INTEKHAB ALAM KHAN
History of Artificial Intelligence
Limitations of Human Mind
Artificial Intelligence is a branch of
Science which deals with helping
machines finds solutions to complex
problems in a more human-like fashion.
This generally involves borrowing
characteristics from human intelligence,
and applying them as algorithms in a
computer friendly way.
Brief History of A I
1941: First electronic computer (technology finally available )
1956: Term Artificial Intelligence introduced
1960s: Checkers-playing program that was able to play games
1980s: Quality Control Systems
2000: First sophisticated walking robot
WHY A I?
Computers are fundamentally well suited to
performing mechanical computations, using
fixed programmed rules. This allows artificial
machines to perform simple monotonous
tasks efficiently and reliably, which humans
are ill-suited to. `
LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN MIND
Object recognition. People cannot properly explain
how they recognize objects.
Face recognition. Cannot be passed on to another
person by explanation.
Naming of colours. Based on learning, not on
APPLICATIONS OF A I
Natural Language Processing (NLP).
An Expert System is a computer program designed to act as
an expert in a particular domain (area of expertise).
Phases in Expert System
Expert systems currently are designed to assist experts, not
to replace them, They have been used in medical diagnosis,
chemical analysis, geological explorations etc.
Natural Language Processing
The goal of NLP is to enable people and computers to
communicate in a natural (humanly) language(such as, English)
rather than in a computer language.
The field of NLP is divided in 2 categories—
Natural Language understanding.
Natural Language generation.
The primary interactive method of communication used by
humans is not reading and writing, it is speech.
The goal of speech recognition research is to allow computers
to understand human speech. So that they can hear our
voices and recognize the words we are speaking.
It simplifies the process of interactive communication
between people and computers, thus it advances the goal of
People generally use vision as their primary means of sensing
their environment, we generally see more than we hear, feel
or smell or taste.
The goal of computer vision research is to give computers
this same powerful facility for understanding their
surrounding. Here A.I helps computer to understand what
they see through attached cameras.
A Robot is a electro-mechanical device that
can by programmed to perform manual tasks
or a reprogrammable multi functional
manipulator designed to move materials,
parts, tools, or specialized devices through
performance of variety of tasks.
An ‘intelligent’ robot includes some kind
of sensory apparatus that allows it to
respond to change in it’s environment
They will probably be increasingly used in the field of
A knowledge based expert system, which can cross-reference
symptoms and diseases will greatly improve the accuracy of
Object recognition will also be a great aid to doctors.
Along with images from cats cans or X-ray machines, they
will be able to get preliminary analysis of those images.
This of course will be possible only if people solve legal
questions that arise by giving power to a machine to control
or influence the health of a human
Self-modifying, when combined with self-replicating, can lead
to dangerous, unexpected results, such as a new and
frequently mutating computer virus.
The day is not far when you will just sit back in your cozy little
beds and just command your personal Robot's to entirely do
your ruts . He will be a perfect companion for you. Just enjoy
But wait, don’t be happy. . !
It may end in other way too. Some day there will be a knock
to your door. As you open it, you see a large number of
Robots marching into your house destroying everything
you own and looting you.
This is because ever since there is an advantage in the
Technology, it attracts anti-social elements. This is true for
Robots too. Because now they will have full power to think
as human, even as of anti-social elements. So think trice
before giving them power of Cognition.
In it’s short existence, AI has increased understanding of the
nature of intelligence and provided an impressive array of
application in a wide range of areas. It has sharpened
understanding of human reasoning, and of the nature of
intelligence in general. At the same time, it has revealed the
complexity of modeling human reasoning providing new areas
and rich challenges for the future.