11. INTRODUCTIONConstruction projects are time bound and all project activities are directed towards theachievement of project objectives with respect to time, scope and quality. In a complex projectwhere large number of activities are performed at different places by different agencies and suborganizations, with each having its own scheduled targets, a small delay in the critical activitycan affect many schedules. Delays can alter the planned level of resources and theirmobilization. Time over run increases overheads, reduce planned revenue from sales and createfund inflow problems. Delays in contracted projects can result in penalties and adversely affectthe reputation of the company. Project planning and scheduling aims at timely execution of workaccording to the project planned ,schedule and can apply corrective measures in case of any timedeviations. In a broader sense, time control implies the control of the entire planning system, astime is directly or in-directly related with all project activities and project functions.1.1 PROECT CONTROLProject control aims at controlling changes to the project. It provides management withcost related information for making decision with a view to complete the project within thespecified quantity on time and within the budgeted cost. This information is extracted from theperformance data and other sources is used to minimize waste, update current budget estimates,forecast cost trends and make decision about the future. Cost control involves processing of costaccounting reports received from various responsibility centers or operating divisions.1.2 NEED OF STUDYEvery construction project is unique and is to be completed in a stipulated time period .In the present scenario, due to advancements in technology and high competition, the profitmargin of the contractors is considerably low. Hence an effective tool for management planningand scheduling is necessary to manage complex projects to maintain the planned projectcomponents of time, cost and resource. Monitoring of the projects is very much necessary even ifthe projects are planned to find out the deviations from the planned schedule.
2Hence in this project, the software tool Primavera Project Planner ( P3 ) is used to obtainthe critical path of the project schedule of a Building being constructed at Shahnoorwadi. ThePrimavera software is an efficient and a powerful software tool, for construction managementwhich is widely used globally even for the most complicated construction projects.1.3 PROJECT OVERVIEWA Building of configuration G+1 of an approximate area of 1100 Sq ft is considered inthis project. The building is being built for residential purposes in Shahnoorwadi. The actualwork is started in December 2012. The software tool Primavera Project Planner is used forplanning, scheduling and controlling. The activities required to complete the building structure(excluding the interiors) was identified and was fed as an input to Primavera along with theirdurations. The critical activities and the project time which is represented by the summation ofcritical path durations are obtained from the primavera schedule.
32. CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT2.1 INTRODUCTIONMajor construction works are time bound and employ huge resources of men, materialand machines. They involve heavy investments running to crores of rupees. They require a highlevel of technology and need an effective management of resources. The execution of majorconstruction capital works is undertaken by projecting them and there by organizing them intoone or more construction projects for implementation.The term ‘construction project’ refers to a high value, time bound, and specialconstruction mission with predetermined performance objectives. The project mission isaccomplished within complex project environment by putting together human and non humanresources into a temporary organization headed by a project manager.The project manager aims to achieve its mission by:MANAGING : Time and progressCost and Cash flowQuality abd performanceOrganization behaviorBY PLANNING : Planning ResourcesScheduling ResourcesOrganizing ResourcesDirect ResourcesMonotoring ResourcesControlling ResourcesWITHIN : Quality ConstraintsTime ConstraintsCost ConstraintsEnvironmental Constraints
42.2 COMPONENT OF PROJECTSA Project is endeavor that is undertaken to produce the results that are expected from therequesting party. A Project consists of three components namely• Scope: Work to be accomplished both qualitative and quantitative.• Budget: Refers to the costs measured in currency or labour hours of work.• Schedule: Logical sequencing and timing of the work to be performed.THE SIX FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE OUTCOME OF A PROJECT ARE• Size• Complexity• Quality• Productivity• Completion Time• Cost
52.3 FUNCTION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENTManagement is summarized into five basic functions1. Planning: It is the formulation of the course of action to guide a project to completion. Theestablishment of milestones and consideration of possible constraints are major parts ofplanning.2. Organising: It is the arrangement of resources in a systematic manner to fit the project plan.A project must be organized around the work to be performed.3. Staffing: It is the selection of individuals who have the expertise to produce the work.4. Directing: It is the guidance of the work required to complete the project.5. Controlling: It is the establishment of a system to measure, report and forecast deviations inthe project scope, budget and schedule. Control is often the most difficult function of projectmanagement.2.4 KEY POINTS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENTSome of the key concepts of project management are listed below.1. To confirm that there is an approved project scope, budget and schedule for the project.2. To ensure that there is an explicit operational work plan to guide the entire project.3. To establish a control system that will anticipate and report deviations on a timely basis sothat corrective actions can be taken.4. To establish a project organizational chart that shows authority and responsibilities for all theteam members.5. To get out problems out in open with all persons involved so that they can be resolved.Thus depending on the size and nature of the project, the managers in the project team areentrusted with the responsibility to accomplish project tasks. A large complex project may have amanager in charge of each specialized task whereas in smaller projects only few managers canlook into all tasks.
63. TIME AND RESOURCE3.1 TIME AND RESOURCE – PLANNING AND CONTROLThe construction planning process is stimulated through a study of project documents.These documents include – but are not limited to – the available technical and commercialstudies and investigations, design and drawings, estimate quantities etc. The planning processtakes into account the strengths and weakness of the organization as well as the anticipatedopportunities and risks.3.2 TIME PLANNING PROCESSIn construction all projects are time bound. The project time objective specifies theproject completion time. The project time and cost are correlated-it is time factor whichdetermines the project cost. However, the absence of a project plan almost makes certain that theproject cannot be completed on schedule without incurring extra costs.The time planning process involves the following three stages:1. Project work breakdown: This means breaking down the scope of the project into itsconstituent sub project, tasks, work packages and activities.2. Modeling and analyzing networks: This includes developing logic diagrams or subnetworks integrating these to develop a time planning model and analyzing this model todetermine the project completion time.3. Scheduling work Programmes: This involves putting the time plan on a calendar basis andusing the scheduled Programme to forecast input and output.
73.3 TIME PLANNING TECHNIQUESA project time depicts the sequence of accomplishment of the planning componentsplotted against project time scale. These components include activities and events. Timeplanning techniques are used to put these components on the time scale. There is a wide varietyof time planning technique. The commonly used techniques are bar charts, network analysis, lineof balance technique and linear Programme charts.3.4 RESOURCE PLANNING PROCESS3.4.1 FORECASTING INPUT AND OUTPUT:A forecast is a prediction of what is anticipated in future. The input and output forecastincludes the data wise requirement of project manpower, major materials, costly equipment,production costs, sales etc. The basis of forecasting is the schedule of work.3.4.2 PLANNING CONSTRUCTION WORKFORCE:This process chiefly involves identifying the trades or the skills required, establishingproductivity standards to determine the number of workers needed to perform given job in thespecified time, data wise forecasting of workers requirement for accomplishing the project workand finally organizing the planned work force into operating teams having assigned programmedtasks.3.4.3 PLANNING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS:The construction material planning involves identifying the materials required, estimatingquantities, defining specifications ,forecasting requirements, locating sources for procurement,getting material samples approved etc.3.4.4 PLANNING CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT:Construction equipment is indispensable in the execution of modern high cost, timebound massive construction projects. It produces output with an accelerated speed in a limitedtime .Equipment planning for a project aims at identifying the construction tasks to beundertaken by mechanical equipment, assessing the equipment required, exploring theequipment procurement options and finally participating in the decision maker for selecting theequipment.
83.4.5 PLANNING CONSTRUCTION STANDARD COSTS:The construction costs planning has its aim in the integration of planning, judgment,costing techniques and accounting discipline for developing standard costs, financial forecasts,project budget and cost control measures with the ultimate goal of achieving project profit orcost objectives. The construction cost plan uses standard cost concept for costing work packages,work items or activities. The standard cost technique finds wide application in estimating,forecasting, budgeting, accounting and controlling of costs.3.4.6 PLANNING CONSTRUCTION BUDGET:The primary purpose of having a budget is to assign financial targets and resources toeach functional group so as to establish some basis for controlling their performance and to makeparticipants plan with cost consciousness instead of purposeless routine working. The basis ofthe budget is the project plan and its schedule of work. The budget preparation involvesstructuring of project functional organization into production, services and administrationresponsibility centers. Assigning each responsibility centre its goal in the form of sales budgetand production targets. Allocating resources with budgeted costs necessary to achieve theassigned goals and finally, compiling the project financial plan in the form of the project masterbudget. Control involves organizing the control responsibility centers, designing accounting andmonitoring methodology, codifying data and developing the information systems so as to makedecision speedily. It also includes identifying the problem areas, making risk-taking decision totackle the problem, organizing and directing resources needed to carry out these decisions andmeasuring the results of these decisions against targeted expectations through organized andsystematic feedback.3.5 PROJECT CONTROL METHODOLOGYThe project control follows the system concept. Each organizational unit in a projectusually referred to as the responsibility centre and can be viewed as a sub system. These subsystems are highly interdependent and interactive. The performance objectives of a sub systemare stated in terms of the parameters to be controlled. These parameters include the time progresstargets, resource productivity standards and work package standard costs and sales targets. Eachsub system accounts for its performance and reports its actual performance along with thedeviation between the planned and actual performance to be monitored.The project control centre manned by the monitor is at the heart of the system. It receivesperformance data from the responsibility centers and using scientific tools and techniques,transform it into information that suggests remedial measures for achieving the objectives.
93.6 CONTROLLING RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITYThe success of the project depends on the performance of the input resource. Productivityis a measure of performance of these resources. Productivity control aims at ensuring efficientutilization of the inputs of men, materials and equipment by identifying the cause of theirwastage as well as affecting improvements to minimize it. The cause of wastage are located byanalyzing variances and efficiencies of planned and on site actual productivity.Productivity performance variance = planned productivity – actual productivityProductivity performance index = planned productivity/actual productivityThe productivity parameters which need to be controlled in construction projects are:1. Labour productivity2. Equipment productivity3. Material productivity3.7 CONTROLLING COSTCost control is the restraining of expenditure within the predetermined limit. It involvesthe processing of reports received from varies responsibility centers or operating divisionsrelating the cost incurred with the set standards, analyzing the reason for any variances andpresenting results to the project management for decision making and initiating remedialmeasures. The cost control process follows an active and forward looking approach. It does notconfuse itself to the historical data contained in cost report and accounting documents, but goesfurther to indicative corrective measures so as to minimize in efficiencies and reduce cost.
103.8 CONTROLLING TIMETime is of essence in a project and all project activities are directed towards theachievement of the project time objectives a project time control aims at time execution of workas per the work program and application of corrective measures in case of deviation. The timecontrol process involves the monitoring of time status by updating the project networks and timeschedule, reviewing duration of balance activities, computing deviation and evaluating theimplications of a deviation on the project time objectives by time analyzing the project network.It includes the formulating remedial measures including what-if analysis, time crashing,re-planning, reforecast and re-mobilizing resources under changed situation with view toaccomplish the time objectives.Time delays have serious repercussions on plan resources and produce inefficiency intheir use. They alter the planned level of input resources and result in a revision of a materialsinventories and accommodation for men and materials. Delays necessitate re-mobilization ofresources. Time over-runs increases cost exponentially and result in increased over rate andreduced planned sale receipts, thus causing liquidity problems.There are also confusion and conflicts. All these have serious implications on the projectresource needs and cost objectives. It is for this reason that the project controlling process startswith the resources productivity control. Next come the cost control, followed by time period.
114. SIGNIFIANCE AND SCOPE OF PROJECT4.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF PROJECTIn the present prevailing scenario in the construction industries, CPM/PERT networks aredrawn based on the available data. The project is executed based on the network drawn.Corrections are made depending on the site realities Crashing of networks is carried out ifrequired and if possible. If the project is completed within a reasonable time and cost overruns,no post mortem analysis is carried out.However it is possible that the network diagram drawn and implemented might not be theoptimum one. It could have been quite possible that a more realistic and logical sequencing ofactivities and more rational resource allocation along with more practicable assignment ofduration to the activities would have resulted in a better network diagram and hence reduced thetime and cost overruns. Therefore any attempt made in arriving at an optimum network diagramwill go a long way in minimizing the time and cost overruns which will play a crucial role in thepresent competitive and globlalised environment. This project work intends to make an attemptin this direction.4.2 SCOPE OF THE PROJECTThe scope of work consists of the following four stages:1. Data collection: The complete data required for the planning and scheduling is collectedfor further processing.2. Data processing: The data collected is processed to make it fit for use in softwareprimavera(P3)3. Network diagram: With the processed data, a network diagram is drawn using thesoftware primavera(P3)4. Report Generation: With the obtained network diagram, a classic schedule report isgenerated using primavera project planner.
124.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECTThis project work intends to achieve two objectives namely:1. To prepare a CPM (Critical Path Method) chart for a building being built.2. To acquire a good knowledge of the primavera software this is most widely and globallyused.
135. PLANNING FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDING5.1 ABOUT THE PROJECTThe proposed building is an 1100 Sq.ft development in Shahnoorwadi. The block is beingconstructed behind the Podar International. The configuration of the building is G+1.5.2 DESIGN AND DRAWING – IN BRIEFThis framed structure building lies on footing which is of isolated stepped type. The totalnumbers of isolated stepped footing are 12. The slab of 150mm thickness also consists of crossbeams. The individual slab units are of one way type. Steel rods of diameter varying from 8mmto 20mm are used at various sections. All individual slab units are provided with 8mm diametermesh reinforcements. All staircases are provided with sloping slab, landing slab and beam. Thetotal height of the building is 7.3m. All the columns at the ground level are connected by plinthbeams. The work started in late months of December 2012.
156. PROJECT PLANNING AND SCHEDULING6.1 INTRODUCTION TO PLANNING AND SCHEDULINGProject planning is the process of identifying all the activities necessary to successfullycomplete a project. Project scheduling is the process of determining the sequential order of theplanned activities, assigning realistic durations to each activity and determining the start andfinish dates for each activity. After the activities are identified, it is relatively easier to determinethe schedule for the project. Many methods and tools have been developed for scheduling. Thecomputer is universally used to perform the calculations for the project schedule.6.2 DESIRED RESULTS OF PLANNING AND SCHEDULINGProject planning is the heart of project management because it provides the centralcommunication that coordinates the work of all parties. Although the common desired results ofplanning and scheduling is to finish the project on time, the other desired results of planning andscheduling are listed below.1. To have continuous uninterrupted flow of work.2. To reduce the amount of rework.3. To minimize confusion and misunderstanding4. To have a clear understanding of who does what, when and how much.5. To integrate all work and ensure a quality project for the owner.Project planning and scheduling can serve as an effective means of preventing problems.It can prevent delays in work, a major cause of late project completion and cost overrun, whichoften leads to legal disputes. It can also prevent low worker morale and decline in productivitythat is caused by a lack of direction.
166.3 PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING AND SCHEDULINGThere must be an explicit operational plan to guide the entire project. The plan mustinclude and link the three components of the project: scope, budget and schedule. Too often,planning is focused only on schedule without regard to the important components of budget andscope. To develop an integrated total project plan, the project must be broken into well definedunits that can be measured and managed.Planning, scheduling and controlling begin at the inception of the project and continue tillthe life of the project until completion. The other key principles of planning and scheduling arelisted below:1. To build flexibility into the plan, include allowance for changes and time for reviews andapprovals.2. To always remember that the schedule is the plan for doing work and it will never beprecisely correct.3. To keep the plan simple, eliminate irrelevant details that prevent the plan from beingreadable.6.4 FACTORS AFFECTING WORK SCHEDULINGThe scheduling of the project plan has to take into consideration many variables liketime, resources and financial constraints. It is difficult to enumerate principles governing all suchfactors which may vary from project to project. However, the guidelines given can be consideredfor developing the schedule of the project work.6.4.1 TIMEThe availability of time is crucial limiting factor in a project. More time normally,implies less investment. Time and cost are correlated factors. Three aspects of time which haveto be considered during scheduling are:
171. Most of the projects carry time constraints in the form of imposed dates. These dates mayinclude constraints on start and completion of activities. A schedule must meet the projecttime constraints, in such a way that the project duration is not exceeded, such a schedule iscalled time limited schedule.2. The schedule must account for holidays, bad weather days and the non-working periods.Further, effect of the working season on production efficiency must also be considered whilescheduling activities and the schedule and the connecting resources adjusted suitably. Such aschedule details the work programme for execution.3. Scheduling must make use of the reserve of time available in floats of non critical activitiesto reduce fluctuation in resource requirements or confirm to a given predetermined patternedof resources. For minor fluctuations, working overtime may also be restored to. The scheduleprepared under constraints is termed as resource constraints.6.4.2 MANPOWERManpower is one of the main factors in the successful completion of the project. Noamount of automation or machinery can replace the manpower needed for completion of aproject. It cannot be treated like a commodity and cannot be dismissed or re employed at will.Technical hands once employed are normally continued till their requirement ceases. The idlelabour time is paid for and the factors such as strikes and breakdown of work are kept in view bythe management. The task efficiency of labour, weather conditions, nature of work and thesupervisor’s leadership – all of these affect labour productivity.The non availability of suitable labour is generally a limiting factor. The labour turnover,sickness and absenteeism further aggravate the problem. The working hours, overtime and otherincentives have to be considered while deciding the manpower schedule. The management-labour agreements and the governing labour laws considerably affect labour employment. Aschedule cannot take care of all the variables but these can be reduced considerably by workingout a uniform trade category wise manpower requirement schedule or by fixing the patterndepening on the man power availability and working conditions.
186.4.3 MATERIALSNo project can ever be started without materials. Construction materials are increasinglybecoming scare and their procurement is a time consuming process. The schedule aids inforecasting of materials, and their timely supply determines the economics and progress of work.One method could be to stock materials well before they require so as to ensure timely supply,but the stock inventory costs money. Generally inventory should be zero before thecommencement and after the completion of the project. To go a step forward, this rule should bemade applicable to each activity. But for certain materials, procurement action can be based onthe guiding principle inventory must be kept to a minimum. In case of materials in short supply,the schedule may have to be based on availability constraints.6.4.4 MACHINERYThe availability of machinery is normally a limiting factor. For example, in an activityinvolving excavation, the schedule may specify requirement of two dozers but only one may beactually be available or allotted. This would entail recasting of whole schedule. In suchcircumstances, various alternatives like delay, penalty, costs, cost of time crashing and cost ofprocurement or hiring of machinery and equipment scheduling should be to find out theminimum duration schedule in which the employment of equipment and machinery issystematically and uniformly distributed based on its availability or allotment.6.4.5 CAPITALCapital is the core of all project activities. The project management aims at economicsand the contractor works for earning profits. The proper management of money results in savingswhile its improper use proves ruins. In EST schedule, the large production costs get staggeredover long period of time, thus reducing investments. But this schedule may not prove attractiveto a builder as the saving on investment in the earliest stages can be best utilized either onanother project or ever in earning interest. Therefore, a builder schedule would generally aim toexecute those jobs earlier which are more profitable, involving least investment and benefit hiscash flow. On the other hand, the client would aim at phasing of constraints for early completion.
196.5 STEPS TO DETERMINE A SCHEDULE1. Complete the CPM network diagram.2. Label each activity with proper description.3. Estimate activity duration4. Identify each event with a unique node number.5. Determine the early event times by implementing forward pass calculation.6. Determine the late event times by implementing the back ward pass calculations.7. Compute the total, free and independent float and identify the critical activities on thenetwork.8. Calculate the calendar dates for event and activity times.9. If the project duration is not suitable, either change the network or reschedule thestart/completion of the event/activity and once again go through steps 5, 6, 7 and 8.10. If the project duration, starts and finishes of activities are suitable then arrange the activitiesin the desired sequence and tabulate activity identification, description, duration, early andlate starts, early and late finishes and floats. Finally identify all the critical activities.
207. TECHNIQUES FOR PLANNING AND SCHEDULING7.1 INTRODUCTIONThe techniques used for project scheduling will vary depending upon the projectcomplexity, size, duration, personnel and owner requirements. The project manager must choosea scheduling technique that is simple to use and is easily interpreted by all project participants.There are two general methods that are commonly used for scheduling. These are listed below:1. Bar chart ( Gantt chart)2. Network techniques (CPM, PERT, PNA)7.2 BAR CHART (GANTT CHART)The bar chart developed by Henri L. Gantt during World War 1, is a graphical time-scaleof the schedule.7.2.1 ADVANTAGES1. It is easy to interpret.2. It is an effective technique for overall project scheduling.3. Does not require extensive interrelationship of activities.4. It is simple and easy to use.
217.2.2 LIMITATIONSThe bar chart also has some limitations. Some of the limitations are listed below:1. It is difficult to update and does not show interdependence of activities.2. It does not integrate cost and resources with schedule.3. A change in one activity on the bar chart will not automatically change subsequent activities.4. The bar chart has limited applications for detailed construction work7.3 NETWORK TECHNIQUESThe project network analysis is a generic term covering all the network techniques usedfor planning, scheduling and controlling of projects. The three commonly used techniques are:1. Critical path method (CPM)2. Program evaluation and review technique ( PERT)3. Precedence network analysis ( PNA)Their common features are that they make use of network model for depicting the time planof the project. Apply the critical path concept for determining project duration and identifyingcritical activities and employ network analysis techniques for controlling projects-timeobjectives. But each these experience shows the following:1. CPM is best suited for developing the sub networks of sub groups and task havingactivities with deterministic single time duration.2. PERT is useful for project feasilibility reports and sub projects or tasks involvinguncertainties. In such cases, probabilistic approach of three times is used for assessingactivity durations.3. PNA is commonly used technique for time planning of construction projects.
227.3.1 CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)The critical path method was developed in1956 by the Dupont Company, withRemington Rand as consultants, as a deterministic approach to scheduling. The CPM method iscommonly used in engineering and construction industry. CPM is mainly concerned with thetrade-off between cost and time. It has been applied to projects that employ a fairly stabletechnology and are relatively risk free. Hence its orientation is ‘deterministic’.7.3.2 PROGRAM EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT)PERT was originally developed to facilitate the planning and scheduling of the Polarisfleet Ballistic Missile project of the US government. Designed to handle risk and uncertainties,PERT is eminently suitable for research and development programs, aerospace projects and otherprojects involving new technology. In such projects the time required for completing variousjobs or activities can be highly variable. Hence, the orientation for PERT is ‘probabilistic’7.3.3 ADVANTAGES OF CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)1. CPM provides interrelationship of activities and scheduling of costs and resources.2. It is an effective technique for overall project scheduling and detailed scheduling ofconstruction.3. It provides detailed information that is required for effective project management.7.3.4 LIMITATIONS OF CRITICAL PATH METHOD1. It requires extensive description of the interrelationship of activities.With these techniques available, the project manager must use his or her own judgment andselect the method of scheduling that best defines the work to be done and that communicatesproject requirements to all participants. In particular these techniques help the project managersto determine the expected project time completion date; the scheduled start and completion timefor different activities comprising the project.
238. INTRODUCTION TO PRIMAVERA PROJECT PLANNERPrimavera project planner is a product from primavera systems Inc, USA. P3 offers easyto use approach to project planning with an inherent interact that means project planning andcontrol easy. P3 is a multi-user product that operates on popular Local Area Networks. It allowsthe user to share data with other network users and with any one who manages projects using P3.With P3 the user can schedule and manage up to one lakh activities.8.1 FEATURES OF PRIMAVERA PROJECT PLANNER1. P3 allows the user to select the information from the database, sort data in dozens of differentways, and condense details and present graphic presentation.2. Primavera uses Betrieve as the record management system for handling project files.3. It helps to build a project network quickly and graphically.4. Offers various activity types so that the user can made different activity and resourceinteractions.5. As many as 10 types of restrictions (constraining) can be imposed on activities.6. The user can compare normal vs. overload staffing on the schedule in onscreen histogramand curves.7. As the actual data is recorded, P3 automatically changes estimate to complete.
248.2 PRIMAVERA FILE STRUCTUREThe features of Primavera file structure are listed below:1. Primavera will work with one file type only i.e. P3, which is a standard format for P3files2. The project has a mandatory four characters for project name.3. All files will have P3 extension4. All files are preferred with four characters project name.When a new project is created in P3, it automatically becomes a project group and theresub projects are termed projects share calendars, codes, resources and other data from the group.
259. PLANNING AND SCHEDULING IN PRIMAVERA(WITH RESOURCES)9.1 UNDERSTANDING THE PROJECT SCOPE9.1.1 PROJECT OVERVIEWThe actual start of the project was late in 2012. In primavera, the project start is on 17thDec, 2012. A normal of 5 working days per week is considered. The planning unit is in days.The total time span of the project nearly comes to about four months..9.1.2 STEPS FOR PLANNING AND SCHEDULING(i) CREATING A PROJECT1. Open a new project name and is given as ABCD2. The client name and location is selected3. The planning unit is selected as days4. The project start date is entered.Fig. 9.1: Starting a New Project
26(ii) DEFINING CALENDARSBefore the activity list is entered, the calendars are defined; calendars are used to modelthe working time for each activity in the project.Fig 9.2: Assigning the Calendar to Project
27(iii) IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECT ACTIVITIESThe activities required to complete the project is identified and the activity list is entered.1. Site Cleaning2. Excavation3. PCC4. Foundation5. Plinth Column6. Plinth Beam7. Filling8. GL Column9. GL Beam and Slab10. FL Column11. FL Beam and Slab12. GL Brickwork13. FL Brickwork14. Electricity Fitting15. Window Steel Mesh16. Compound Wall17. Internal Plastering18. Kitchen Otta19. Plumbing20. External Plastering21. Tiles and Dadoo22. Door and Window23. Colouring
28(iv) SEQUENCING THE ACTIVITIES:Once the activities have been entered, the next step would be to give the relationship forthe activities to get the schedule of the project. The relationships can be assigned either directlyin the bar area or through successor/ predecessor from activity detail in the activity form. Thefollowing are the four fundamental relationships1. Finish to Start relationship (FS): A relationship in which the start of a successor activitydepends on the completion of its predecessor activity2. Start to Start relationship (SS): It is a relationship in which the start of a successor activitydepends on the start of its predecessor activity.3. Finish to Finish relationship (FF): It is a relationship in which the finish of the successoractivity depends on the finish of its predecessor activity.4. Start to Finish relationship (SF): It is a relationship between activities in which a successoractivity cannot complete until its predecessor activity start.(v) SCHEDULING THE PROJECT:The software will calculate the shortest possible time to complete the project, whichshows the critical path .The critical path, is the longest and continuous path to complete theproject. If the completion date on any one of the critical activity is delayed the whole project willbe delayed. Scheduling the project will also give the start date and finish date, total and free floatfor each activity.P3.1 Starts the beginning of the project and continues to the end to calculate theearliest start and finish dates for each activity (Forward pass calculation) Then it starts at the end,from the latest early finish date of the activity in the project to the first activity and continuous tocalculate the latest start and finish dates for each activity (Backward pass calculation)(vi) ASSIGNING CONSTRAINTS:Constraints are used to impose restriction on activities that cannot be realisticallyscheduled with logic links. The constraints may be applied due to management needs (or) Due toexternal restriction most of the constraints will be used during the execution time only.Some of the types of constraints are used below:1. Early constraints2. Start on constraints3. Expected finish constraints4. Late constraints
29(vii) ORGANIZING PHASE:1. Designing and assigning activity codes2. Organizing the activities in the layout3. Applying filters where ever needed4. Saving of layout.(viii) SUMMARIZATIONTo activate summarization go to format, summarize all. Use the summarize command tocondense or roll up activity information for a selected group title band P3.1 shows activities asOne continuous bar or as individual bars, depending on the setting in the summary bars dialoguebox when summarize a plus sign (+) appears to the left of the group title band.(ix) LAYOUTTo activate layout go to view, layout. A layout is the combination of visual elements thatappear in the bar chart and network views. These elements include activities, their organization,configurations, and the appearance of activities and relationships, color settings ,sizes, font,display option such as activity form resource / cost profile and way a project appears on screenand save it as picture that can be modified, renamed, printed, and to other project. The defaultLayout appears when you add new projects or create a new layout. It shows all activities withinformation commonly found on bar charts.(x) PROJECT REPORTINGReports can be generated from the option reports. Report making is also possible bychanging the default reports (Graphical and tabular reports).
3310. PRIMAVERA PROJECT PLANNER LAYOUT OF THERESIDENTIAL BUILDINGA project is created in primavera with name ABCD. The planning unit is entered as days.The number of working days is taken as five in a week. The project starts date us 17th Dec, 2012in primavera. The activities Name, Id, Durations are entered. The duration of the activities werepredicted or determined depending upon the quantity of work to be done and the availableresources.The predecessors and successors of the activities were also defined. The concrete will bemostly at site. The linking of activities was done according to their predecessors and successors.The linking of activities are based on the four relationships mentioned earlier i.e. FS, SS, FF, SF.The activities, duration, percentage completion can be easily inferred. Thus the activities and barchart schedule can be obtained from classic layout.The classic schedule layout is shown in the above pages.The PERT view of the schedule layout is also shown in the above pages.
3411. ANALYSIS OF CPM NETWORK SCHEDULEOnce the project is scheduled, the activity details are obtained in a bar chart view. Thesame can also be viewed in a PERT view. These views shows the activity details which includeactivity names, duration, early start and finish dates, percentage completion and resource detailsof the respective activity etc in the data columns area. It can be seen that once the schedulingtakes place, the activities are automatically arranged in the order of early start dates and are listedin the same order in the data column of the P3 screen. There are a total of 24 activities involvedin this present project. The activity names start from clearing work and extend till the last floorslab, covering the entire structure of the building including the interiors. The total number ofworking days to complete the project amounts to 109 days. The approximate project time spansfor around four month.This project concentrates to obtain the critical activities in the project schedule, which arerequired to complete the structure alone excluding the interiors.
3512. GENERATION OF REPORTSchedule reports contain a tabular list of schedule data, including activity ID’sdescription, durations, float early & late schedule dates. The schedule reports can also becustomized to show additional data on separate lines such as budgets, resources, predecessor /successor activities and long. In the context of the present project, a classic schedule reportwhich is sorted by early start is generated. Additional data relating to this report shows theactivity ID, successors, predecessors, and total float (if any) for that particular activity.
36Primavera Scheduling and Leveling Calculations –Scheduling Report Page: 1This Primavera software is registered to Dr. Regulwar.Start of schedule for project ABCD.Serial number...19126321User name GECACESA.Open end listing -- Scheduling Report Page: 2----------------Activity 101 has no predecessorsActivity 211 has no successorsActivity 251 has no successorsActivity 261 has no successorsActivity 271 has no successorsActivity 291 has no successorsActivity 301 has no successorsActivity 321 has no successorsActivity 341 has no successorsScheduling Statistics for Project ABCD:Schedule calculation mode - Retained logicSchedule calculation mode - Contiguous activitiesFloat calculation mode - Use finish datesSS relationships - Use early start of predecessorSchedule run on Tue Apr 30 14:31:47 2013Run Number 2.Number of activities.................. 24Number of activities in longest path.. 16Started activities.................... 0Completed activities.................. 0Number of relationships............... 23Percent complete...................... 0.0Data date............................. 17DEC12Start date............................ 17DEC12Imposed finish date................... 01APR13Latest calculated early finish........ 27MAR13
3713. FUTURE SCOPEThe Critical Path Network of the Building is obtained and analyzed in this project usingPrimavera Project Planner (P3), in general is a very efficient and powerful tool for efficientproject management when compared to other software tools relating to Project Management.Primavera handles even the largest and most complex projects performed today. It can scheduledmanage up to one lakh activities for a single project. Its also has the security features likepassword protection.SOME OF THE AREAS IN WHICH THE PRESENT PROJECT CAN BE EXTENDEDTO ARE LISTED BELOW1. With the help of material and labour rates and equipment rental rates (if any), the totalproject cost can be calculated. The cost of separate activities can also be calculated withprimavera. The fund, men and material requirement can be expressed graphically for monthlyor even yearly period of time. By this facility, the cash flow position can be known inadvance and the funds can be organized accordingly.2. If at any period of time, there is any fund or resource shortage, the critical paths is affectedcan be found, due to this changes.3. Effects of critical path with respect to constrains can be found out. Primavera allows tentypes of constrains for activities. Each of these has a unique effect on project scheduling.4. With the availability of electrical, plumbing drawings, elevation drawn, the activities relatedto these can be incorporated in primavera scheduling in order to have a complete efficientmanagement package.5. With details of planned and actual schedule, any lag of time or excess time can be lookedinto and the differences can be adjusted for more effective time management. If there is anylag in actual schedule, there has to be crashing of time to maintain the same planned projecttime.
3814. CONCLUSIONThe Critical Path Network of the building of G+1 configurations being built atShahnoorwadi is obtained using the planning and scheduling software primavera project planner(P3). The activities required to complete the structure (including interiors) was identified andwere fed as an input into the Primavera Project Planner. The duration of the activities werepredicted or determined depending upon the quantity and type of work to be done and theavailable resources. The predecessors and successors of the activities were also defined. Afterscheduling the critical path and project duration are obtained. The scheduled network was thenanalyzed and a classic schedule report was generated using primavera.Therefore an attempt is made in arriving at an optimum network diagram that will go atleast a step towards minimizing the time and cost overruns which will play a crucial role in thispresent competitive and globlalised environment. This project intends to make an attempt in thisdirection. This project has helped us to have a comprehensive study in the areas relating toplanning, scheduling and controlling of projects. It has also helped us to gain knowledge aboutother fundamental principles and techniques of construction project management. As animportant milestone in our learning process is the acquisition of knowledge about the softwaretool Primavera Project Planner (P3), which is being most widely and globally used. Facing thechallenges of real life construction management will no longer be a difficult one.
39REFERENCES1. “Primavera Reference Guide (2004)”, CADD Center Training Services Pvt Ltd.2. Garold D.Oberlender, (2000), “Project Management for Engineering and Construction”,McGraw Hill Publishing, New Delhi.3. Chitkara,K.K., (2001), “Construction Project Management”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing,New Delhi.4. Sandeep Mantri “A to Z of Practical Building Construction and its Management”, (8thedition), Satya Prakashan, New Delhi.