Personality 1
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Personality 1

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Neha Rathi

Neha Rathi
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Personality 1 Personality 1 Document Transcript

  • Personality: Contents- Concept Definition Characterstics Determinants for Personality Personality Disorder Personality Theories Personality Test Owerview Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptability to, the intrapsychic, physical, and social environments. A first impression may be based on physical appearance, facial features or expression, gestures, dress, name, nationality, race, what the person says and how he says it, what the person does and how he does it, or some other physical characteristics which is identified in the mind of the observer with a certain personality type. Influenced by genetics (dispositions or temperament 40 – 60%) Influenced by environment (development in the context of family and culture) We often use vernacular terms to describe personality like intelligent, extroverted, conscientious, pleasant, moody, etc. Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. Different personality theorists present their own definitions of the word based on their theoretical positions. Personality consists of inner psychological characteristicis that determine the behaviour of a person. It is through the symbols of self that a person tries to reveal to others qualities which he want them to associate with him but which he does not or cannot reveal directly. Symbols of self includes:- 1) Clothing 2) Names & nicknames 3) SpeechPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 1
  • 4) Age 5) Success 6) Reputation Plato stated more than 2000 years ago: “No two persons are born exactly alike; but each differs from the other in natural endowments, one being suited for one Definition: • Personality can be defined as the unique pattern of relatively stable behaviours and mental processes that characterize an individual and how he or she interacts with their environment • An individual’s personality, then, is his unique pattern of traits.” J.P. Guilford • Personality refers to “factors” inside people that explain their behavior. Mackinnon • Are enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personalxt context.context context context context context context conte context DSM-IV-TR • The personality of an individual is that which enables us to predict what he will do in a given situation” ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; R.B. Cattell • The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Stephen P. Robbins • Personality as the dynamic organisation within the individual of those Psycho- Physical Systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. Gordon Allport THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONALITY- 1- Self-Consciousness - only humans and higher-ordered creatures possess this characteristic.Dogs, cats, and other lower ordered creatures have no self- consciousness or awareness of awareness – they do not actually know they exist. Considering your own awareness, you get the notion of yourself as an everlasting being, quite aside from your body. You never feel conscious of any sensation of having aged, even though you can see the evidence of the aging process. Feeling self-conscious imposes a kind of cosmic obligation to expand the quality and quantity of self of which one has awareness.Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 2
  • 2- Morality - Only a person can make moral decisions. Morality means deciding to do either what one considers right or what one considers wrong. Humans can make moral decision, but lower ordered creatures like dogs and insects cannot because to them anything they do seems right. A child first exercises moral will at about the age of 4 or 5. At that age he begins to realize some choices seem right (true, beautiful, good) and get approval from people, while other choices seem relatively wrong (less true, beautiful, or good) and result in disapproval from people. And at that point humans begin to evolve a system of ethics, the contemplation of optimum survival for ones self, family, group, all of humanity, all of life, the physical universe, and eventually the spiritual universe and God. The maturing process makes the human’s ethical awareness extend outward from the central self toward the First Source and Center of all reality. In the process, humans must ever more finely tune the morality and ethics of their decisions and actions, until the central and outer extremes meet and become unified – the human becomes like God. 3- Relationships - Only a person can knowingly communicate thoughts, ideas, and ideals with other persons. In the process of communicating in such a manner, human beings evolve relationships. All relationships on this world serve as training for more profound relationships we may have as we traverse the circles of eternity after the death of our human bodies. A person can eventuate no relationship more ultimate than the relationship with God. 4- Love - Love means the desire to do good to others. Only a person can truly love another. Animals may feel affection or loyalty, but they can never truly love. The maturing process makes a person crave loving relationships as the only valuable kind of relationship to have. The amount of love one exchanges with another determines the sense of value with which one regards their relationship. 5- Religion – Religion means devotion to supreme values. Lower-ordered creatures cannot consider or recognize values. In a persons quest for ever more valuable experiences, the person ends up in the presence of God. Why? Because that consists of sincerely pursuing true values involves loyalty to truth, beauty, and goodness, the highest values achievable by the human personality. You express the pursuit of those values through acts of love, mercy, and ministry. 6- Divinity – Divinity means godlike in quality. Only a person can crave to know God and become like him - to seek, find, know, and love God. Interestingly, a person becomes devoted to the quest precisely to the extent that person demonstrates the nature of God to others. One’s craving to become like God makes one seek to know what God desires for one to experience and accomplish in life. While God has a different destiny planned for each person, he has a common plan for all people – to develop a majestic and well-balancedPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 3
  • personality. People who pursue this purpose with courage and unbending intent eventually become like God. 7- Personality refers to both physical and psychological qualities of an individual. 8- It is unique in the sense that no two individuals are same in terms of their personality. 9- Personality is the manner of adjustment of individual to the organisation, environment and the group. 10- It is a qualitative aspect. Certain techniques exist to quantify it indirectly. 11- Personality is dynamic. It changes with the time and situation. 12- Personality is a system. It has input, processing and output mechanisms. 13- Personality influences goal achievement and performance of an individual. Determinants of Personality Personality is an intangible concept. It is complex as it is related to the cognitive and psychological process. It is believed that a man is born with certain physical and mental qualities but the environment in which he is brought up shapes his personality. A number of factors determine the personality of individual i.e., biological factors, family factors, environmental factors and situational factors. Let us learn them in detail. Biological Factors: Biological factors are related to human body. Three factors: heredity, brain and physical features are considered as relevant. They are explained below. i) Heredity: Heredity refers to those qualities transmitted by the parents to the next generation. These factors are determined at conception. Certain factors of personality inherited are: physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, colour of skin, hair and eye balls, temperament, muscle composition, sensitivity, skills and abilities, intelligence, energy level and biological rhythms.Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 4
  • ii) Brain: Brain is influenced by biological factors. Structure and composition of brain plays an important role in shaping personality. There are few empirical findings to state that the brain influences the personality. iii) Physical Features: The physical features and rate of maturation influence personality. The rate of maturity is related to the physical stature. It is believed that an individuals external appearance has a tremendous effect on personality. For instance height, colour, facial attraction, muscle strength influences ones self-concept. Family Factors: The family factors are also important in determining personality of an individual. Three major factors: viz., the socialisation process, identification process and birth order influence the personality. i) Socialisation Process: Socialisation is a process of acquiring wide range of behaviour by an infant from the enormously wide range of behavioural potentialities that are open to him at birth. Those behaviour patterns are customary and acceptable according to the standards of his family and social groups. Members of the family compel the infant to conform to certain acceptable behaviour. ii) Identification Process: Shaping of personality starts from the time the identification process commences. Identification Process occurs when a person tries to identify himself with some person whom he feels ideal in the family. Normally a child tries to behave as his father or mother. iii) Birth Order: Birth order is another significant variable influencing the personality of an individual. For instance first born are likely to be more dependent, more rational, ambitious, hardworking, cooperative, and more prone to guilt, anxiety and are less aggressive. Environmental Factors: Environmental factors are those, which exists in and around the individual. They are social and cultural factors. Culture determines human decision-making, attitudes, independence: dependence, soberness: aggression, competition co-operation and shyness. There are two vital aspects of culture. Firstly,Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 5
  • conformity by the individual and secondly, acceptance by the larger group. Culture establishes norms, values and attitudes, which are enforced by different social groups. Individuals are compelled to behave in conformity to the culture established by the society. Thus, culture and society exert greater influence in shaping the personality of an individual. Situational Factors: In recent years, the influence of situational factors on personality is increasingly recognised. Generally an individuals personality is stable and consistent, it changes in different situations. A study conducted by Milgram suggested that actions of an individual are determined by the situation. He states that situation exerts an important influence on the individual. It exercises constraints and may provide push to the individual. Thus it is clear from the above discussion that hosts of factors exert influence in shaping the personality of an individual. Therefore, one has to understand personality as a holistic system. Personality disorder Everyone has personality traits that characterise them. These are the usual ways that a person thinks and behaves, which make each of us unique. Personality traits become a personality disorder when the pattern of thinking and behaviour is extreme, inflexible and maladaptive. They may cause major disruption to a person’s life and are usually associated with significant distress to the self or others. Personality disorders begin in childhood and persist throughout adulthood. The prevalence of personality disorders is not firmly established and varies for the different disorders. Borderline personality disorder is experienced by about one in 100 people. While personality can be difficult to change, with early and appropriate treatment and support, people with personality disorders can live full and productive lives. There are three clusters of personality disorders: odd or eccentric disorders; dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders; and anxious or fearful disorders. Specific disorders are as follows- 1- Paranoid personality disorder is a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others, such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent.Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 6
  • 2- Schizoid personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings. 3- Schizotypal personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with reduced capacity for close relationships. It is also characterised by distortions of thinking and perception and eccentric behaviour. 4- Antisocial personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others. 5- Histrionic personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of excessive emotion and attention seeking. 6- Narcissistic personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or actual behaviour), need for admiration, and lack of empathy. 7- Avoidant personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. 8- Dependent personality disorder is a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of, which leads to submissive and clinging behaviour and fears of separation. 9- Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. 10- Borderline personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, moods, and control over impulses. Understanding borderline personality disorder is particularly important because it can be misdiagnosed as another mental illness, particularly a mood disorder. People with borderline personality disorder are likely to have: • Wide mood swings. • Inappropriate anger or difficulty controlling anger. • Chronic feelings of emptiness. • Recurrent suicidal behaviour, gestures or threats, or self-harming behaviour. • Impulsive and self-destructive behaviour. • A pattern of unstable relationships. • Persistent unstable self-image or sense of self. • Fear of abandonment. • Periods of paranoia and loss of contact with reality. Theories of personality – Psychoanalytic Theory- Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalytic theory. According to him human mind consists of three elements that are responsible for shaping the personality. They are preconscious, conscious and unconscious elements. The unconscious state of mind is influenced by hedonistic principle. Unconscious mental activity determines behaviour. Conscious element is guided by reasoned realityPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 7
  • principle. Freud developed a structure of human mind in order to explain personality. It consists of three elements known as : Id, Ego and Super ego. Consciousness is guided by principle of reasoned reality and unconsciousness is ruled by hedonistic principle of pleasure. According to this approach, personality determines the behavior. The personality systems of human mental activity are : The Id, The Ego, The Super Ego, and The Libido. They are described below: i) The Id: Id is the totality of instincts oriented towards increasing pleasure, avoiding pains and striving for immediate satisfaction of desires. The personality characteristics of an individual are built on the foundation of the Id. ii) The Ego: Ego is the executive part of the personality. It selects the features of the environment and stores them. It is rational and logical. It is the conscious mediator between realities of world and the id’s demands. iii) The Super Ego: Super ego is a moralistic segment of human personality consisting of noblest thoughts, ideals, feelings developed through absorption of cultural values and attitudes. iv) The Libido: It is a psychic energy. It makes any system to function. It is dynamic. Freud didnt exactly invent the idea of the conscious versus unconscious mind, but he certainly was responsible for making it popular. The conscious mind is what you are aware of at any particular moment, your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, feelings, what have you. Working closely with the conscious mind is what Freud called the preconscious, what we might today call "available memory:" anything that can easily be made conscious, the memories you are not at the moment thinking about but can readily bring to mind. Now no-one has a problem with these two layers of mind. But Freud suggested that these are the smallest parts! The largest part by far is the unconscious. It includes all the things that are not easily available to awareness, including many things that have their origins there, such as our drives or instincts, and things that are put there because we cant bear to look at them, such as the memories and emotions associated with trauma. According to Freud, the unconscious is the source of our motivations, whether they be simple desires for food or sex, neurotic compulsions, or the motives of an artist or scientist. And yet, we are often driven to deny or resist becoming conscious of these motives, and they are often available to us only in disguised form. We will come back to this.Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 8
  • The stages- Freud, the sex drive is the most important motivating force. In fact, Freud felt it was the primary motivating force not only for adults but for children and even infants. When he introduced his ideas about infantile sexuality to the Viennese public of his day, they were hardly prepared to talk about sexuality in adults, much less in infants! . Freud noted that, at different times in our lives, different parts of our skin give us greatest pleasure. Later theorists would call these areas erogenous zones. It appeared to Freud that the infant found its greatest pleasure in sucking, especially at the breast. In fact, babies have a penchant for bringing nearly everything in their environment into contact with their mouths. A bit later in life, the child focuses on the anal pleasures of holding it in and letting go. By three or four, the child may have discovered the pleasure of touching or rubbing against his or her genitalia. Only later, in our sexual maturity, do we find our greatest pleasure in sexual intercourse. In these observations, Freud had the makings of a psychosexual stage theory. The oral stage lasts from birth to about 18 months. The focus of pleasure is, of course, the mouth. Sucking and biting are favorite activities. The anal stage lasts from about 18 months to three or four years old. The focus of pleasure is the anus. Holding it in and letting it go are greatly enjoyed. The phallic stage lasts from three or four to five, six, or seven years old. The focus of pleasure is the genitalia. Masturbation is common. The latent stage lasts from five, six, or seven to puberty, that is, somewhere around 12 years old. During this stage, Freud believed that the sexual impulse was suppressed in the service of learning. I must note that, while most children seem to be fairly calm, sexually, during their grammar school years, perhaps up to a quarter ofPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 9
  • them are quite busy masturbating and playing "doctor." In Freuds repressive era, these children were, at least, quieter than their modern counterparts. The genital stage begins at puberty, and represents the resurgence of the sex drive in adolescence, and the more specific focusing of pleasure in sexual intercourse. Freud felt that masturbation, oral sex, homosexuality, and many other things we find acceptable in adulthood today, were immature. This is a true stage theory, meaning that Freudians believe that we all go through these stages, in this order, and pretty close to these ages. Erikson theory- Erikson is a Freudian ego-psychologist. This means that he accepts Freuds ideas as basically correct, including the more debatable ideas such as the Oedipal complex, and accepts as well the ideas about the ego that were added by other Freudian loyalists such as Heinz Hartmann and, of, course, Anna Freud. The epigenetic principle - He is most famous for his work in refining and expanding Freuds theory of stages. Development, he says, functions by the epigenetic principle. This principle says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages. Our progress through each stage is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stages. A little like the unfolding of a rose bud, each petal opens up at a certain time, in a certain order, which nature, through its genetics, has determined. If we interfere in the natural order of development by pulling a petal forward prematurely or out of order, we ruin the development of the entire flower. Psychosocial Significant Psychosocial Psychosocial Maladaptations Stage (age) crisis relations modalities virtues & malignancies sensory I (0-1) -- trust vs to get, to give mother hope, faith distortion -- infant mistrust in return withdrawal autonomy vs II (2-3) -- to hold on, to will, impulsivity -- shame and parents toddler let go determination compulsion doubt III (3-6) -- initiative vs to go after, to purpose, ruthlessness -- family preschooler guilt play courage inhibition IV (7-12 or so) to complete, to -- industry vs neighborhood narrow virtuosity make things competence school-age inferiority and school -- inertia together child V (12-18 or ego-identity vs peer groups, to be oneself, fidelity, loyalty fanaticism --Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 10
  • to share so)adolescence role-confusion role models repudiation oneself to lose and VI (the 20’s) -- intimacy vs partners, find oneself in promiscuity -- love young adult isolation friends a exclusivity another VII (late 20’s to generativity vs household, to make be, to overextension -- 50’s) -- middle care self-absorption workmates take care of rejectivity adult to be, through VIII (50’s and integrity vs mankind or having been, presumption -- beyond) -- old wisdom despair “my kind” to face not despair adult being Each stage involves certain developmental tasks that are psychosocial in nature. Although he follows Freudian tradition by calling them crises, they are more drawn out and less specific than that term implies. The child in grammar school, for example, has to learn to be industrious during that period of his or her life, and that industriousness is learned through the complex social interactions of school and family. The various tasks are referred to by two terms- The infants task, for example, is called "trust-mistrust." At first, it might seem obvious that the infant must learn trust and not mistrust. But Erikson made it clear that there it is a balance we must learn: Certainly, we need to learn mostly trust; but we also need to learn a little mistrust, so as not to grow up to become gullible fools! Each stage has a certain optimal time as well. It is no use trying to rush children into adulthood, as is so common among people who are obsessed with success. Neither is it possible to slow the pace or to try to protect our children from the demands of life. There is a time for each task. The first stage The first stage, infancy or the oral-sensory stage, is approximately the first year or year and a half of life. The task is to develop trust without completely eliminating the capacity for mistrust. If mom and dad can give the newborn a degree of familiarity, consistency, and continuity, then the child will develop the feeling that the world -- especially the social world -- is a safe place to be, that people are reliable and loving. Through the parents responses, the child also learns to trust his or her own body and the biological urges that go with it.Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 11
  • Stage two The second stage is the anal-muscular stage of early childhood, from about eighteen months to three or four years old. The task is to achieve a degree of autonomy while minimizing shame and doubt. If mom and dad (and the other care-takers that often come into the picture at this point) permit the child, now a toddler, to explore and manipulate his or her environment, the child will develop a sense of autonomy or independence. The parents should not discourage the child, but neither should they push. A balance is required. People often advise new parents to be "firm but tolerant" at this stage, and the advice is good. This way, the child will develop both self-control and self-esteem. Erikson calls impulsiveness, a sort of shameless willfulness that leads you, in later childhood and even adulthood, to jump into things without proper consideration of your abilities. Worse, of course, is too much shame and doubt, which leads to the malignancy Erikson calls compulsiveness. The compulsive person feels as if their entire being rides on everything they do, and so everything must be done perfectly. Stage three Stage three is the genital-locomotor stage or play age. From three or four to five or six, the task confronting every child is to learn initiative without too much guilt. Initiative means a positive response to the worlds challenges, taking on responsibilities, learning new skills, feeling purposeful. Parents can encourage initiative by encouraging children to try out their ideas. We should accept and encourage fantasy and curiosity and imagination. This is a time for play, not for formal education. The child is now capable, as never before, of imagining a future situation, one that isnt a reality right now. Initiative is the attempt to make that non-reality a reality. But if children can imagine the future, if they can plan, then they can be responsible as well, and guilty. If my two-year-old flushes my watch down the toilet, I can safely assume that there were no "evil intentions." Too much initiative and too little guilt means a maladaptive tendency Erikson calls ruthlessness. The ruthless person takes the initiative alright; Ruthlessness is bad for others, but actually relatively easy on the ruthless person. Harder on the person is the malignancy of too much guilt, which Erikson calls inhibition. The inhibited person will not try things because "nothing ventured, nothing lost" and, particularly, nothing to feel guilty about. On the sexual, Oedipal, side, the inhibited person may be impotent or frigid. Stage fourPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 12
  • Stage four is the latency stage, or the school-age child from about six to twelve. The task is to develop a capacity for industry while avoiding an excessive sense of inferiority. Children must "tame the imagination" and dedicate themselves to education and to learning the social skills their society requires of them. There is a much broader social sphere at work now: The parents and other family members are joined by teachers and peers and other members of he community at large. They all contribute: Parents must encourage, teachers must care, peers must accept. Children must learn that there is pleasure not only in conceiving a plan, but in carrying it out. They must learn the feeling of success, whether it is in school or on the playground, academic or social. Too much industry leads to the maladaptive tendency called narrow virtuosity. We see this in children who arent allowed to "be children," the ones that parents or teachers push into one area of competence, without allowing the development of broader interests. These are the kids without a life: child actors, child athletes, child musicians, child prodigies of all sorts. We all admire their industry, but if we look a little closer, its all that stands in the way of an empty life. Much more common is the malignancy called inertia. This includes all of us who suffer from the "inferiority complexes" Alfred Adler talked about. If at first you dont succeed, dont ever try again! Many of us didnt do well in mathematics, for example, so wed die before we took another math class. Others were humiliated instead in the gym class, so we never try out for a sport or play a game of raquetball. Others never developed social skills -- the most important skills of all -- and so we never go out in public. We become inert. A happier thing is to develop the right balance of industry and inferiority -- that is, mostly industry with just a touch of inferiority to keep us sensibly humble. Then we have the virtue called competency. Stage five Stage five is adolescence, beginning with puberty and ending around 18 or 20 years old. The task during adolescence is to achieve ego identity and avoid role confusion. It was adolescence that interested Erikson first and most, and the patterns he saw here were the bases for his thinking about all the other stages. Ego identity means knowing who you are and how you fit in to the rest of society. It requires that you take all youve learned about life and yourself and mold it into a unified self-image, one that your community finds meaningful. Further, society should provide clear rites of passage, certain accomplishments and rituals that help to distinguish the adult from the child. In primitive and traditional societies, an adolescent boy may be asked to leave the village for a period of time to live on his own, hunt some symbolic animal, or seek an inspirational vision. Boys andPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 13
  • girls may be required to go through certain tests of endurance, symbolic ceremonies, or educational events. One of Eriksons suggestions for adolescence in our society is the psychosocial moratorium. He suggests you take a little "time out There is such a thing as too much "ego identity," where a person is so involved in a particular role in a particular society or subculture that there is no room left for tolerance. Erikson calls this maladaptive tendency fanaticism. A fanatic believes that his way is the only way. Adolescents are, of course, known for their idealism, and for their tendency to see things in black-and-white. The lack of identity is perhaps more difficult still, and Erikson refers to the malignant tendency here as repudiation. They repudiate their membership in the world of adults and, even more, they repudiate their need for an identity. If you successfully negotiate this stage, you will have the virtue Erikson called fidelity. Fidelity means loyalty, the ability to live by societies standards despite their imperfections and incompleteness and inconsistencies. Stage six If you have made it this far, you are in the stage of young adulthood, which lasts from about 18 to about 30. The ages in the adult stages are much fuzzier than in the childhood stages, and people may differ dramatically. The task is to achieve some degree of intimacy, as opposed to remaining in isolation. Intimacy is the ability to be close to others, as a lover, a friend, and as a participant in society. Because you have a clear sense of who you are, you no longer need to fear "losing" yourself, as many adolescents do. The "fear of commitment" some people seem to exhibit is an example of immaturity in this stage. This fear isnt always so obvious Erikson calls the maladaptive form promiscuity, refering particularly to the tendency to become intimate too freely, too easily, and without any depth to your intimacy. This can be true of your relationships with friends and neighbors and your whole community as well as with lovers. The malignancy he calls exclusion, which refers to the tendency to isolate oneself from love, friendship, and community, and to develop a certain hatefulness in compensation for ones loneliness. If you successfully negotiate this stage, you will instead carry with you for the rest of your life the virtue or psychosocial strength Erikson calls love. Love, in the context of his theory, means being able to put aside differences and antagonisms through "mutuality of devotion." Stage sevenPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 14
  • The seventh stage is that of middle adulthood. It is hard to pin a time to it, but it would include the period during which we are actively involved in raising children. For most people in our society, this would put it somewhere between the middle twenties and the late fifties. The task here is to cultivate the proper balance of generativity and stagnation. Generativity is an extension of love into the future. It is a concern for the next generation and all future generations. As such, it is considerably less "selfish" than the intimacy of the previous stage: Intimacy, the love between lovers or friends, is a love between equals, and it is necessarily reciprocal. Oh, of course we love each other unselfishly, but the reality is such that, if the love is not returned, we dont consider it a true love. With generativity, that implicit expectation of reciprocity isnt there, at least not as strongly. Few parents expect a "return on their investment" from their children; If they do, we dont think of them as very good parents! Stagnation, on the other hand, is self-absorption, caring for no-one. The stagnant person ceases to be a productive member of society. It is perhaps hard to imagine that we should have any "stagnation" in our lives, but the maladaptive tendency Erikson calls overextension illustrates the problem: More obvious, of course, is the malignant tendency of rejectivity. Too little generativity and too much stagnation and you are no longer participating in or contributing to society. And much of what we call "the meaning of life" is a matter of how we participate and what we contribute. This is the stage of the "midlife crisis." Sometimes men and women take a look at their lives and ask that big, bad question "what am I doing all this for?" Notice the question carefully: But if you are successful at this stage, you will have a capacity for caring that will serve you through the rest of your life. Stage eight This last stage, referred to delicately as late adulthood or maturity, or less delicately as old age, begins sometime around retirement, after the kids have gone, say somewhere around 60. Some older folks will protest and say it only starts when you feel old and so on, but thats an effect of our youth-worshipping culture, which has even old people avoiding any acknowledgement of age. In Eriksons theory, reaching this stage is a good thing, and not reaching it suggests that earlier problems retarded your development! The task is to develop ego integrity with a minimal amount of despair. This stage, especially from the perspective of youth, seems like the most difficult of all Ego integrity means coming to terms with your life, and thereby coming to terms with the end of life. If you are able to look back and accept the course of events, the choices made, your life as you lived it, as being necessary, then you neednt fear death. Although most of you are not at this point in life, perhaps you can still sympathize by considering your life up to now. Weve all made mistakes, some of themPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 15
  • pretty nasty ones; Yet, if you hadnt made these mistakes, you wouldnt be who you are. If you had been very fortunate, or if you had played it safe and made very few mistakes, your life would not have been as rich as is. The maladaptive tendency in stage eight is called presumption. This is what happens when a person "presumes" ego integrity without actually facing the difficulties of old age. The malignant tendency is called disdain, by which Erikson means a contempt of life, ones own or anyones. Someone who approaches death without fear has the strength Erikson calls wisdom. He calls it a gift to children, because "healthy children will not fear life if their elders have integrity enough not to fear death." Jung Theories Jungs theory divides the psyche into three parts. The first is the ego,which Jung identifies with the conscious mind. Closely related is the personal unconscious, which includes anything which is not presently conscious, but can be. The personal unconscious is like most peoples understanding of the unconscious in that it includes both memories that are easily brought to mind and those that have been suppressed for some reason. But it does not include the instincts that Freud would have it include. But then Jung adds the part of the psyche that makes his theory stand out from all others: the collective unconscious. You could call it your "psychic inheritance." It is the reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge we are all born with. And yet we can never be directly conscious of it. It influences all of our experiences and behaviors, most especially the emotional ones, but we only know about it indirectly, by looking at those influences. There are some experiences that show the effects of the collective unconscious more clearly than others: The experiences of love at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that youve been here before), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths, could all be understood as the sudden conjunction of our outer reality and the inner reality of the collective unconscious. Grander examples are the creative experiences shared by artists and musicians all over the world and in all times, or the spiritual experiences of mystics of all religions, or the parallels in dreams, fantasies, mythologies, fairy tales, and literature. A nice example that has been greatly discussed recently is the near-death experience. It seems that many people, of many different cultural backgrounds, find that they have very similar recollections when they are brought back from a close encounter with death. They speak of leaving their bodies, seeing their bodies and the events surrounding them clearly, of being pulled through a long tunnel towards a bright light, of seeing deceased relatives or religious figures waiting for them, and of their disappointment at having to leave this happy scene to return to their bodies. Perhaps we are all "built" to experience death in this fashion. ArchetypesPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 16
  • The contents of the collective unconscious are called archetypes. Jung also called them dominants, imagos, mythological or primordial images, and a few other names, but archetypes seems to have won out over these. An archetype is an unlearned tendency to experience things in a certain way. The archetype has no form of its own, but it acts as an "organizing principle" on the things we see or do. It works the way that instincts work in Freuds theory: At first, the baby just wants something to eat, without knowing what it wants. It has a rather indefinite yearning which, nevertheless, can be satisfied by some things and not by others. Later, with experience, the child begins to yearn for something more specific when it is hungry -- a bottle, a cookie, a broiled lobster, a slice of New York style pizza. The archetype is like a black hole in space: You only know its there by how it draws matter and light to itself. The shadow Sex and the life instincts in general are, of course, represented somewhere in Jungs system. They are a part of an archetype called the shadow. It derives from our prehuman, animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we werent self-conscious. It is the "dark side" of the ego, and the evil that we are capable of is often stored there. Actually, the shadow is amoral -- neither good nor bad, just like animals. An animal is capable of tender care for its young and vicious killing for food, but it doesnt choose to do either. It just does what it does. It is "innocent." But from our human perspective, the animal world looks rather brutal, inhuman, so the shadow becomes something of a garbage can for the parts of ourselves that we cant quite admit to. Symbols of the shadow include the snake (as in the garden of Eden), the dragon, monsters, and demons. It often guards the entrance to a cave or a pool of water, which is the collective unconscious. Next time you dream about wrestling with the devil, it may only be yourself you are wrestling with! The persona The persona represents your public image. The word is, obviously, related to the word person and personality, and comes from a Latin word for mask. So the persona is the mask you put on before you show yourself to the outside world. Although it begins as an archetype, by the time we are finished realizing it, it is the part of us most distant from the collective unconscious. At its best, it is just the "good impression" we all wish to present as we fill the roles society requires of us. But, of course, it can also be the "false impression" we use to manipulate peoples opinions and behaviors. And, at its worst, it can be mistaken, even by ourselves, for our true nature: Sometimes we believe we really are what we pretend to be!Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 17
  • Anima and animus A part of our persona is the role of male or female we must play. For most people that role is determined by their physical gender. But Jung, like Freud and Adler and others, felt that we are all really bisexual in nature. When we begin our lives as fetuses, we have undifferentiated sex organs that only gradually, under the influence of hormones, become male or female. Likewise, when we begin our social lives as infants, we are neither male nor female in the social sense. Almost immediately -- as soon as those pink or blue booties go on -- we come under the influence of society, which gradually molds us into men and women. In all societies, the expectations placed on men and women differ, usually based on our different roles in reproduction, but often involving many details that are purely traditional. In our society today, we still have many remnants of these traditional expectations. Women are still expected to be more nurturant and less aggressive; men are still expected to be strong and to ignore the emotional side of life. But Jung felt these expectations meant that we had developed only half of our potential. The anima is the female aspect present in the collective unconscious of men, and the animus is the male aspect present in the collective unconscious of women. Together, they are refered to as syzygy. The anima may be personified as a young girl, very spontaneous and intuitive, or as a witch, or as the earth mother. It is likely to be associated with deep emotionality and the force of life itself. The animus may be personified as a wise old man, a sorcerer, or often a number of males, and tends to be logical, often rationalistic, even argumentative. The self The goal of life is to realize the self. The self is an archetype that represents the transcendence of all opposites, so that every aspect of your personality is expressed equally. You are then neither and both male and female, neither and both ego and shadow, neither and both good and bad, neither and both conscious and unconscious, neither and both an individual and the whole of creation. And yet, with no oppositions, there is no energy, and you cease to act. Of course, you no longer need to act. To keep it from getting too mystical, think of it as a new center, a more balanced position, for your psyche. When you are young, you focus on the ego and worry about the trivialities of the persona. When you are older (assuming you have been developing as you should), you focus a little deeper, on the self, and become closer to all people, all life, even the universe itself. The self-realized person is actually less selfish. The anima or animus is the archetype through which you communicate with the collective unconscious generally, and it is important to get into touch with it. It is also the archetype that is responsible for much of our love life: We are, as an ancient Greek myth suggests, always looking for our other half, the half that the Gods tookPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 18
  • from us, in members of the opposite sex. When we fall in love at first sight, then we have found someone that "fills" our anima or animus archetype particularly well. MBIT (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) introversion and extroversion Jung developed a personality typology that has become so popular that some people dont realize he did anything else! It begins with the distinction between introversion and extroversion. Introverts are people who prefer their internal world of thoughts, feelings, fantasies, dreams, and so on, while extroverts prefer the external world of things and people and activities. The words have become confused with ideas like shyness and sociability, partially because introverts tend to be shy and extroverts tend to be sociable. But Jung intended for them to refer more to whether you ("ego") more often faced toward the persona and outer reality, or toward the collective unconscious and its archetypes. In that sense, the introvert is somewhat more mature than the extrovert. Our culture, of course, values the extrovert much more. And Jung warned that we all tend to value our own type most! We now find the introvert-extravert dimension in several theories, notably Hans Eysencks, although often hidden under alternative names such as "sociability" and "surgency." The functions Whether we are introverts or extroverts, we need to deal with the world, inner and outer. And each of us has our preferred ways of dealing with it, ways we are comfortable with and good at. Jung suggests there are four basic ways, or functions: The first is sensing. Sensing means what it says: getting information by means of the senses. A sensing person is good at looking and listening and generally getting to know the world. Jung called this one of the irrational functions, meaning that it involved perception rather than judging of information. The second is thinking. Thinking means evaluating information or ideas rationally, logically. Jung called this a rational function, meaning that it involves decision making or judging, rather than simple intake of information. The third is intuiting. Intuiting is a kind of perception that works outside of the usual conscious processes. It is irrational or perceptual, like sensing, but comes from the complex integration of large amounts of information, rather than simple seeing or hearing. Jung said it was like seeing around corners. The fourth is feeling. Feeling, like thinking, is a matter of evaluating information, this time by weighing ones overall, emotional response. Jung calls it rational, obviously not in the usual sense of the word.Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 19
  • We all have these functions. We just have them in different proportions, you might say. Each of us has a superior function, which we prefer and which is best developed in us, a secondary function, which we are aware of and use in support of our superior function, a tertiary function, which is only slightly less developed but not terribly conscious, and an inferior function, which is poorly developed and so unconscious that we might deny its existence in ourselves. Most of us develop only one or two of the functions, but our goal should be to develop all four. Once again, Jung sees the transcendence of opposites as the ideal. Katharine Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers found Jungs types and functions so revealing of peoples personalities that they decided to develop a paper- and-pencil test. It came to be called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and is one of the most popular, and most studied, tests around. On the basis of your answers on about 125 questions, you are placed in one of sixteen types, with the understanding that some people might find themselves somewhere between two or three types. What type you are says quite a bit about you -- your likes and dislikes, your likely career choices, your compatibility with others, and so on. People tend to like it quite a bit. It has the unusual quality among personality tests of not being too judgmental: None of the types is terribly negative, nor are any overly positive. Rather than assessing how "crazy" you are, the "Myers-Briggs" simply opens up your personality for exploration. The test has four scales. Extroversion - Introversion (E-I) is the most important. Test researchers have found that about 75 % of the population is extroverted. The next one is Sensing - Intuiting (S-N), with about 75 % of the population sensing. The next is Thinking - Feeling (T-F). Although these are distributed evenly through the population, researchers have found that two-thirds of men are thinkers, while two- thirds of women are feelers. This might seem like stereotyping, but keep in mind that feeling and thinking are both valued equally by Jungians, and that one-third of men are feelers and one-third of women are thinkers. Note, though, that society does valuePrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 20
  • thinking and feeling differently, and that feeling men and thinking women often have difficulties dealing with peoples stereotyped expectations. The last is Judging - Perceiving (J-P), not one of Jungs original dimensions. Myers and Briggs included this one in order to help determine which of a persons functions is superior. Generally, judging people are more careful, perhaps inhibited, in their lives. Perceiving people tend to be more spontaneous, sometimes careless. If you are an extrovert and a "J," you are a thinker or feeler, whichever is stronger. Extroverted and "P" means you are a senser or intuiter. On the other hand, an introvert with a high "J" score will be a senser or intuiter, while an introvert with a high "P" score will be a thinker or feeler. J and P are equally distributed in the population. Combination of four Jungian aspects for 16 personality types ISTJ ESTJ INTJ ENTJ ISTP ESTP INTP ENTP ISFJ ESFJ INFJ ENFJ ISFP ESFP INFP ENFP Personality test – Big Five Personality Test- In psychology, the "Big Five" factors of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. The theory based on the Big Five factors is called the Five Factor Model (FFM). The Big Five framework of personality traits from Costa & McCrae, 1992 emerged as a robust model for understanding the relationship between personality and various academic behaviors.[1] The Big Five factors are: • Openness to experience – (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience. Openness reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety. Some disagreement remains about how toPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 21
  • interpret the openness factor, which is sometimes called "intellect" rather than openness to experience. • Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless). A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior; organized, and dependable. • Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). Energy, positive emotions, surgency, assertiveness, sociability and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, and talkativeness. • Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind). A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. • Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident). The tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability. Neuroticism also refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control, and is sometimes referred by its low pole – "emotional stability". The Big Five model is a comprehensive, empirical, data-driven research finding.[4] Identifying the traits and structure of human personality has been one of the most fundamental goals in all of psychology. The five broad factors were discovered and defined by several independent sets of researchers.[4] These researchers began by studying known personality traits and then factor-analyzing hundreds of measures of these traits (in self-report and questionnaire data, peer ratings, and objective measures from experimental settings) in order to find the underlying factors of personality. 16 PF personality Test – The 16 Personality Factors, measured by the 16PF Questionnaire, were derived using factor-analysis by psychologist Raymond Cattell. This article summarizes the analysis that resulted in the 16 factors and allowed the development of the questionnaire, as well as the relation between the 16 factor theory and the popular five-factor personality theory. Below is a table outlining this model. The factors are ordered based on how much variance they account for. Raymond Cattells 16 Personality Factors Primary Descriptors of Low Range Descriptors of High Range Factor Impersonal, distant, cool, reserved, Warmth Warm, outgoing, attentive toPrepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 22
  • others, kindly, easy-going, detached, formal, aloof (A) participating, likes people Concrete thinking, lower general Abstract-thinking, more intelligent, Reasoning mental capacity, less intelligent, bright, higher general mental (B) unable to handle abstract problems capacity, fast learner Reactive emotionally, changeable, Emotional Emotionally stable, adaptive, affected by feelings, emotionally Stability mature, faces reality calmly less stable, easily upset (C) Deferential, cooperative, avoids Dominant, forceful, assertive, conflict, submissive, humble, Dominance aggressive, competitive, stubborn, obedient, easily led, docile, (E) bossy accommodating Lively, animated, spontaneous, Serious, restrained, prudent, Liveliness enthusiastic, happy-go-lucky, taciturn, introspective, silent (F) cheerful, expressive, impulsive Rule- Rule-conscious, dutiful, Expedient, nonconforming, Consciousness conscientious, conforming, disregards rules, self indulgent (G) moralistic, staid, rule bound Social Shy, threat-sensitive, timid, Socially bold, venturesome, thick- Boldness hesitant, intimidated skinned, uninhibited (H) Utilitarian, objective, unsentimental, Sensitivity Sensitive, aesthetic, sentimental, tough minded, self-reliant, no- (I) tender-minded, intuitive, refined nonsense, rough Trusting, unsuspecting, accepting, Vigilance Vigilant, suspicious, skeptical, unconditional, easy (L) distrustful, oppositional Grounded, practical, prosaic, Abstract, imaginative, absent Abstractedness solution oriented, steady, minded, impractical, absorbed in (M) conventional ideas Forthright, genuine, artless, open, Private, discreet, nondisclosing, Privateness guileless, naive, unpretentious, shrewd, polished, worldly, astute, (N) involved diplomatic Self-assured, unworried, Apprehension Apprehensive, self-doubting, complacent, secure, free of guilt, (O) worried, guilt prone, insecure,Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 23
  • confident, self satisfied worrying, self blaming Traditional, attached to familiar, Openness to Open to change, experimental, conservative, respecting traditional Change liberal, analytical, critical, free- ideas (Q1) thinking, flexibility Group-oriented, affiliative, a joiner Self-Reliance Self-reliant, solitary, resourceful, and follower dependent (Q2) individualistic, self-sufficient Tolerates disorder, unexacting, Perfectionistic, organized, flexible, undisciplined, lax, self- Perfectionism compulsive, self-disciplined, conflict, impulsive, careless of (Q3) socially precise, exacting will social rules, uncontrolled power, control, self-sentimental Tense, high energy, impatient, Relaxed, placid, tranquil, torpid, Tension driven, frustrated, over wrought, patient, composed low drive (Q4) time driven. Primary Factors and Descriptors in Cattells 16 Personality Factor Model (Adapted From Conn & Rieke, 1994). Questions- 1- What is Personality? Elobrate the personality disorder? 2- Define the personality? Explain the characterstics of personality? What are the factors that determinate the personality? 3- Enumerate the concept of personality ? wxplain the theory of personality? 4- Explain the personality disorder and personality test?Prepaired By Mrs Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 24