamshedpur, EMCO, Mumbai, CDAC, Trivandrum, BHEL, Hyderabad, ERDA, Baroda, NHPC, Faridabad, IIT, Rourkee, Crompton Greaves, Mumbai and CPRI. The funding mechanism is through contribution from project implementing agency and Ministry of Power. Nodal officers of CPRI are involved actively in accomplishing the project. CPRI and CEA are the nodal agencies for approval and monitoring of the projects undertaken by various agencies. Development of silt erosion resistant material for turbines of hydro generators Project implementing organization: NML, Jamshedpur. Objective: To develop material having the following properties in comparison to 13Cr-4Ni steel. Stainless (corrosion) steel with property similar to that of 13 Cr-4Ni steel. Improved abrasion and erosion resistance. Improved impact toughness values for resistance to impingement erosion by silts. Similar damping capacity for frequency tolerance as the 13Cr-4Ni steel. Good cast-ability and good weldability. Wear evaluation of candidate materials.
  41. 41. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 45 Progress: It is well known that 13Cr-4Ni steel has a tempered martensitic structure. Generally, materials having higher hardness have good erosion resistance. So, to counter materials loss due to silt impingement, there is a requirement of high hardness material. Apart from materials loss due to silt particle impingement, there are reports on cavitation-erosion too. Cavitation erosion takes place due to explosion of air bubbles on the component surface and that may lead to generation of high tensile stress and materials removal from the underwater components. To counter cavitation-erosion, the material must have high co-efficient of work- hardening. These 3 new alloys were designed to have 2 phase structures or multi-phase structures because these structures can have high hardness in combination with good work hardenability. The castings appear to sound without any visible defects. After castings into rectangular blocks, those were homogenized in a furnace with normal atmosphere at 1050-11000 C. Time for homogenisation at that temperature has been decided based on the size of the block. After homogenisation, these were water cooled. Turnings were taken from the blocks and wet chemical analysis was carried out to ascertain its actual composition. The evaluation of mechanical and erosion properties of alloy-7 and alloy-8 were carried out. Tensile Testing: Flat specimens were fabricated for tensile tests following the ASTM standard E 8M- 85 from the as heat treated samples. The entire tensile tests were performed with the help of an Instron (model-8501). Erosion Testing: Erosion set-up is made as per ASTM G-32 and Characterization of Heat 2 and Heat 3. The activities concerning (i) Various heat treatment parameters on silt 7 and 8 have been under way to optimize erosive wear property (ii) Slurry erosive wear studies for benchmarking of 13Cr-4Ni steel has been completed with the set-up of IIT-Roorkee. Flow Modelling through CFD analysis has been initiated. The mechanical property of the material was investigated through automated Ball Independent technique developed at NML.
  42. 42. Annual Report, 2010-11 46 Central Power Research Institute Patent Ref: 0384/2011 Application for patent is in process with NML. Title: An erosion resistant steel for underwater components of turbine hydro generators and process for producing the same. National effort to develop technology for custom power devices (STATCOM) Development of four 500kvar STATCOMs for application at: IT – Park, Trivandrum. Project implementing organization: C- DAC, Trivandrum. Objective: To develop four 500kvar STATCOMs. Progress: In this project four 500kvar STATCOM’s have been designed, developed and implemented at IT park, Thiruvananthapuram. Due to single-phase non-linear loading in IT parks, large amount of currents tend to flow in the neutral, causing transformer heating and low power factor, malfunctioning of protective relays, poor utilization of the network and poor voltage regulation etc. The developed STATCOM has special power circuit configurations and control functions for compensation in the unbalanced load conditions as well as harmonic compensation. The project execution has been carried out in two aspects: Simulation studies Instantaneous current and voltage control method is selected to compensate the neutral current and unbalanced current in the site. The control algorithm was developed and validated by simulating in PSIM software. The control law is validated with different load combinations. The priority for compensation also incorporated in this simulation with following order: Neutral current compensation. Unbalance compensation. Reactive power compensation. Harmonic compensation.
  43. 43. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 47 Hardware development Design of the 500kvar converter module. Testing of power and control module of the Lab Proto unit - Inverter mode of operation and STATCOM mode of operation in lab proto model. Design and development of power hardware for 4 numbers of 500kvar STATCOM’s. Fabrication and assembly of 4 numbers of 500kvar STATCOM’s. Validation of control algorithms and apply to the field trial units and test the performance with typical unbalance load. Conducting the field trials with neutral current compensation and reactive power compensation.
  44. 44. Annual Report, 2010-11 48 Central Power Research Institute Development of technology for custom power devices (Static compensator STATCOM) and 2.5 MVAR STATCOM for Bhilai Steel Plant by BHEL Project implementing organization: BHEL, Hyderabad. Objective: To develop technology for custom power devices (Static Compensator STATCOM): Development of 2.5 MVAR STATCOM for Bhilai Steel Plant by BHEL. Progress: The project execution covers development and deployment of Insulated Gate Biploar Transistor (IGBT) based ± 2.5 MVAR STATCOM for an electric arc furnace operating at forging shop of Bhilai Steel Plant. Under this project a 2.5 MVAR IGBT based STATCOM for compensating voltage flicker, unbalance and harmonics caused by arc furnace in Bhilai steel plant has been designed, developed and installed. High power inverter for multi-megawatt capacity and DSP based Controller for Dynamic VAR compensation has been developed. Power quality problems associated with arc furnace: Voltage flicker. Harmonics distortion. Unbalanced loading. Use of STATCOM led to: Reduced flicker level. Improved Pf at point of common coupling. Productivity increase. Decrease in specific electrode consumption. Decrease in specific energy consumption. Load balancing. Harmonics compensation.
  45. 45. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 49 The developed STATCOM has been installed and commissioned opposite to BSP substation 13. The field trials are in progress. Development of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) distribution transformers Project implementing organization: EMCO, Mumbai. Objective: To design, develop and implement HTS 630kVA transformer for application in distribution system. Progress: Under this project High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) 630kVA distribution system transformer has been designed, developed and preliminary tests were conducted. The development of 630kVA HTS transformer includes optimization and reliability aspects. Calculations on electromagnetic and heat losses in the transformer have been completed and results are satisfactory. Experiments were conducted on the conductor for their current carrying capacity. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is being used as an insulation and cooling purpose. Protection related to short circuits, increases in temperature of operation, reductions of liquid level etc were considered, while designing. The development covers: (i) development of Three HV and three LV formers (ii) Fabrication of HV & LV copper terminations (iii) Winding of three set of HV coils (iv) Copper shield heat exchanger development and (v) Testing of 3 prototype cryostat with new resin. The following tests were conducted:
  46. 46. Annual Report, 2010-11 50 Central Power Research Institute Routine tests Measurement of winding resistance phase to phase & phase to neutral, No load loss and load loss, voltage ratio & polarity check, induced over-voltage withstand test and separate source voltage withstand tests were conducted. Testing HTS transformer Tests were carried out to evaluate no load losses and load losses as per IS-2026, IEC 6076 at 77 K, bath cooled with liquid nitrogen. The results observed were satisfactory. The test results of over potential test, separate source test, resistance test and ratio test etc were carried out. The application of HTS technology in power sector is a step in the direction of reducing CO2 & CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) emission.
  47. 47. Annual Report, 2010-11 Central Power Research Institute 51 Patent filed: The research work carried out is jointly filed patent for ‘A natural convection cryogenic cooling system for superconductor transformer’. No: 2750/MUM/2009. Field implementation aspects are in progress. To develop a prototype of 132 kV optical current transformer for use in the 132 kV system Project implementing organization: ERDA, Vadodara. Objective: To develop optical current transformer using optical fiber as a sensor medium. It is a new attempt to develop an optical transformer using Faraday effect. If an optical fibre carrying a polarized laser beam is wound over the conductor, then there will be a change in the polarizing angle due to the presence of the parallel magnetic field. By measuring the change in the angle, the current passing through the conductor can be obtained. Progress: The results of optical current transformer with half cycle current & half second current is obtained, thus the principle of the OCT based on Faraday effect is proved. Half second reading is more reliable. Now, signal conditioning to convert detector signal into equivalent current signal is in progress. Results of optical CT and that of conventional CT were compared and agreement between the two was observed to be very good.
  48. 48. Annual Report, 2010-11 52 Central Power Research Institute Application of the polarization principle in the field of power system is well known, and for better understanding the principle in presence of magnetic field number of experiments has been conducted. The experiments were extended using optical fibre as a sensor instead of a quartz crystal. Demonstration of the Faraday principle using quartz rod and laser source is completed. Development of silt erosion resistant nano-composite coatings Project implementing organization: IIT – Roorkee. Objective: To develop a nano-composite PVD coating having high yield strength, hardness and toughness for use in hydro turbine components. Study feasibility of coatings for turbine components on samples of 75 X 75 X 6 (dimensions in mm) dimensions with the help of BHEL R&D, Hyderabad. Develop a coating profile which will be established by sputtering technique on a small (3 to 5 inch dimension) hydro turbine blade fabricated as per actual design and then establish the suitability of the technique for turbine component coatings. Progress: Work of coatings on deposited nano-ceramic thin film “W-Zr-N” on Si (100) p type substrate through direct/radio frequency (DC/RF) reactive magnetron sputtering has been developed. The effect of varying deposition parameters on the structural properties of W-Zr-N has been investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectra (EDS) etc. With increase the percentage of nitrogen following observations are seen through different techniques. XRD analysis XRD analysis of the nano-structured sample shows that the preferred orientation changes of the film deposited at different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 600 deg temperature. EDS analysis Atomic percentage of nitrogen increases in W-Zr-N compound as increases the nitrogen percentage. More occupation of the octahedral site by the nitrogen as increases the percentage of nitrogen which reveals the hardness of film increases. FE-SEM analysis Thickness of the film is app. 2 micron. Topography of 50% N2 film. That shows a very smooth film with very fine grain structure.

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