INTRODUCTION• It is a mind-to-movement system that allows a quadriplegic man to control a computer using his Thoughts.• The system is to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with spinal cord injury to operate various gadgets such as TV, computer ,lights, fan etc.• It monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands• This can be used to control a robot arm or a cursor on a screen
DEVELOPMENT• Company and Scientist:• Brain Gate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyber kinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University.
Working Principle• The principle of brain gate neural interface system is that which intact with brain function, neural signals generated are interpreted by the systems and a cursor is shown to the user on a computer screen that provides an alternate “Brain Gate pathway". The user can use that cursor to control the computer, just as a mouse is used.
BCI Technology• “BCIs” usually connects the brain (or nervous system) with a computer system.• A Brain Computer Interface, called as direct neural interfaceor brain machine interface is a direct communication pathwaybetween human or animal brain and an external device.• Based on the communicative Pathway BCI is classified asfollows One Way BCI Two Way BCI
BCI Technology (Cont.)• One Way BCI: Computers either accept commands from thebrain or send signals to it (for example, to restore vision) but notboth.• Two Way BCI: Brains and external devices can exchangeinformation in both directions but have yet to be successfullyimplanted in animals or humans.• Brain Computer interface is of three types based on its featuresand are Invasive BCI Partially Invasive BCI Non Invasive BCI
The components in this system• The Neuro chip: A 4-millimeter square silicon chip studded with 100 hair-thin microelectrodes is embedded in the primary motor cortex the region of the brain responsible for controlling movement• The connector: When the user thinks “move cursor up and down”, the cortical neurons fire in a distinctive pattern: the signal is transmitted through the pedestal plug attached to the skull
• The converter: The signal travels to a shoebox-sized amplifier mounted on the user’s wheelchair, where it’s converted to optical data and bounced by fiber- optic cable to a computer.• The computer: The computer translates brain activity and creates the communication output using custom decoding software.
Working• The Brain Gate neural interface device is a propriety brain-computer interface that consist of an Inter neural signal sensor and External Motor Cortex Processors.• The sensor consists of a tiny chip containing 100 microscopic electrodes that detect brain cell electrical activity.• The chip is implanted on the surface of brain in the motor cortex area that controls movement.
Working (Cont.)• External Processors convert neural signals into an output signal under the users own control.• In the pilot version of the device, a cable connects the sensor to an external processor in a cart that contains computers.• The computers translate brain activity and create the communication output using custom decoding software.
HOW INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED?• When a work is done through any part of body then a potential difference is created in the brain.• This potential difference is captured by the electrodes and is transmitted via fiber optic to the Digitizer(external processor).
• The digitizer converts the signal into some 0’s and 1’s and that is feed into the computer.• Thus a new path for propagation of brain commands from the brain to the computer via Brain Gate are created.• Now when external devices are connected to the computer ,then they work according to the thought produced in the motor cortex.
Brain Gate Research in HumanA boon to the paralyzed• Mathew-Nagel the first person to use the brain-computer interface to restore functionality lost due to paralysis…
ADVANTAGES• Controlling remote devices• Making and receiving telephone calls• Accessing the internet.• Turn on or off the lights• Control robotic arm• Watch and control television• Use the pc• Locking or unlocking doors• Motorized wheelchair
DISADVANTAGES• Expensive• Risky Surgery• Not Wireless yet• Difficulty in adaptation and learning.• Limitation in information transform rate.The latest technology is 20 bits/min.
Future Scope• Current new advances include a second-generation interface software M*Power controller that will enable users to perform a wide variety of daily activities without assistances of technician.• Smaller ,wireless device .• The user will have an improved control of respiratory system, limb with muscle stimulation or robotics.
Conclusion• The invention of Brain gate is such a revolution in medical field. The remarkable breakthrough offers hope that people who are paralyzed will one day be able to independently operate artificial limbs, computers or wheelchairs.• The idea of moving robots or prosthetic devices not by manual control, but by mere “thinking” (i.e., the brain activity of human subjects) has been a fascinated approach