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# 10illumination

## by Rahul Ramesh, Project Manager at Codeyssus on Oct 12, 2010

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## 10illuminationPresentation Transcript

• Illumination Model 고려대학교 컴퓨터 그래픽스 연구실
• Illumination
• How do We Compute Radiance for a Sample Ray?
• Must derive computer models for ...
• Emission at light sources
• Scattering at surfaces
• Reception at the camera
Wireframe Without Illumination Direct Illumination
• Overview
• Direct Illumination
• Emission at light sources
• Scattering at surfaces
• Global Illumination
• Refractions
• Inter-object reflections
Direct Illumination
• Overview
• Direct Illumination
• Emission at light sources
• Scattering at surfaces
• Global Illumination
• Refractions
• Inter-object reflections
Direct Illumination
• Modeling Light Source
• I L ( x,y,z,  )
• Describes the intensity of energy,
• Leaving a light source
• Arriving at location(x,y,z)
• From direction (  )
• With wavelength 
• Empirical Model
• Ideally Measure Irradiant Energy for “All” Situations
• Too much storage
• Difficult in practice
• Light Source Model
• Simple Mathematical Models:
• Point light
• Directional light
• Spot light
• Point Light Source
• Models Omni-Directional Point Source (E.g., Bulb)
• Intensity (I 0 )
• Position (px, py, pz)
• Factors (k c , k l , k q ) for attenuation with distance (d)
• Directional Light Source
• Models Point Light Source at Infinity (E.g., Sun)
• Intensity (I 0 )
• Direction (dx,dy,dz)
No attenuation with distance
• Spot Light Source
• Models Point Light Source with Direction (E.g., Luxo)
• Intensity (I 0 ),
• Position (px, py, pz)
• Direction (dx, dy, dz)
• Attenuation
• Overview
• Direct Illumination
• Emission at light sources
• Scattering at surfaces
• Global Illumination
• Refractions
• Inter-object reflections
Direct Illumination
• Modeling Surface Reflection
• R s (  ,  )
• Describes the amount of incident energy
• Arriving from direction (  )
• Leaving in direction (  ,  )
• With wavelength 
• Empirical Model
• Ideally Measure Radiant Energy for “All” Combinations of Incident Angles
• Too much storage
• Difficult in practice
• Reflectance Model
• Simple Analytic Model:
• Diffuse reflection +
• Specular reflection +
• Emission +
• “ Ambient”
Based on model proposed by Phong
• Reflectance Model
• Simple Analytic Model:
• Diffuse reflection +
• Specular reflection +
• Emission +
• “ Ambient”
Based on model proposed by Phong
• Diffuse Reflection
• Assume Surface Reflects Equally in All Directions
• Examples: chalk, clay
• Diffuse Reflection
• How Much Light is Reflected?
• Depends on angle of incident light
• dL  dA  cos 
• Diffuse Reflection
• Lambertian Model
• Cosine law (dot product)
• Reflectance Model
• Simple Analytic Model:
• Diffuse reflection +
• Specular reflection +
• Emission +
• “ Ambient”
Based on model proposed by Phong
• Specular Reflection
• Reflection is Strongest Near Mirror Angle
• Examples: mirrors, metals
• Specular Reflection
• How Much Light is Seen?
• Depends on angle of incident light and angle to viewer
• Specular Reflection
• Phong Model
• {cos(  )} n
• Reflectance Model
• Simple Analytic Model:
• Diffuse reflection +
• Specular reflection +
• Emission +
• “ Ambient”
Based on model proposed by Phong
• Emission
• Represents Light Emitting Directly From Polygon
Emission ≠ 0
• Reflectance Model
• Simple Analytic Model:
• Diffuse reflection +
• Specular reflection +
• Emission +
• “ Ambient”
Based on model proposed by Phong
• Ambient Term
• Represents Reflection of All Indirect Illumination
This is a total hack (avoids complexity of global illumination)!
• Reflectance Model
• Simple Analytic Model:
• Diffuse reflection +
• Specular reflection +
• Emission +
• “ Ambient”
• Reflectance Model
• Simple Analytic Model:
• Diffuse reflection +
• Specular reflection +
• Emission +
• “ Ambient”
• Reflectance Model
• Sum Diffuse, Specular, Emission, and Ambient
• Surface Illumination Calculation
• Single Light Source:
• Surface Illumination Calculation
• Multiple Light Sources:
• Overview
• Direct Illumination
• Emission at light sources
• Scattering at surfaces
• Global Illumination
• Refractions
• Inter-object reflections
Global Illumination
• Global Illumination
• Shadow Terms Tell Which Light Sources are Blocked
• Cast ray towards each light source L i
• S i = 0 if ray is blocked, S i = 1 otherwise
• Ray Casting
• Trace Primary Rays from Camera
• Direct illumination from unblocked lights only
• Recursive Ray Tracing
• Also Trace Secondary Rays from Hit Surfaces
• Global illumination from mirror reflection and transparency
• Mirror Reflection
• Trace Secondary Ray in Direction of Mirror Reflection
• Evaluate radiance along secondary ray and include it into illumination model
• Transparency
• Trace Secondary Ray in Direction of Refraction
• Evaluate radiance along secondary ray and include it into illumination model
• Transparency
• Transparency coefficient is fraction transmitted
• K T = 1 if object is translucent, K T = 0 if object is opaque
• 0 < K T < 1 if object is semi-translucent
Transparency Coefficient
• Refractive Transparency
• For Thin Surfaces, Can Ignore Change in Direction
• Assume light travels straight through surface
• Refractive Transparency
• For Solid Objects, Apply Snell’s Law:
•  r sin  r  i  sin  i 
• Summary
• Direct Illumination
• Ray casting
• Usually use simple analytic approximations for light source emission and surface reflectance
• Global illumination
• Recursive ray tracing
• and pure refractions
• Illumination Terminology
• Radiant power [flux] ( Φ )
• Rate at which light energy is transmitted (in Watts).