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  3. 3. Personality is the set of psychologicaltraits and mechanisms within theindividual that are organized andrelatively enduring and that influence hisor her interactions with, and adaptabilityto, the intrapsychic, physical, and socialenvironments.
  4. 4. First impression and the personality.A first impression may be based onphysical appearance, facial features orexpression, gestures, dress, name,nationality, race, what the person says andhow he says it, what the person does andhow he does it, or some other physicalcharacteristics which is identified in themind of the observer with a certainpersonality type.
  5. 5. It is through the symbols of self that a person tries to reveal to others qualities which he want them to associate with him but which he does not or cannot reveal directly. Symbols of self includes:-1) Clothing2) Names & nicknames3) Speech4) Age5) Success6) Reputation
  6. 6. Personality tests
  7. 7. # Put the following things in your preference:Spoon, Pan, Cooker, Jug.# Put the following colors in your preference:Yellow, Red, Grey, Green.# Write the names of any three animals you like most and any 3 adjectives you think suits them most.
  8. 8.  Your description of SPOON implies your rigid personality. Your description of PAN implies your versatile personality. Your description of COOKER implies your deep rooted personality. Your description of JUG is explain your practical approach to wards your life
  9. 9. Yellow – Adjustable, satisfiedRed – Powerful, emotionalGreen – Tense but balanced Grey - Smart, clever.
  10. 10. 1st animal – How the people see you ?2nd animal – how you think people see you?3rd animal – How and what you actually are?
  11. 11. 1. 2. 3.4. 5. 6.7. 8. 9.
  12. 12. 1. INDEPENDENT UNCONVENTIONAL UNFETTERED You demand a free andindependent life for yourself. You have anartistic bend in your work. Your lifestyle ishighly individualistic.
  13. 13. 2. DYNAMIC ACTIVE EXTROVERTED You are quite willing to acceptcertain risks. Your initiative is highlypronounced. You make strong commitments.
  14. 14. 3. DOWN TO EARTH WELL BALANCED HARMONIOUS You value nature style. Youare perceived as warm and human. For you,clothing has to be practical and elegant. Yougive security and space to those you love.
  15. 15. 4. PROFESSIONAL PRAGMATIC SELF ASSURED You believe in your workrather than luck. You have realistic viewtowards life. You are never fully satisfieduntil you fulfill your goals. You are veryresponsible human
  16. 16. 5. PEACEFUL DISCREET NON-AGGRESSIVE You make friends effortlessly.You are easygoing yet discreet. You needspace but you are not loner. You are at peacewith yourself and the world, and you appreciatelife and what this world has to offer.
  17. 17. 6. CAREFREE PLAYFREE CHEERFUL You love a free andspontaneous life. Your motto is: "You onlylive once“. You are very curious and openabout everything new You experience yourenvironment as being versatile and alwaysgood for a surprise.
  18. 18. 7. ROMANTIC DREAMY EMOTIONAL You are a very sensitive person.In fact, you feel it is important to have dreamsin life, too. You refuse to let anything confinethe rich variety of your moods and emotions
  19. 19. 8. ANALITICAL TRUSTWORTHY SELF- ASSURED Your momentary sensitivity representsthat which is of high quality and durable.culture plays a special role in your life. Youhave found your own personal style, which iselegant and exclusive. Your ideal, upon whichyou base your life, is cultured pleasure.
  20. 20. 9. INTROSPECTIVE SENSITIVE REFLECTIVE Your relationships with yourfriends are highly intensive. However it is noproblem for you to be alone for extendedperiods of time, without becoming bored. Youcome to grips more frequently and thoroughlywith yourself and your environment than domost people.
  21. 21. Blending of factors… Most social scientists assume that personality and social behavior result from a blending of heredity and social environmental influences. They believe that environmental factors have the greatest influence. Heredity, birth order, parents, and cultural environment are among the principal factors that social scientists see influencing personality and behavior.
  22. 22. Heredity Everyone has certain characteristics that are present at birth. (body build, hair type, eye color, and skin) Heredity characteristics also include certain aptitudes. An aptitude is a capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire a particular body of knowledge. Example: a natural talent for music and art would be considered an aptitude. However, some aptitudes can be learned and developed because of environmental factors. Example: Parents encouragement Heredity provides you with certain biological needs, but culture determines how you meet those needs.
  23. 23. Parental Characteristics Parents influence their childrens‟ personalities. The age of the parent can be a bearing on the children‟s development. (EX. Younger vs. older) Other parental characteristics like level of education, religious orientation, economic status, occupation, and cultural heritage can and often do influence a child‟s personality and their social behavior.
  24. 24. Birth Order Our personalities are influenced by whether we have brothers, sisters, both, or neither. Children with siblings have a different view of the world than do children who have no siblings. The order in which we are born into our families also influences our personalities. People born first or last in a family have a different perspective than do people in the middle.
  25. 25. Cultural Environment Culture has a strong influence on personality development. The cultural environment determines the basic types of personalities that will be found in a society. Each culture gives rise to a series of personality traits – model personalities – that are typical of members of that society. EX. U.S. personalities are competitive, assertiveness and individualism. EX. The Indian Personalities used to be laid back, passive assertive and largely collectivist.
  26. 26. The Big Five Traits:Figure 11.1 I Low Extroversion High II Low Negative Affectivity High III Low Agreeableness High IV Low Conscientiousness High V Low Openness to Experience High
  27. 27. The Big FiveExtroversion: people are positive and feel good about themselves and the world. – Managers high on this trait are sociable, friendly.Negative Affectivity: people experience negative moods, are critical, and distressed. – Managers are often critical and feel angry with others and themselves.Agreeableness: people like to get along with others. – Managers are likable, and care about others.Conscientiousness: people tend to be careful, persevering.Openness to Experience: people are original, with broad interests.
  28. 28. 16 PF As a broad measure of normal personality, the 16PF Questionnaire is useful in a variety of settings to predict a wide range of life behaviors. Popular uses include selection, management development, outplacement, team building and development, career counseling, and research. 16 Primary Factors:
  29. 29. Reserved vs. OutgoingLess intelligent vs. More intelligentAffected by feelings vs. Emotionally stableSubmissive vs. DominantSerious vs. Happy-go-luckyExpedient vs. ConscientiousTimid vs. VenturesomeTough-minded vs. SensitiveTrusting vs. SuspiciousPractical vs. ImaginativeForthright vs. ShrewdSelf-assured vs. ApprehensiveConservative vs. ExperimentingGroup-dependent vs. Self-sufficientUncontrolled vs. ControlledRelaxed vs. Tense
  30. 30. Major personality attributes influencing OB
  31. 31. Locus of control Internals Externals
  32. 32. Machiavellianism High in mach is pragmatic maintains emotional distance and believes that ends can justify means.
  33. 33. Self esteem Individuals with high self esteem will take more risk in job selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs then people with low self esteem.
  34. 34. Self monitoring It refers to an individual‟s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors. Risk taking It helps to understand how a person will take his decisions
  35. 35. Personality disorders
  36. 36. There are basically 7 types of personalitydisorders.1) Borderline Personality Disorder2) Multiple Personality Disorder3) Avoidant Personality Disorder4) Narcissistic Personality Disorder5) Histornic personality disorder6) Antisocial personality disorder7) Dependent personality disorder
  38. 38.  It describes a prolonged disturbance of personality functions characterised by depth and variability of moods. It typically involves the unusual level of instability in mood. Attempted suicides and complete suicides are possible outcomes.
  39. 39. CAUSES Special causes are unknown people People under BPD are impulsive in areas that have potential of self harm-drugs, drinking etc.
  40. 40. RISK FACTORS Abandonment in childhood Sexual abuse Disrupted family life Poor communication with family*tends to occur mostly in women
  42. 42.  Also known as dissociative identity disorders that describes a condition in which a single person displays multiple distinct identities each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with environment.
  43. 43. SYMPTOMS Multiple mannerism Headaches Depression Depersonalisation Amnesia
  44. 44. CAUSES Linked with interactions of over wholeness Traumatic antecedents, Insufficient childhood nurturing.
  46. 46.  Characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy extreme sensitivity to (-)ve evaluations and avoidance of social interaction. It is first observed in early adulthood and is associated with perceived or actual rejection by parents.
  47. 47. SIGNS AND TEST Be easily hurt by criticism Show excessive restraint in intimate relationship Be shy in social situations Mistrust of others Highly self conscious Inferiority complex
  48. 48. CAUSES May be influenced by a combinations of social, genetic factors. It may be related to temperamental factors that are inherited.
  50. 50.  It is described as a condition characterised by an inflated sense of self importance and an extreme preoccupation with oneself. It is closely linked to self centeredness.
  51. 51. CAUSES Overvaluation by parents, severe emotional abuse in childhood, disregard and others feelings pursuit of primarily selfish goals.
  52. 52. SYMPTOMS Has feeling of self-importance Take advantage of others to achieve own goals Lack empathy Requires constant attention
  53. 53. TREATMENT Psychotherapy may help the affected person relate to others in a more +ve and compassionate manner.
  55. 55.  It is a condition in which a person acts very emotional and dramatic in order to get attention.
  56. 56. CAUSES Childhood events Genes may both be involved*occurs mostly in women than man
  57. 57. SYMPTOMS Act or look overly seductive blame failure on others Easily influenced by others Quickly change emotions have low tolerance for frustration
  59. 59.  It is a psychiatric condition by chronic behavior that manipulates, exploits, violates rights of others. This behavior is often criminal.
  60. 60. CAUSES Genetic factors Child abuse People with antisocial are at increased risk Fire setting and cruelty to animals during childhood are linked to development of ASPD.*Men are more affected by this disorder
  61. 61. SYMPTOMS Breaks the law repeatedly Lies, steals, fights Demonstrates lack of guilt Disregard the safety of self and others
  63. 63.  It is a chronic condition involving over reliance on others to meet emotional and physical needs.
  64. 64. CAUSES Usually begins in childhood equally divided in men and women.
  65. 65. SYMPTOMS Do not trust their own ability to make decisions. They may be devastated by separations. Even suffer from abasements, or embarrassments to stay in relations. Feel helpless when any close relationship ends.
  68. 68.  According to this theory, the personality is made up of three major systems: the id, the ego, and the superego. Although each of these provinces of the total personality has its own functions, properties, components, operating principles. They interact so closely with one another that it is difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle their effects and weighs their relative contribution to human behavior.
  69. 69.  The id is the original system of the personality. The id consists of everything psychological that is inherited and that is present at birth, including the instinct. It is the reservoir of psychic energy and furnishes all the powers of for the operation of the other two systems. It is in close touch with the bodily processes from which it derives its energy because it represents the inner world of subjective experience and has no knowledge of reality.
  70. 70.  The ego comes into existence because the needs of the organism require appropriate transactions with the objective world of reality. The hungry person has to seek, find, and eat food for the tension of hunger can be eliminated. This means that person has to learn to differentiate between a memory image of food and an actual perception of food as it exists in the outer world. The ego is said to be executive of the personality because it controls the get ways to action, selects the features of the env. to which it‟ll respond, and decides what instinct „ll be satisfied and in what manner
  71. 71.  The third and the last system of personality to be developed is the superego. It is the internal representative of the traditional values and ideals of society as interpreted to the child by its parents and enforced by means of a system of rewards and punishments imposed upon the child. Its main concern is to decide whether something is right or wrong so that it can act in accordance with the moral standards authorized by the agent of the society
  73. 73.  Some of Freud‟s associates had differences with him and propounded their own theories, ALFRED ADLER was the first one. For Adler, the main driving force for human beings is striving for superiority. According to Adler, everyone has a sense of inferiority. And through accomplishments people can overcome from inferiority.
  74. 74. Adler identified two parental styles that are likely to cause problems in adulthood:- Pampering neglect
  75. 75. Pampering Overprotecting a child, giving him too much attention and sheltering him from the negative realities of life will make him ill- equipped to deal with these realities, may cause him to doubt his own abilities or decision-making skills.
  76. 76. Neglect A neglected child is one who is not protected at all from the world and is forced to faced life‟s struggles alone. This child may grow up with fear to face the world, will have a strong sense of mistrust for others.
  77. 77. What affects the personality? According to Adler the order in which children are born also affects one‟s personality:- First born child Middle born child Youngest child
  79. 79. ACCORDING TO MURRAY THERE ARE MANY DEFINATIONS An individual‟s personality is an abstraction formulated by the theorists and not merely a description of the individual‟s behavior. Personality is located in brain: “NO BRAIN NO PERSONALITY” An individual‟s personality refers to a series of events that ideally span the person‟s lifetime. “the history of personality is the personality”
  80. 80. ESTABLISHMENT OF PERSONALITY Even if we accept personality is ever changing phenomenon, there are still certain stabilities that appear overtime. To understand these mental structures, he borrowed the same terms – ego, id and superego from psychoanalysis. Murray agreed with Frued in convincing of the id. It is the origin of energy, the source of all innate motives, the unseeing and unseeing and unsocialised self.
  81. 81.  The id includes impulses that are acceptable to the self and society. Not only does the id contain impulses toward both good and evil but the strength of these tendencies varies between individual. The function of the ego is not so much to suppress instinctual needs as to govern them by moderating their intensities and determining the modes and times of their fulfillment.
  82. 82. The ego consistent with psychoanalytic theory, is viewed as the centre organiser and integrator of behavior.The superego in Murrays theory, as in Freuds‟, is consider to be a cultural implant. It is an internal analyzed subsystem that acts within the individual to regulate behavior in much the same manner that agents outside the individual once acted.
  83. 83. Dynamics of personality Murray was certainly not the first person to place heavy emphasis upon the importance of motivational analyses. He made serious efforts to provide empirical definitions for his variables that, if imperfect , at least far exceed the operational effectiveness of most of the preceding schemes in the field of human motivation
  84. 84.  The result of these efforts is set of concepts that makes a bold attempt to bridge the gap between clinical description and demands of empirical research
  86. 86.  Jung broke away from Freud, and had some basic differences. Jung believed that there were fears, behaviors and thoughts that children and adults exhibit that are remarkably similar across time and culture. Jung described many archetypes in his writings – three of which have received a lot of attention and thoughts Animus/anima The shadow The self
  87. 87. Animus Animus is the masculine side of female and the anima is the feminine side of the male. We all have and unconscious opposite gender hidden within us and the role of this archetype is to guide us towards the perfect mate.
  88. 88. The shadow The shadow is basically the unconscious negative of dark side of our personality. According to Jung, the shadow archetype is called the devil.
  89. 89. The self finally the self archetype is the unifying part of all of us that finds balance in our lives. Working with ego (which is partly in our personal unconscious), it helps us manage the other archetypes and helps us feel complete.
  90. 90.  Carl Jung is most known for the theory behind the well known instrument MBTI. Based on his basic elements of human psyche, a mother-daughter team developed a 100-item instrument, popularly called MBTI( Myers - Briggs type indicator). MBTI is the most widely used instrument for personality analysis. Sixteen personality type are generated by the instruments
  91. 91. Extrovert vs introvertSensing vs intuitiveThinking vs FeelingJudging vs Perceiving
  92. 92. Combination of four Jungian aspects for 16 personality typesISTJ ESTJ INTJ ENTJISTP ESTP INTP ENTPISFJ ESFJ INFJ ENFJISFP ESFP INFP ENFP
  93. 93. THANK YOU!!!