ValuesContents-MeaningDefinitionTypes of valuesImportanceFormation of valuesHofstede’s Five Value DimensionsMeaningValues are attitudes about the worth or importance of people, concepts, or things.Values influence your behavior because you use them to decide between alternatives.Values, attitudes, behaviors and beliefs are cornerstones of who we are and how we dothings. They form the basis of how we see ourselves as individuals, how we see others,and how we interpret the world in general.Your values will influence your priorities. Strong values are what you put first, defendmost, and want least to sacrifice. Individual values can and will conflict at times.Example: If you incorrectly reported a patrol checkpoint, do you have the moralcourage to correct the report even if you know your leader will never discover you sentthe incorrect report? In this situation, your values on truth and self-interest will collide.What you value the most will guide your actions. In this example, the proper course ofaction is obvious. There are times, however, when the right course of action is not soclear.Values are the enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state ofexistence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode ofconduct or end state of existence. Values are more difficult to change or alter than areattitudes, although attitudes are based on values. As ethical conduct receives morevisibility in the workplace, values increase in importance as a topic of discussion inmanagement. Page 1Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.
DefinitionM. Rokeach defines values, as a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence,personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.Edward Spranger defines the values as the constellation of likes, dislikes, viewpoints,should, inner inclinations, rational and irrational judgments, prejudices, and associationpatterns that determine a person’s view of the world.Values systemValues contain judgmental element as to what is right, good, or desirable. Values haveboth content and intensity attributes. Content attribute describes- what is important;intensity attribute describes- how much is it important. When individuals values are ranked in terms of their intensity, we obtain that personsvalue system. Value system is a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individuals valuesin terms of their intensity. All of us have a hierarchy of values that forms our valuesystem. Everyone has a value system. A value system is a set of values adopted by anindividual or society influencing the behavior of the individual or members of the society,often without the conscious awareness of the members of that society. One of theproblems all soldiers must learn to deal with is that when they perceive something thatcontradicts their own value system, oftentimes it is rejected is as having no importance.Types of values-Rokeach Value SurveyHe identified two sets of values, with each set containing 18 individual value items.A. Instrumental and Terminal ValuesRokeach divides values into instrumental and terminal values. Instrumental valuesrepresent acceptable behaviors as the means to reach a goal. Terminal valuesrepresent the goals to be achieved.B. Work ValuesWork values are more specific than personal values, and have direct implications forbehavior and attitudes in organizations. The work values most relevant to individualsare achievement, concern for others, honesty, and fairness. • Terminal values refers to desirable end-states of existence, the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. Page 2Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.
• Instrumental values: refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists Page 3Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.
Other classification—a. Personal values. Personal values are established traits that are representative ofan individual’s moral character. These may have an order of importance to us such as;honesty, responsibility, loyalty, moral courage and friendliness. Universal values heldby most young people are an interest in others, intellectual development and self-satisfaction. The values people have integrated into their character are made apparentby their attitudes, beliefs and actions.b. Social values. These may include social responsibility, loving interpersonalrelationships, social consciousness, equality, justice, liberty, freedom, and pride in ―ourcountry.‖ A social value is learned. It involves one’s relationship to society. Forexample; many parents teach their children what they perceive to be right from wrong,and what goal to work toward in their lives. To further explain, social values can bedivided into four classes and they are:(1) Folkways - values people accept out of habit.(2) Morals - morality which governs values.(3) Institutional - ways or practices set up under law.(4) Taboos - the emphatic do’s and don’ts of a particular society.c. Political. These include loyalty to country, concern for national welfare, democracy,the ―American Way,‖ public service, voting, election and civic responsibility.d. Economic. These are identified through such mediums as equal employment,stable economy, balancing of supply and demand of goods, money, private property,pride of ownership, and contrary to the beliefs of some people, taxes.e. Religious. These are characterized by reverence for life, human dignity, andfreedom to worship. Religious values are indicated by the expressed belief in asupreme being, or another force beyond the comprehension of people.f. Socialization. Socialization is the major source of an individual’s values. Thesevalues are formed in the home, schools, peer groups, neighborhoods, communities,jobs, churches or synagogues. Through these institutions, a behavior code is given andpeople not only learn what is expected of them, but they build their own value system.7. Values grow from a person’s experiences. Different experiences produce differentvalues, and a person’s values are modified as those experiences accumulate andchange. These patterns create what is known as process of valuing. It is a lifelong Page 4Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.
process that incorporates an elaborate system of rewards and punishments fromsignificant others and society in general. It is the major source of an individual’s values(G W. Allport and his associates have identified six types of values.• Theoretical: high importance to discovery of truth through critical and rationalapproach.• Economic: Emphasis on useful and practical.• Aesthetic: Highest value on form and harmony.• Social: Highest value to the love of people.• Political: Emphasis on acquisition of power and influence.• Religious: Concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmosas a whole.Jones and Gerard have broadly identified two types of values- positive and negative.According to them anything for which the individual strives, or approaches, extols,embraces, voluntarily consumes, incurs expense to acquire is a positive value. Anythingthat the individual avoids, escapes from, deplores, rejects, or attacks is a negativevalue.Louis Rath’s value criteria are: a. Choosing freely. No one can force you into a value. You choose it and actupon it even when you are not being observed. b. Choosing from alternatives. Choosing after thoughtful consideration of theconsequences of each alternative. There are other ways to believe and act. You chosethis one, even when you cannot speak it out loud, for reasons of appropriate discretion. c. Choosing after thoughtful consideration. Committed to chose even afterthoughtful consideration of the consequences of each alternative. d. Prizing and cherishing. Being happy with the choice. e. Affirming. Prizing enough to be willing to affirm the choice to others. Page 5Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.
f. Acted upon. Acting or doing something with the choice. Values are heldmentally and emotionally, and the actions they produce really ―speak louder thanwords.‖Several studies suggest that values differ across culture. Various cultural factorsinfluence values of a particular society; in turn they also influence perceptions, attitudes,motivation, behaviour, relationship patterns, leadership styles etc. of the people of thesociety. As far as findings of cross-cultural studies are concerned, they are moreindicative than deterministic, at a particular point of time.Importance of valuesIt is important to study values, as it influences attitudes, perceptions, motivation,evaluations, interpersonal relationships, behaviour, conflict handling styles, leadershippatterns etc. In nutshell, values are at the core of bahaviour pattern of an individual .Values form a very important aspect of organisational behaviour because:(a) Values serve foundation to understand other individual determinants such asattitudes and motivation. For instance, an individual who joins an organisation comeswith certain pre-conceived ideas of what "ought to be" and what "ought not to be".These ideas are all based on values with connotations of what is right and what is notand our behaviours will be in accordance to what is acceptable or desirable. And theytend to mitigate neutrality and rationality.(b) Values influence attitudes and behaviour. For example, one may join anorganisation based on the belief that promotion is awarded based on onesperformance, whereas, promotion based on seniority is not correct. But on learning afterjoining the organisation that promotion is given based on seniority and not performanceis going to result in disappointment, further leading to job dissatisfaction. The personmay also take a decision of not going to put in more efforts on the job as the outcomemay not be favourable (promotion) and there will be no gain for him. The personsattitudes and behaviour would have been different had his/her values matched with thatof the organisational values. Page 6Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.
(c) Understanding of values, today, is all the more necessary in order to have a re-examination of the established work values which are referred to as the cornerstones ofcurrent management revolution existing across the world.(d) Cultural differences in values is more visible, today especially since the worldhas become a global village with individuals willing to work anywhere and with anyone(or everyone). So managers have to be capable of working with persons with differentcultural exposures. Moreover, since values vary across cultures, an understanding ofthem can help them in knowing and predicting behaviour of employees.Formation of valuesValues are learned and acquired primarily through experiences with people andinstitutions. Parents, for example, will have substantial influence on their childrensvalues. A parents reaction to everyday events demonstrates what is good and bad,acceptable and unacceptable and important and unimportant. Values are also taughtand reinforced in schools, religious organisations, and social groups. As we grow anddevelop, each source of influence contributes to our definition of what is important inlife. Cultural mores have influence of the formation of values. Basic convictions of whatis good or bad are derived from ones own culture.Values are installed in our system which we derive from our "significant others" likeparents, elders, teachers etc.Right from our childhood, we are taught and told about certain behaviours which areacceptable (or desirable) and those which are not approved of or undesirable. Like —"Always be honest and speak the truth" (desirable)."Always pay respect to our elders""Do not hit the neighborhood child" Hofstedes Dimensions of ValuesGeert H. Hofstede was born on October 2, 1928 in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Hereceived his M.Sc. from the Delft Institute of Technology in 1953, his Ph.D. (cum laude) Page 7Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.
from Groningen University in 1967. Hofstede served in the Netherlands Army from 1953to 1955. In 1955, he married Maaike A. Van den Hoek. Theyve also "lived happily everafter", but Im not sure where (probably Brussels, Belgium).Hofstede is most well known for his work on four dimensions of cultural variability,commonly referred to as "Hofstedes Dimensions." These include: UncertaintyAvoidance, Power Distance, Masculinity-Femininity, Individualism-Collectivism,Confucian Dynamism. These dimensions were arrived in his 1980 publication, "Culturesconsequences: International differences in work-related values." The study took existingsurvey data (sample size of 116,000) collected from a multinational corporation (IBM).The result was a score in each of the dimensions for 40 different countries.Hofstede identified five dimensions and rated 53 countries on indices for eachdimension, normalized to values (usually) of 0 to 100. His five dimensions of culture arethe following:Power/Distance (PD) – This refers to the degree of inequality that exists – and isaccepted – among people with and without power. A high PD score indicates thatsociety accepts an unequal distribution of power and people understand "their place" inthe system. Low PD means that power is shared and well dispersed. It also means thatsociety members view themselves as equals.Individualism (IDV) – This refers to the strength of the ties people have to others withinthe community. A high IDV score indicates a loose connection with people. In countrieswith a high IDV score there is a lack of interpersonal connection and little sharing ofresponsibility, beyond family and perhaps a few close friends. A society with a low IDVscore would have strong group cohesion, and there would be a large amount of loyaltyand respect for members of the group. The group itself is also larger and people takemore responsibility for each others well being.Masculinity (MAS) – This refers to how much a society sticks with, and values,traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores are found in countries where menare expected to be tough, to be the provider, to be assertive and to be strong. If womenwork outside the home, they have separate professions from men. Low MAS scores donot reverse the gender roles. In a low MAS society, the roles are simply blurred. Yousee women and men working together equally across many professions. Men areallowed to be sensitive and women can work hard for professional success. Page 8Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.
Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI) – This relates to the degree of anxiety societymembers feel when in uncertain or unknown situations. High UAI-scoring nations try toavoid ambiguous situations whenever possible. They are governed by rules and orderand they seek a collective "truth". Low UAI scores indicate the society enjoys novelevents and values differences. There are very few rules and people are encouraged todiscover their own truth.Long Term Orientation (LTO) – This refers to how much society values long-standing– as opposed to short term – traditions and values. This is the fifth dimension thatHofstede added in the 1990s after finding that Asian countries with a strong link toConfucian philosophy acted differently from western cultures. In countries with a highLTO score, delivering on social obligations and avoiding "loss of face" are consideredvery important.QuestionDefine value?. Distinguish between instrumental values and terminal values. Arethese values generally stable, or do they change over time? Page 9Prepared by Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS.