Transactional analysis TA is technique to understand the dynamics of self and its relationship to other . It provides a method and approach of analyzing and understanding interpersonal behaviour .
TYPE OF TRANSACTIONS1. COMPLEMENTARY2. NON-COMPLEMENTARY
COMPLEMENTARYTRANSACTION These occur when message sent by one person’s ego state receives the expected response from the other person’s ego state. There is no scope of conflict in complimentary transactions. For eg. Parent-parent, adult-adult ,parent-adult ,child-child.
NON-COMPLIMENTARYTRANSACTION The stimulus and response lines are not parallel. Stimulus comes from first person under the adult ego state ,but the response from other person is under the child ego state. These crossed transactions are the source of much inter-personal conflict in an organization.
TA include :- Self awareness Ego states Life script Life position Transaction Games analyses Stroking
SELF-AWARENESSSELF-AWARENESS INCLUDES ARECOGNITION OF OUR PERSONALITY,OUR STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES,OUR LIKES AND DISLIKES.A PREREQUISITE FOR EFFECTIVECOMMUNICATION RELATIONS,ANDMANAGING CONFLICT AS WELL AS FORDEVELOPING EMPATHY FOR OTHERS.
JOHARI WINDOW-A TOOL TO MANAGE CONFLICT Information known Knowledge to every one belongs onlyWhat we know What they to Othersand what they know and weknow do not knowWhat we know What we do notand they do not Knowledge Knowledge know and theyknow belongs only to acquired by do not know Self learning together Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham
MOVING TOWARDS OPEN SELF Charles Handy
EGO STATES IRRESPECTIVE OF AGE EVERYBODY HAS THESE EGO STATES AND EACH OF THEM GET ACTIVATED AT AN APPROPRIATE TIME.
Different ego states:- Parent ego Adult ego Child ego
STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY AS PER TA, THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY IS DIVIDED INTO THREE EGO STATES: P –PARENT EGO STATE (TAUGHT CONCEPT OF LIFE) A- ADULT EGO STATE (THOUGHT CONCEPT OF LIFE) C- CHILD EGO STATE (FELT CONCEPT OF LIFE)
LIFE POSITIONS DEPENDING ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE EGO STATES INDIVIDUALS CAN UNDERSTAND THEIR LIFE POSITIONS. AS PER TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS, THERE ARE FOUR LIFE POSITIONS. ( Haris)
I AM OK,YOU ARE NOT OK ATTITUDE-’I AM ALWAYS RIGHT’ ANY DISAGREEMENT AROUSES A STRONG REACTION.
I AM NOT OK,YOU ARE OK. QUITE SUBMISSIVE LESS INOVATIVE LACKS RISK TAKING RESPONSIBILITIES
I AM NOT O.K,YOU ARE NOT O.K MOST DESTRUCTIVE LIFE POSITION VERY LOW ‘ADULT EGO’ STATE AND OTHER EGO STATES ARE ALSO NOT FUNCTIONALLY DISTRIBUTED HELPLESSS,DEPRESSED,MISERABLE,SUICIDAL, FEEL MISERABLE, LACK OF CONFIDENCE DO NOT TRUST OTHERS
Script analysis Acc. To Shakespeare , “All the world is a stage. And all the men and woman are merely players. They have their exits and their entrances. Each plays many parts or roles”.
Role in script analysis Legitimate roles:- these roles are realistically appropriate to the situation. Illegitimate roles :-the roles are said to be illegitimate if they are used like masks and people use them for the purposes of manipulation
Game analysis Acc. To Eris Berne , “A game is a recurring set of transactions, often repetition, superficially plausible, with a concealed motivation or more colloquially, a series of moves with a gimmick .”
Characteristics of game analysis Transactions tend to be repeated One or more of the transactions is ulterior They make sense on superficial or social level
Need for game To get stokes To strengthen life positions To avoid or control intimacy
Methods of preventing games Avoid to put other people down. Avoid to put oneself down. Giving positive stroke. Investing more life in activity. Levelling the thinking with other.
Stroking Any act implying recognition of another presence. It may be positive or negative.
Benefits and uses TA Developing positive thinking Interpersonal effectiveness Motivation Organisation development
Limitation of TA Difficult to understand ego states and transactions b/w people in practice May lead to more “cuteness” Can be used as a put-down in inter- personal relation .