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  • 1. COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLS ORAL SKILLS & SPOKEN ENGLISH MILIND MALSHE Professor Department of Humanities & Social Sciences IIT-BOMBAY
  • 2. MAIN POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT ORAL PRESENTATION • • • • • • • (i) effective use of visual aids (ii) adequate eye contact : size of the audience (iii) clarity in pronunciation and fluency (iv) maintaining a proper speed of presentation (v) posture and body movements suggesting confidence (vi) seeking and making proper use of visual feedback (vii) noting down important points arising out of discussion
  • 3. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS • 1. Speech & Writing/Printing: a comparison • Speech : pitch, volume, tone, speed, pauses, body movements, facial expressions • Writing/Printing: punctuation, capitalization, spacing, margins, fonts
  • 4. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) • 2. Pronunciation of Words: (a) vowel and consonant sounds • (comparison of sounds with letters a-z); The letter “a” in : fat /æ/, father /a:/, fate /eɪ /, about /ə/ Or the letters “th” in “thin” /ɵ/ & “then” /ð/. Also notice (b) word-stress: ‘language, communi’cation
  • 5. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) • 3. Use of the phonetic script and the (Pronouncing) Dictionary: International Phonetic Alphabet: free downloading is possible • Dictionaries on CD : listening to the pronunciation and it variety (e.g. British & American) now possible
  • 6. DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) 4. Pronunciation of Sentences: intonation and rhythm INTONATION: rising / (yes /) falling (yes ) combination / (yes /) RHYTHM: de dum de dum x ’ x ’
  • 7. Vowel sounds of English • (Pure Vowels/Monophthongs) initially medially finally • 1. /i:/ east sheet key • 2. /I/ it hit duty • 3. /e / end send • 4. /æ/ and sand • 5. /a:/ art heart car • 6. /ɒ/ ox fox
  • 8. Vowel sounds of English (continued) ooze medially ball put choose 10./∧/ up cup 11./з:/ 12. /ə/ earn ago learn police 7. /ɔ:/ 8. /U/ 9. /u:/ initially all finally saw chew stir maker
  • 9. Vowel sounds of English (continued) Diphthongs • 13. /eɪ / eight straight stay • 14. /əʊ / • 15. /aɪ / oak ice joke mice slow my • 16./aʊ / • 17. /ɔɪ / out oil shout boil how boy • 18. /ɪ ə/ • 19. /eə/ ears airs beard paired peer hare
  • 10. Consonant sounds of English • • • • • • • 1. /p/ 2. /b/ 3. /t/ 4. /d/ 5. /k/ 6. /g/ initially pin bin tell day keep get medially spin tubs stick heads skill jugs finally keep club light laid stick bag
  • 11. Consonant sounds of English (continued) • initially medially finally • 7. /ʧ/ chin reached teach • 8. / ʤ / • 9. /m/ joke hinged large met smoke team net snake rings fling tin sing full • 10. /n/ • 11. /ŋ/ • 12. /l/ lot
  • 12. Consonant sounds of English (continued) • • 13 /f/ • 14. /v/ initially fan van medially finally soft if leaves thief • 15. /ɵ/ thin months bath • 16./ð/ then clothes bathe
  • 13. Consonant sounds of English (continued) • • • • • 17. /s/ 18. /z/ 19. /ʃ/ 20. /ʒ/ initially sip zip ship measure medially list loser rushed rouge finally less buzz hush
  • 14. Consonant sounds of English (continued) • • • • • 21. /h/ 22. /r/ 23. /w/ 24. /j/ initially hot rot watt yatch medially finally behave try sweat tune
  • 15. Word-stress • Two-syllable words • Stress on first syllable • ‘bargain • ‘govern • ‘secret • ‘mischief • ‘message • ‘cabbage • • • • • • • • • ‘surface ‘furnace ‘husband ‘butcher ‘proverb ‘thorough ‘oven ‘onion ‘compass
  • 16. Word-stress (continued) Two-syllable words • Stress on second syllable • ad’mit • for’bid • suc’ced • sup’press • po’lice • pay’ee • dis’miss • • • • • • • • • ag’ree se’lect re’quest pre’fer re’fer oc’cur ar’rest com’mence per’haps
  • 17. Word-stress (continued) Three-syllable words Stress on first syllable • ’advertise • ’educate • ’illustrate • ’furniture • ’government • ’literature • ’recognize • ’signature • ’tentative Stress on second syllable • ad’venture • com’mercial • de’cision • ex’ternal • in’ternal • per’mission • re’vision • spec’tator • um’brella
  • 18. Word-stress (continued) Three-syllable words Primary Stress on third syllable • ,addres’see • ,ciga’rette • ,coin’cide • ,devo’tee • ,engi’neer • ,guaran’tee • ,recim’mend
  • 19. Word-stress (continued) Four-syllable words Primary Stress on first syllable • ’applicable • ’accurately • ’comfortable • ’honourable Primary Stress on second syllable • ad’vertisement • ap’preciate • a’rithmetic • e’xaggerate • par’ticipate • pho’tography
  • 20. Word-stress (continued) Four-syllable words Primary Stress on third syllable • acci’dental • appli’cation • exhi’bition • inde’pendent • indi’vidual • Primary Stress on fourth syllable • dedica’tee • exami’nee
  • 21. Word-stress (continued) words with more than four syllables Primary Stress on first syllable • ‘favouritism • ‘cannibalism • ‘secularism Primary Stress on second syllable • ad’venturousness • en’thusiasm • con’servatism Primary Stress on third syllable • elec’tricity • irre’sponsible • popu’larity Primary Stress on fourth syllable • acade’mician • civili’zation • pactici’pation
  • 22. Word-stress (continued): stress change according to part of speech • COMPARE: Noun/Adjective • ’absent • ’accent • ’concert • ’conflict • ’export • ’produce • ’subject Verb ab’sent ac’cent con’cert con’flict ex’port pro’duce sub’ject
  • 23. Attributes of good oral communication • • • • • • • 1.Sounds and sound combinations 2. Stress 3. Rhythm 4. Intonation 5. Speed: pausing 6. Clarity of articulation 7. Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (avoiding “monotonous speech)