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My Seminar Report

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  • 1. AWH ENGINEERING COLLEGE KUTTIKKATTOOR, CALICUT-8 SEMINAR REPORT ON E PAPER TECHNOLOGYSUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF Bachelor of Technology IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY RAH UL. E DEPA RT MENT OF INFORMA T ION T ECHNOLOGY NOVEMBER 2010
  • 2. AWH ENGINEERING COLLEGE CALICUT CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this report entitled “E-PAPERTECHNOLOGY” submitted herewith is an authentic record of theseminar done by RAHUL.E of S7 IT under our guidance in partialfulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technologyin INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY from University of Calicut duringthe academic year 2010.Seminar Incharge:Mrs.Nishana Rasheed.P.V Asst Prof. Gireesh T KLecturer Head of the Department
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank God, the almighty for blessing me in making my seminar a successful one. Ihereby wish to express my gratitude to our principal Dr. Prof. Shoukath Ali Karuvatt forproviding us all facilities. I also express my sincere gratitude to M r. Gireesh T. K., Head ofDepartment of Information Technology, for his guidance and support to shape this paper in asystematic way. I am also greatly indebted to Mrs. Nishana Rasheed.P.V, Mrs. Banu FathimaMariam, Mrs. Shabana.V, Lecturers, Department of Information Technology for their valuablesuggestions in the preparation of the paper. In addition I would like to thank all staff members ofInformation Technology Department and all my friends of S7 IT for their suggestions andconstructive criticism.
  • 4. ABSTRACT E-paper is a revolutionary material that can be used to make next generation electronicdisplays. It is portable reusable storage and display medium that look like paper but can berepeatedly written one thousands of times. These displays make the beginning of a new areafor battery power information applications such as cell phones, pagers, watches and hand-heldcomputers etc. Two companies are carrying our pioneering works in the field of development ofelectronic ink and both have developed ingenious methods to produce electronic ink. One isE- ink, a company based at Cambridge, in U.S.A. The other company is Xerox doing researchwork at the Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Centre. Both technologies being developedcommercially for electronically configurable paper like displays rely on microscopic beadsthat change color in response to the charges on nearby electrodes. To build e-paper, several different technologies exist, some using plastic substrate andelectronics so that the display is flexible. E-paper or electronics ink display technologydesigned to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike a conventional flat paneldisplay, which uses a back light to illuminate its pixels, electronic paper reflects light likeordinary paper and is capable of holding text and images indefinitely without drawingelectricity, while allowing the image to be change later. Like traditional paper, E-paper must be lightweight, flexible, glare free and low cost.Research found that in just few years this technology could replace paper in many situationsand leading us ink a truly paperless world.
  • 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 History 22. TECHNOLOGY USED 3 2.1 Gyricon 3 2.2 Electrophoretic 3 2.3 Electrowetting 6 2.4 Electrofluidic 73. KEY BENIFITS 9 3.1 Paper-like Readability 9 3.2 Ultra-Low Power Consumption 10 3.3 Thin, Light Form Factor 10 3.4 The Ultimate Mobile Display Solution 10 3.5 Twistable 11 3.6 Simple manufacturing process 114. HIGHLIGHTS OF ELECTRONIC INK 125. DISADVANTAGES 136. APPLICATIONS 14 6.1 Electronic Shelf Label 14 6.2 Electronic Watch and Clock 15 6.3 e-Book 15 6.3 Smart Card Display 16 6.4 Newspapers 16 6.5 Other products 177. THE FUTURE SCENARIO 188. CONCLUSION 19 BIBLIOGRAPHY 20
  • 6. E-Paper Technology 1 1. INTRODUCTION Todays electronic displays have ever more evolved to be more lightweight, efficientand clear. Yet the importance of the paper has not diminished. We still prefer it to others for avariety of reasons including its readability, high contrast, convenient handling, minimumpower requirement cost and strain less reading it offers. At the same time, an electronicdisplay offers us a paperless environment and relieves us from carrying loads of paper forreferring to information when required. Electronic ink is a pioneering invention that combines all the desired features of amodern electronic display and the sheer convenience and physical versatility of sheet ofpaper. E-paper or electronic paper is sometimes called radio paper or smart paper. Paperwould be perfect except for one obvious thing: printed words cant change. The effort is tocreate a dynamic high-resolution electronic display thats thin and flexible enough to becomethe next generation of paper. The technology has been identified and develop ed is well under way. Within fiveyears, it is envisioned electronic books that can display volumes of information as easily asflipping a page and permanent newspapers that update themselves daily via wirelessbroadcast. They deliver the readability of paper under virtually any condition, withoutbacklighting. And electronic ink displays are persistent without power, drawing current onlywhen they change, which means batteries can be smaller and last longer.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 7. E-Paper Technology 21.1 History Electronic paper was first developed in the 1970s by Nick Sheridon at Xerox’s PaloAlto Research center. The first electronic paper, called Gyricon, consisted of tiny, staticallycharged balls that were black on one side and white on the other. The "text" of the paper wasaltered by the presence of an electric field, which turned the balls up or down. In the 1990s another type of electronic paper was invented by Joseph Jacobson, wholater co- founded the corporation E Ink which formed a partnership with Philips Componentstwo years later to develop and market the technologyDept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 8. E-Paper Technology 3 2. TECHNOLOGY USED2.1 Gyricon Electronic paper was first developed in the 1970s by Nick Sheridon at Xeroxs PaloAlto Research Center. The first electronic paper, called Gyricon, consisted of polyethylenespheres between 75 and 106 micrometers across. Each sphere is a Janus particle composed ofnegatively charged black plastic on one side and positively charged white plastic on theother(each bead is thus a dipole). The spheres are embedded in a transparent silicone sheet,with each sphere suspended in a bubble of oil so that they can rotate freely. The polarity ofthe voltage applied to each pair of electrodes then determines whether the white or black sideis face- up, thus giving the pixel a white or black appearance. At the FPD 2008 exhibition,Japanese company Soken has demonstrated a wall with electronic wall-paper using thistechnology2.2 ElectrophoreticAn electrophoretic display forms visible images by rearranging charged pigment particlesusing an applied electric field. Fig-2.1: Basic Scheme of an Electrophoretic DisplayDept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 9. E-Paper Technology 4 In the simplest implementation of an electrophoretic display, titaniumdioxide particles approximately one micrometer in diameter are dispersed in a hydrocarbonoil. A dark-colored dye is also added to the oil, along with surfactants and chargingagents that cause the particles to take on an electric charge. This mixture is placed betweentwo parallel, conductive plates separated by a gap of 10 to 100 micrometers. When a voltageis applied across the two plates, the particles will migrate electrophoretically to the platebearing the opposite charge from that on the particles. When the particles are located at thefront (viewing) side of the display, it appears white, because light is scattered back to theviewer by the high- index titanium particles. When the particles are located at the rear side ofthe display, it appears dark, because the incident light is absorbed by the colored dye. If therear electrode is divided into a number of small picture elements (pixels), then an image canbe formed by applying the appropriate voltage to each region of the display to create a patternof reflecting and absorbing regions. Electrophoretic displays are considered prime examples of the electronic papercategory, because of their paper- like appearance and low power consumption. Electrophoretic displays can be manufactured using the Electronics on Plastic byLaser Release (EPLaR) process developed by Philips Research to enable existing AM-LCD(Active matrix liquid crystal display) manufacturing plants to create flexible plastic displays.2.2.1. Electronics on Plastic by Laser Release (EPLaR) : Electronics on Plastic by Laser Release (EPLaR) is a method for manufacturingflexible electrophoretic display using conventional AM-LCD manufacturing equipmentavoiding the need to build new factories. The technology can also be used to manufactureflexible OLED (Organic LED) displays using standard OLED fabrication facilities. The technology was developed by Philips Research and uses standard display glass asused in TFT-LCD processing plants. It is coated with a layer of polyimide using astandard spin-coating procedure used in the production of AM-LCD displays. This polymidecoating can now have a regular TFT matrix formed on top of it in a standard TFT processingDept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 10. E-Paper Technology 5plant to form the plastic display, which can then be removed using a laser to finish the displayand the glass reused thus lowering the total cost of manufacture.2.2.2 Development in Electrophoretic Display: In the 1990s another type of electronic paper was invented by Joseph Jacobson, wholater co- founded the E Ink Corporation which formed a partnership with PhilipsComponents two years later to develop and market the technology. In 2005, Philips sold theelectronic paper business as well as its related patents to Prime View International. This usedtiny microcapsules filled with electrically charged white particles suspended in colored oil. Inearly versions, the underlying circuitry controlled whether the white particles were at the topof the capsule (so it looked white to the viewer) or at the bottom of the capsule (so the viewersaw the color of the oil). This was essentially a reintroduction of the well-known electrophoretic display technology, but the use of microcapsules allowed the displayto be used on flexible plastic sheets instead of glass. Fig-2.2: Basic Scheme of an Electrophoretic Display using color filters One early version of electronic paper consists of a sheet of very small transparentcapsules, each about 40 micrometers across. Each capsule contains an oily solutioncontaining black dye (the electronic ink), with numerous white titanium dioxide particlessuspended within.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 11. E-Paper Technology 6 The particles are slightly negatively charged, and each one is naturally white.The microcapsules are held in a layer of liquid polymer, sandwiched between two arrays ofelectrodes, the upper of which is made transparent. The two arrays are aligned so that thesheet is divided into pixels, which each pixel corresponding to a pair of electrodes situatedeither side of the sheet. The sheet is laminated with transparent plastic for protection,resulting in an overall thickness of 80 micrometers, or twice that of ordinary paper. Thenetwork of electrodes is connected to display circuitry, which turns the electronic ink on andoff at specific pixels by applying a voltage to specific pairs of electrodes. Applying anegative charge to the surface electrode repels the particles to the bottom of local capsules,forcing the black dye to the surface and giving the pixel a black appearance. Reversing thevoltage has the opposite effect - the particles are forced from the surface, giving the pixel awhite appearance. A more recent incarnation of this concept requires only one layer ofelectrodes beneath the microcapsules.2.3 Electrowetting Electro-wetting display (EWD) is based on controlling the shape of a confinedwater/oil interface by an applied voltage. With no voltage applied, the (coloured) oil forms aflat film between the water and a hydrophobic (water-repellent), insulating coating of anelectrode, resulting in a coloured pixel. Fig-2.3: Appearance of pixels seen from transparent electrode layerDept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 12. E-Paper Technology 7 When a voltage is applied between the electrode and the water, the interfacial tensionbetween the water and the coating changes. As a result the stacked state is no longer stable,causing the water to move the oil aside. This results in a partly transparent pixel, or, in case a reflective white surface is usedunder the switchable element, a white pixel. Because of the small size of the p ixel, the useronly experiences the average reflection, which means that a high-brightness, high-contrastswitchable element is obtained, which forms the basis of the reflective display. Displays based on electro-wetting have several attractive features. The switchingbetween white and coloured reflection is fast enough to display video content. It is a low-power and low- voltage technology, and displays based on the effect can bemade flat and thin. The reflectivity and contrast are better or equal to those of other reflectivedisplay types and are approaching those of paper. In addition, the technology offers a uniquepath toward high-brightness full-colour displays, leading to displays that are four timesbrighter than reflective LCDs and twice as bright as other emerging technologies. Instead of using red, green and blue (RGB) filters or alternating segments of the threeprimary colours, which effectively result in only one third of the display reflecting light in thedesired colour, electro-wetting allows for a system in which one sub-pixel is able to switchtwo different colours independently. This results in the availability of two thirds of thedisplay area to reflect light in any desired colour. This is achieved by building up a pixel witha stack of two independently controllable coloured oil films plus a colour filter.2.4 Electrofluidic Electrofluidic displays are a variation of an electrowetting display. Electrofluidicdisplays place an aqueous pigment dispersion inside a tiny reservoir. The reservoir comprises<5-10% of the viewable pixel area and therefore the pigment is substantially hidden fromview. Voltage is used to electromechanically pull the pigment out of the reservoir and spreadit as a film directly behind the viewing substrate. As a result, the display takes on color andbrightness similar to that of conventional pigments printed on paper. W hen voltage isremoved liquid surface tension causes the pigment dispersion to rapidly recoil into theDept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 13. E-Paper Technology 8reservoir. As reported in the May 2009 Issue of Nature Photonics, the technology canpotentially provide >85% white state reflectance for electronic paper.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 14. E-Paper Technology 9 3. KEY BENEFITS E-Paper has numerous benefits. The reader does not need to get used to a new format- reading an E-Paper equals reading a printed newspaper. However, E-Paper guaranteesindependency regarding room and time. E-Paper can be read everywhere in the world, atevery hour, and since digital editions can also be received on PDAs and smart phones,mobility is almost limitless. Additionally, E-Paper saves resources. On the one hand, paperand space are saved - because E-Paper does not pile up anywhere - on the other hand,valuable time is saved. Since the complete pages are displayed on the PC monitor, oneinstantly gets an overview over all headlines and thus gets to the relevant articles a lot faster Unlike conventional LCDs and other kinds of reflective displays, an electronic inkdisplay is exceptionally bright and is ready viewable under both bright and dim lightingconditions. To be more assertive we could compare electronic ink display with the latestliquid crystal displays.Table 3.1: Comparison of E- ink & LCDElectronic ink display Liquid Crystal DisplaysWide viewing angle Best image only from one positionBlack on paper white Gray on grayReadable in sunlight Can be difficult to seeHolds image without power drain Required power to hold imagesLegible under most lighting conditions Often requires backlightPlastic or glass Glass onlyLight Weight Power supply and glass make LCDs relatively heavyThin (~1 mm) Thick (~7 mm)Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 15. E-Paper Technology 103.1 Paper-like Readability Paper is easily readable over wide variations in lighting conditions and viewing angle.E Inks electronic ink technology approaches printed paper in performance by incorporatingthe same coloring pigments often used to make paper white and ink black.When reading text, both reflectance and contrast are important factors in determining thereadability of a display. In fact, the contrast of E Ink is nearly twice that of printednewspaper. As can be seen from its high reflectance and contrast the E Ink display is muchmore readable than LCD.The bright paper-white background of electronic ink eliminates the need for a backlight ismost conditions.3.2 Ultra-Low Power Consumption Electronic ink displays offer greatly reduced power consumption. Lower powerconsumption translates to longer battery life, and perhaps more importantly, the ability to usesmaller batteries in electronic ink devices- reducing device weight and cost. The reason forthe reduced power consumption offered by electronic ink displays is two- fold: (1) they arecompletely reflective requiring no backlight and (2) they are inherently bi-stable for extendedperiods of time. Once an image is written on an electronic ink display, it will be retainedwithout additional power input until the next image is written. Hence the power consumptionof an electronic ink display will ultimately depend upon the frequency at which the displayedimage is changed. However, in both cases, a reduction in power consumption by severalorders of magnitude can be achieved by using electronic ink with its bi-stable imaging.3.3 Thin, Light Form Factor An electronic ink display module is thinner, lighter weight, and more robust thanconventional LCDs. These benefits are especially important in smart handheld applicationswhere portability is paramount. First generation, electronic ink displays will be b ut bylaminating electronic ink to a conventional glass TFT substrate In addition, no polarizes arerequired for electronic ink displays. The resulting electronic ink display cell is also about halfDept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 16. E-Paper Technology 11that of a typical LCD cell. Elimination of the glass top sheet means that displays made withan electronic ink display module should be inherently more robust.3.4 The Ultimate Mobile Display Solution Paper-like viewing characteristics and appearance, combined with ultra- low powerconsumption and thin light form factors, make E inks electronic ink display material the idealtechnology solution for information intensive, handheld devices such as PDAs, mobilephones and electronic readers; or any applications requiring a high degree of displaylegibility.3.5 Twistable Electronic Paper is made using soft plastic containing small particles and fluid. Asthere is no hard material, Electronic Paper is highly flexible and it is able to be twisted orbended into different curvatures. The Electronic Paper can be applied to different shapes ofproducts, without being limited to being bonded to flat display panels. The end productbecomes more imaginative in shape and style.3.6 Simple Manufacturing Process The manufacturing process is carried out using a roll- to-roll method, similar toprinting paper, by injecting dielectric fluid and charged particles into the layer of capsules,and then sealing the top layer. The production is performed continuously at high speed. TheElectronic Paper can be produced in a large form and then cut into any desired size and shapefor different application requirements.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 17. E-Paper Technology 12 4. HIGHLIGHTS OF ELECTRONIC INK Electronic ink moves information display to a new dynamic level, with dramaticbenefits over traditional media. Superior Look - Because its made from the same basic materials as regular ink and paper, electronic ink retains the superior viewing characteristics of paper, including high contrast, wide viewing angle, and bright paper-white background. Versatile - Electronic ink can be printed on almost any surface, from plastic to metal to paper. And it can be coated over large areas cheaply. Low Power - Electronic ink is a real power miser. It displays an image even when the power is turned off and its even legible in low light reducing the need for a backlight. This can significantly extend battery life for portable devices. Scalable - E Inks electronic ink process is highly scalable, which makes it competitive against todays older technologies.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 18. E-Paper Technology 13 5. DISADVANTAGES Electronic paper technologies have a very low refresh rate comparing with other low-power display technologies, such as LCD. This prevents producers from implementingsophisticated interactive applications (using fast moving menus, mouse pointers or scroll ing)like those which are possible on handheld computers. An example of this limitation is that adocument cannot be smoothly zoomed without either extreme blurring during the transitionor a very slow zoom. Another limitation is that an imprint of an image may be visible after refreshing partsof the screen. Those imprints are known as "ghost images", and the effect is known as"ghosting". This effect is reminiscent of screen burn- in but, unlike it, is solved after thescreen is refreshed several times. Turning every pixel white, then black, then white, helpsnormalize the contrast of the pixels. This is why several devices with this technology "flash"the entire screen white and black when loading a new image, in order to prevent ghostingfrom happening.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 19. E-Paper Technology 14 6. APPLICATIONS Electronic Paper behaves similarly to conventional paper, a llowing high readabilityunder low or high light conditions, and being thin and lightweight and fully pliable. Inaddition, Electronic Paper has the advantage of allowing the content to be changed easily atany time via the Electronic Paper driver IC. Electronic Paper will provide a viable substituteto paper in certain areas. Some examples of Electronic Paper applications are describedbelow.6.1 Electronic Shelf Label In a large department store or supermarket, there are many price tag labels on theshelves indicating product price. Whenever there is a change of price information, it is verytedious to change the price tags individually. By replacing the paper price tag with ElectronicPaper, the price information can be easily updated once the Electronic Paper price tags areconnected via a wireless network. Fig-6.1: Electronic Paper used in Price Tag Application The Electronic Paper price tag requires no battery power to maintain display andprices can be updated using the energy from the RF wave to change the image content.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 20. E-Paper Technology 156.2 Electronic Watch and ClockWatch and clock designs can become more imaginative using Electronic Paper. Fig-6.2: Electronic Paper Watch and Bendable ModuleFor example, a watch using Electronic Paper will allow time and image to be displayed onthe wrist strap of the watch.6.3 e-Books In 2004 Sony released Librié EBR-1000EP in Japan, the first e-book reader with anelectronic paper display. In November 2006, the iRex iLiad was ready for the consumermarket. In November 2009 Barnes and Noble launched the Barnes & Noble Nook, based onthe Android operating system. In late 2007, Amazon began producing and marketing the Amazon Kindle, an e-bookreader with an e-paper display.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 21. E-Paper Technology 16 Fig-6.3: Sony e-Book reader6.4 Smart Card Display Today, many credit cards contain a smart card to store information such asaccumulated credit and money expenses etc. Since Electronic Paper has the advantage oflower power consumption and is as flexible as the card, it offers a good solution to displayingthis type of information on the card.6.5 Newspapers In February 2006, the Flemish daily De Tijd distributed an electronic version of thepaper to select subscribers in a limited marketing study, using a pre-release version ofthe iRex iLiad. This was the first recorded application of electronic ink to newspaperpublishing. In September 2007, the French daily Les Échos announced the official launch of anelectronic version of the paper on a subscription basis.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 22. E-Paper Technology 17 Since January 2008, the Dutch daily NRC Handelsblad is distributed for the iRexiLiad reader. Fig-6.4: Electronic newspaper6.6 Other Products E- Ink unveiled its first product using electronic ink- immediate large-area displays- in1999. These large signs draw only 0.1 watts of power, which means that the same powerrequired running a single 100-watt light bulb, could power 1,000 immediate signs. E Ink saidthat in electronic devices, electronic ink would use 50 to 100 times power than liquid crystaldisplays because electronic ink only needs power when changing its display. Electronic inkcan be printed on any surface, including walls, billboards, product labels and T-shirts.Homeowners could soon be able to instantly change their digital wallpaper by sending asignal to the electronic ink painted on their walls.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 23. E-Paper Technology 18 7. THE FUTURE SCENARIO The Holy Grail of electronic ink technology is a digital book that can typeset itselfand that readers could leaf through just as if it were made of regular paper. Such a book couldbe programmed to display the text from a literary work and once youve finished that tale,you could automatically replace it by wirelessly downloading the latest book from acomputer database. Xerox had introduced plants to insert a memory device into the spine ofthe book, which would allow users to alternate between up to 10 books stored on the device.Just as electronic ink could radically change the way we read books, it could change the wayyou receive your daily newspaper. It could very well bring an end to newspaper delivery, aswe know it. Instead of delivery people tossing the paper from their bike or out their carwindow, a new high- tech breed of paper deliverers who simply press a button on theircomputer that would simultaneously update thousands of electronic newspapers eachmorning. Sure, it would look and feel like your old paper, but you wouldnt have to worryabout the newsprint getting smudged on your fingers, and it would also eliminate the piles ofold newspapers that need recycling. Prior to developing digital books and newspapers E-Inkwill be developing a marketable electronic display screen for cell phones, PDAs, pagers anddigital watches.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 24. E-Paper Technology 19 8. CONCLUSION Electronic ink is not intended to diminish or do away with traditional displays. Insteadelectronic ink will initially co-exist with traditional paper and other display technologies. Inthe long run, electronic ink may have a multibillion-dollar impact on the publishing industry.Ultimately electronic ink will permit almost any surface to become a display, bringinginformation out of the confines of traditional devices and into the world around us. .Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College
  • 25. E-Paper Technology 20 BIBLIOGRAPHY[1] Crowley, J. M.; Sheridon, N. K.; Romano, L. "Dipole moments of gyricon balls" Journalof Electrostatics 2002, 55, (3-4), 247.[2] Comiskey, B.; Albert, J. D.; Yoshizawa, H.; Jacobson, J. "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays" Nature 1998, 394, (6690), 253-255.[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_paper.[4] Blankenbach K, Schmoll A, Bitman A, Bartels F and Jero sch D 2008 Novel highlyreflective and bistable electrowetting displays SID J. 16 237–44.[5] Andersson, P.; Nilsson, D.; Svensson, P. O.; Chen, M.; Malmström, A.; Remonen, T.;Kugler, T.; Berggren, M. "Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic ElectrochemicalSmart Pixels Printed on Paper" Adv Mater 2002, 14, (20), 1460-1464.[6] Huitema, H. E. A.; Gelinck, G. H.; van der Putten, J. B. P. H.; Kuijk, K. E.; Hart, C. M.;Cantatore, E.; Herwig, P. T.; van Breemen, A. J. J. M.; de Leeuw, D. M. "Plastic transistorsin active-matrix displays" Nature 2001, 414, (6864), 599.Dept. of Information Technology AWH Engineering College