Construction equpiment


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Construction equpiment

  1. 1. Wednesday, February 06, 1GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGOsmanpura, Station Road,AURANGABAD M.S. - 431 005Construction ManagementSubject – Construction EquipmentGuidance byDr.U.J.Kahalekar sir
  2. 2. Wednesday, February 06, 2CONTAINSIntroductionCategories of Construction EquipmentA. Excavating & Transporting EquipmentB. Compaction EquipmentC. Hauling EquipmentsD. Hoisting EquipmentsE. Pumping EquipmentF. Equipment used in concrete constructionG. Asphalt Mixing PlantH. Asphalt laying equipmentConclusionReference
  3. 3. Wednesday, February 06, 3INTRODUCTION• The Cost of Equipment in a project varies from 10 to 30% ofthe total project depending upon the extent of work. Properplanning, selection, procurement, installation, operation,maintenance plays and important role in the completion of theproject.• The role of construction equipments in roads, highways, largebuilding, dams, canal etc., will play important role.
  4. 4. Wednesday, February 06, 4Categories of Construction Equipment• Excavating & Transporting (Heavy Earth Moving)Equipments.• Compaction Equipments.• Hauling Equipments.• Hoisting Equipments.• Pumping Equipments.• Equipment used in concrete construction.• Asphalt Mixing Plant.• Asphalt Laying Equipments.
  5. 5. Wednesday, February 06, 5Types of Earthmoving Equipments1. Production Equipment : Equipment used for digging,moving the material to the site of construction or to thecrushing plant.2. Service Equipment : These are for the help of mainproduction equipment to achieve optimum capacity. Forsmall works dozers can be used as productive equipment.Motor Grader is used as production equipment in roadconstruction projects, while it is used as service.
  6. 6. Wednesday, February 06, 6A)Excavating & TransportingEquipmentTractor-Important Equipment forearthmoving, worked by Dieselengines, having horse powerranging from 20HP to 200HP.Types-i) Crawler or truck typeii) wheel or pneumatic type.Wheeled tractor
  7. 7. Wednesday, February 06, 7Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipment• 2)Bull-Dozers: Used for shallow Excavation, Hauling theearth for short distance, pushing earth & uprooting trees.Types:-Crawler Dozer & Wheeled DozerCrawler Dozer Wheeled Dozer
  8. 8. Wednesday, February 06, 8Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentGraderIt is self propelled ortowed machine motorgrader, Used for light ormedium works. It shapesthe ground and spreads theloose material.
  9. 9. Wednesday, February 06, 9Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentScrapper : It is a device to scrap the ground & load itsimultaneously, transport it over required distance. It candig, load, haul and discharge the material in uniformlythick layers.
  10. 10. Wednesday, February 06, 10Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentPower shovel/ Dipper Shovelspower shovel or front shovel orelectric mining shovel is abucket equipped machine. It isused to excavate earth of allclasses except rock and load itinto wagons. They are mountedon crawler tracks. It consistmounting, cab, boom, dipperstick, dipper & hoist line..
  11. 11. Wednesday, February 06, 11Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentDraglines : They areused to excavate softearth from belowground and to depositor to load in wagons.Output of dragline ismeasured in CubicMeters per hour.
  12. 12. Wednesday, February 06, 12Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentClam shell : It consistof a bucket of twohalves which arehinged together at top.It is used to excavatesoft to mediummaterials and loosematerials.
  13. 13. Wednesday, February 06, 13Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentHoe : It can exert hightooth pressures andhence can excavate stiffmaterial which normallycannot be excavated bydragline. Out put of hoeis greatest when theexcavation is done nearthe machine, becausecycle time of operationreduces.
  14. 14. Wednesday, February 06, 14Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentLoader : A bucket is attached to arms , capable of beingraised, lowered and dumped through mechanical control.Application-Land filling, road Maintenance.Wheeled Loader Crawler Loader
  15. 15. Wednesday, February 06, 15Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentExcavator : Are basically digging machine. Asuperstructure with operator cabin traverse through 360Degree. Application-Land excavation, pipe laying, ditchcleaning.Backhoe LoaderCrewel Excavator
  16. 16. Wednesday, February 06, 16Excavating /Heavy EarthmovingEquipmentCranes : This are usedfor lifting the loads,(may be loose materialpackages, containerfinished and semifinished product) andplacing them at desiredplace.
  17. 17. Wednesday, February 06, 17Compaction EquipmentCompactors are machines frequently used to compactmaterials such as soil in order to increase its density forconstruction.1. In addition, compactors are utilized in landfill tasks.2. Common varieties are plate tampers (also known asrammers)3. Vibratory plates, compactors (also known as tampingfoot rollers) &4. Vibratory pad foot compactors.These categories are further divided below….
  18. 18. Wednesday, February 06, 18Compaction EquipmentSmooth wheeled rogerThese are most suitablefor compacting gravels,sand and such likematerials. Examples areThree wheeled ormacadam rollers andtandem rollers .
  19. 19. Wednesday, February 06, 19Compaction EquipmentSheep’s foot rollerIt consist steel cylindricaldrum with projectionextending radial directionoutward from surface ofcylinder & may be propelledor towed by tractor. It issuitable for silty & claysand, medium and heavyclay.
  20. 20. Wednesday, February 06, 20Compaction EquipmentPneumatic tyred rollerIt gives kneading actionas well as compressionto the soil underneath. Itis suitable formoderately cohesivesilty soils, clayey soils,gravelly and clen sand.
  21. 21. Wednesday, February 06, 21Hauling EquipmentsHaulage by road is carried out by trucks, rubber tyred tractorwith wagons or crawler tractor with wagons. It transport theearth, aggregate, rock, ore, coal and other materials. Roadvehicles used for haulage on construction work are two types.1. On Highway Vehicle-Design to be used on Public Highways2. Off Highway Vehicle-Designed to be used construction sites &designed and manufactured to preclude there use on their use onpublic roads and they may or may not comply highway limitation.
  22. 22. Wednesday, February 06, 22Hauling Equipments.TruckThey have high mobility,good speed andadoptability. The truckcapacity varies from 0.4Cum to 20 Cum & speedvary from 10kmph to30kmph.
  23. 23. Wednesday, February 06, 23Hauling Equipments.Dump TruckThese are the truckwhich are fitted withautomatic unloadingdevices. The loadingis normally done byloading shovels orloaders. The truckhave capacity as highas 53 tones. Thesetruck can be reardump truck.Fig. On Highway dump truck
  24. 24. Wednesday, February 06, 24Hauling Equipments.ScrapperThese are importantunits used also forhauling the materialat moderate speedup to 30 kmph.
  25. 25. Wednesday, February 06, 25Hoisting EquipmentsThis equipments are used for lifting the loads, holding themin suspension during transfer from one place to other andplacing them at designated location.Uses:-1. Pulleys2. Chain hoists3. Winches4. Cranes
  26. 26. Wednesday, February 06, 26
  27. 27. Wednesday, February 06, 27Pumping EquipmentsPump is a mechanical device to increase the pressure energy onthe liquid being handled and it is used construction projects.Different types of pumps are required depending upon the jobrequirements.Types-1. Reciprocating pump2. Centrifugal Pump3. Sludge Pump4. Submersible Turbine pump
  28. 28. Wednesday, February 06, 28Pumping EquipmentsReciprocating pump• Is also known positivedisplacement pumpbecause in it liquid ispushed out of thecylinder by actualdisplacement of thepiston or plunger.• It creates vacuumpressure which rises thewater.
  29. 29. Wednesday, February 06, 29Pumping EquipmentsCentrifugal pumpPriming is done before the startof the pump to remove the airfrom inside. In priming water isfilled in the suction pipe casing& into a portion of delivery pipeup to delivery valve and duringpriming delivery valve must beclosed while impeller rotate &constant speed attains pump &velocity energy converted topressure energy.
  30. 30. Wednesday, February 06, 30Equipment used in concreteconstruction.• Concrete is basically cement, aggregate & water mixedtogether and then deposited and permitted to solidify.• Operation involved in concrete production batching,mixing, handling and transportation, placing, finishingcuring.• In huge concreting concrete and quality depends on time ofmixing, so mixers are used.
  31. 31. Wednesday, February 06, 31Equipment used in concreteconstruction.Hand fed tilting mixers• This are the smaller capacitymixers. Aggregate, cementand water are fed into thedrum by hand.• The revolving drum with itsmixing blades gives alifting, combing andagitation to mix theconcrete.Loader fed tilting drum mixer• These mixers are of largercapacity as compared to thefed tilting drum mixers.• Mixer are fitted with a loadinghopper operated by rope.Mixing drum is supported onsolid iron yoke and can tiltedeither side
  32. 32. Wednesday, February 06, 32Equipment used in concreteconstruction.Hand fed tilting mixersLoader fed tilting drum mixer
  33. 33. Wednesday, February 06, 33Equipment used in concreteconstruction.Reversing Drum mixers• Used in larger work.• Mixing drum inhorizontal position &non tilting type.• Two sets of blade, oneblade mixes while drumis rotated and otherdischarges the mix whendrum is rotated inreverse.Roller Pan mixer• Is used for morter.• The roller and mixingblades rotate in a pan andnot only mix the materialbut also produce a kneadingand crushing action.• The drive to the rollers andmixing blade is provided byeither diesel engine orelectric motor.
  34. 34. Wednesday, February 06, 34Equipment used in concreteconstruction.Reversing Drum mixersRoller Pan mixer
  35. 35. Wednesday, February 06, 35Equipment used in concreteconstructionTruck mixers• Concrete mixed batch istransported from thebatching and mixing plant tosite.• Fully or partly mixedconcrete is transportedthrogh truck mixers,whenthe construction site is farfrom batching plant.• Entire mixing is carried injourney.Concrete dumpers• Is used to carry mix fromconcrete mixer to site.• Mixer is kept near the sitefrom the concrete dumpers.• This are used for short leadsonly.• This Dumper may be twowheel or four wheel drivepropelled by diesel enginehas a low centre of gravity.
  36. 36. Wednesday, February 06, 36Equipment used in concreteconstruction
  37. 37. Wednesday, February 06, 37Equipment used in concreteconstruction.-Vibrator• For compacting the concrete after its placement concretevibrator is used. It help volume of concrete quickly placed,give high density , reduce air voids.• Types of Vibrators• Internal vibrators-Use on large work for flat slab.• External or form vibrators-uses for thin section of walls.• Surface vibrator-used to finish concrete surface such asbridge floor, road slab, section platform.• Table Vibrator-used for consolidation of precast units.
  38. 38. Wednesday, February 06, 38needle VibratorsSurface vibratorTable Vibrator
  39. 39. Wednesday, February 06, 39Asphalt Mixing Plant• Asphalt plant are used to prepare asphalt.• Is a mixer of bitumen and inert mineral matteris utilized in bitumen base course, bindercourse.• Types –Hot mix• Cold Mix
  40. 40. Wednesday, February 06, 40Asphalt Mixing PlantHot mix- It has accepted astandard surfacing for heavyduty roads and airfields.• It is proportionate mixture ofcoarse aggregate, fineaggregate, mineral filler,bitumen.• Aggregate & bitumen areheated and then mixed in aunit is known Hot mix Plant.• Types-Batch & continuous
  41. 41. Wednesday, February 06, 41Asphalt Mixing Plant• Capacity of H.M.P 60/90T.PH.means the plant has minimumcapacity of 60 tons pr hour when dry aggregate having aninitial surface moisture content 6 % and thermal temperature180 Degree Centigrade whereas max. capacity of 90 tonesper hour at 2% moisture content.• Function-Heating and drying aggregate.• Screening & measuring aggregate, the filler and bitumen.• Mixing the aggregate & bitumen in proportion to producehomogenous mix.
  42. 42. Wednesday, February 06, 42Batch and Continuous-Mix Plants
  43. 43. Wednesday, February 06, 43Cold mix• It involves mixing of cold or sun warmed aggregate, with hotor cold application of bitumen.• Types-Fixed Vane type• Paddle Mixer (Pug mil)
  44. 44. Wednesday, February 06, 44Cold mixTypes-Fixed Vane• This consist of a rotatingcylindrical drum provided on theinside with a set of vanes.• The vanes facilitate themovement of the aggregateinside drum, enabling theaggregate to be properly coatedwith bitumen.• These types of mixer areoperated manually, like harddrum mixers and are used forpreparing mix for patch repairs.
  45. 45. Wednesday, February 06, 45Types-Paddle Mixer• It consist of an engine drivenpug mill type of mixer. Is fitted2 shafts rotating in oppositedirection on each shaft.• Mixer in lined on the insidewith a renewable manganesesteel plate. Trap door controlledby a lever to permit discharge ofmix into a wheel barrow placedbelow the trap door• Capacity from 0.15 Cum to0.30Cum per batch.Cold mix
  46. 46. Wednesday, February 06, 46Drum MixerDrum mixer is popular because initialcapital investment is less thanconvention plant.Components-cold aggregate feederwith mineral filler, dryer with dustcollecting system, bitumen storage,heating & delivery system, mixstorage unit, operator cabin andcontrols.Advantage-Expenditure on spare part,men-hour for maintance,requirement of power reduce. Initialcost is less.Good quality coating at lowtemperature.
  47. 47. Wednesday, February 06, 47Asphalt Laying Equipement• Paver Fisher-Is a machine for laying and spreading sub-base,base courses or asphalt for road construction to give accuratedepth, even leveling and good surface finish before rolling.• Max. speed of paver 150m/min with basic width.
  48. 48. Wednesday, February 06, 48Asphalt Laying EquipmentAutomatic level and cross fall sensor- It is electro-hydraulicsystem that enables the paver to lay a mat to apredetermined level and cross fall, regardless or undulationsin the road base.Bitumen Distributors-It is mounted on a truck chassis andhave a tank with pump, valve system and spray barUsual size of bitumen distributor tanks range between 5000to 12000 litres.
  49. 49. Wednesday, February 06, 49Asphalt Laying Equipmentconstruction• The tank mounted on truckchassis with a heating system oilis fired burners with the directheat from the flues passingthrough tank.• The tank has two gauges forindicating bitumen temperatureand bitumen content In tank.• For feeding bitumen spray barmounted across the machine.• When bar is not sprayingbitumen circulate from tank tospray bar and vice versa.• Thermometer mounted on tank.
  50. 50. Wednesday, February 06, 50Asphalt Laying Equipment• Road marking machine-this are the self propelledor hand operated machine used to spray the paint onthe road for marking lines.• It consist air compressor, compressed air tanks,paint tanks, solvent tank, automatic spray nozzles inaddition to drive system of machine prime mover,clutch, gear, stearing and break system.• Compressor keep pressure 3.5 to 4 kg/sq cm.• Paint spray controlled by compressed air gun innozzle.
  51. 51. Wednesday, February 06, 51Road marking machine
  52. 52. Wednesday, February 06, 52Asphalt Laying Equipment• Road maintenance van –Is a three wheel, towed or smalltruck vehicles are becoming popular in advance countries. Thisuseful for maintenance at fast rate and economical andconvenient.• It cleans patches, sprays bituminous emulsions, carries 2 sizesof stone aggregates, transport two operators and also paint roadmarking.• It consist Engine driven air compressor, tank of bituminousemulsion, with heating assuagements, fuel tank with a deviceof self refueling, pressure spraying with hand lance,compressed air distributor for path cleaning, shovels, pickaxe,tamper, broom, mixer for cold mixes.
  53. 53. Wednesday, February 06, 53
  54. 54. Wednesday, February 06, 54Conclusion• Every civil Engineer to have update his knowledgeabout latest equipment and machinery for achievementof economy and time management.Reference• Book of Construction equipment and its management byS.C.Sharma.••• Book of Construction planning & equipment by Peurifoy.
  55. 55. Wednesday, February 06, 55Thanks for GuidanceDr.U.J.Kahalekar