Content What is motivation What are motives characteristics of motivation Theories of motivation
MOTIVATION IS THAT PROCESS THROUGHWHICH THE LATENT CAPABILITY OF ALL THEPEOPLE WORKING AT EVERY LEVEL OF THEORGANISATION CAN BE UTILISED FOR THESUCCESSFUL ATTAINMENT OF OBJECTIVE Performance =Motivation*ability
Characteristics of Motivation 1. Unending process 2. A psychological concept 3. Whole individual is motivated 4. Motivation can be Positive and negative 5. Motivation may be Financial and non – financial 6. Extrinsic and intrinsic
7- MOTIVATION IS AN INTERNAL FEELING8- IT IS A CONTINOUS PROCESS9- IT IS AN IMPORTANT FUNCTION OFMANAGEMENT10- IT STIMULATES PEOPLE TO DO WORK11- EACH PERSON HAS DIFFERENTMOTIVATIONAL FACTORS
Process of Motivation Goal directed Need ( felt deprivation) behavior Drive
Motive - A motive is an inner state that energizes,activates, or moves & directs, channels behavior towardsgoals. Motive Primary Secondary General Controlled by Homeostatic Mechanisms Biological mechanisms that detect imbalances in essential internal elements. Stimulate us to restore the critical balance
Secondary motivesThey are most important in the organizational context.These are motives which are learned over time.Power, achievement and affiliation are importantsecondary motives.Power Motive: Desire to influence, coach, teach, orencourage others to achieve.Alfred Adler proposed the concepts of inferioritycomplex and competition to explain the power motive.Human behavior is governed by the feeling ofinferiority coupled with an inherent need forsuperiority.Feeling of inferiority is being compensated bymanifesting power motive.
General Motives General motives are neither purely primary nor purely secondary, but rather in between. It is not purely learned and also not has physiological basis. While primary motives induce an individual to reduce the tension within him/her, general motive stimulate tension within an individual. Also called stimulus motive. For ex. Curiosity, , manipulation, motive to remain active and to display affection.
ADVANTAGES OF MOTIVATION • HIGH LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE • LOW EMPLOYEES TURNOVER AND ABSENTEESM • EASY ACCEPTANCE OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE • SWEET RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OWNER AND EMPLOYEES • GOOD IMAGE OF THE ORGANISATION
Motivational techniquesLeads them Real examples are quicker than advice Way to influencing peopleAppeal to benefits Can motivate Mutual benefits to both of youAppeal to emotions People act quickly to emotions Positive manner Sustained by repeated inputsAppeal to needs & wants basic needs satisfaction Creative expression, recognition & challenges & loveAppeal to expertise Abilities enhance his self-worth Put best effort to seek approval
Challenges of motivation Changing workforce Motivation only inferred Dynamic nature of needs Management 8/e - Chapter 14 12
Theories of Motivation Content Theories Process
Content Theories Herzberg’s Maslow’s two-factor hierarchy theory of of needs motivation. McClelland’s Theory of Theory X achievement, and Y power, and affiliation needs Alderfer’s ERG Model
Needs Hierarchy Theory
Two-Factor Theory Motivational Achievement Factors Advancement Work itself Responsibility Interpersonal relations Recognition Working conditions Money Hygiene Factors Job Status security
Theory of Needs
ERG ModelAlderfer classifies needs into three categories, alsoordered hierarchically:Growth needs (development of competence andrealization of potential)Relatedness needs (satisfactory relations with others)Existence needs (physical well-being)
Theory X and Y Theory X Theory Y1. Workers dislike to work by 1. Workers feel that work is as naturalthemselves. as play.2. Workers are not ready to accept 2. Workers are ready to acceptresponsibility. responsibility if proper motivation is available to them.3. Workers prefer to be directed by 3. Workers are directed by themselves.others.4. Workers are unambitious. 4. Workers are ambitious.5. Workers by nature resist change & 5. Workers are ready to cope up withwant security. changes.
Process Theories Vroom Adams Expectancy Equity Theory Theory
Expectancy Theory (VIE Model) (VROOM) Individual Individual Organizational Effort Performance Perfirmance Expectancy Second Level Instrumentality Instrumentality Personal If impt personal goals are Goals fulfilled.1. Effort-Performance relationship = Expectancy2. Performance-Rewards relationship = Instrumentality3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship = Second level instrumentality4. Valence= the perceived value of the rewards to the reciepient
Adams Equity TheoryInequity occurs when an employee perceives his/her outcomes to inputs and the ratio of a coworkers outcomes to inputs to be unequal. persons outcomes = other outcomes = equity persons inputs others inputs