“Never doubt that a small group ofthoughtful citizens can change the world.” Margaret Mead
What is a Group?1.A collection of individuals who are interacting withone another2.A social unit consisting of two or more personswho perceive themselves as belonging to a group3.A collection of individuals who are interdependent4.A collection of individuals who join together toachieve a goal
Cond.5.A collection of individuals who are trying to satisfy some needs through their joint association6.A collection of individuals whose interactions are structured by a set of roles or norms7.A collection of individuals who influence each other
A group may be defined as a collection ofpeople who have a common purpose orobjective, interact with each other toaccomplish the group objectives, areaware of one another and perceivethemselves to be part of group.
Mere collection of people cannot constitute a groupeg:-a crowd in front of a shop in the market watching India vs Pakistan one day cricket match on T.V. will not be called as Group. Because people do not interact with one another, do not know one another, and also do not share a common purpose.
What Does It Take To Make A Group? GROUPTwo or Free interaction Collective Commonmore Among Identity Purposepeople Members
Why do people form and Join Groups? Safety and security needsGroup leads to formation of new ideas Power Identity
Formal group - structured to perform specifictasks or the groups established by the organisationto achieve organizational goals are called formalgroups. These groups are further divided into thefollowing ones:-1.Command Groups:-A command group iscomposed of a supervisor (manager) and thesubordinates who report directly to thatsupervisor.2.Task group:-a task group comprises of personsworking together to complete a common task.
4.Committees:-committees are usually4. created outside the usual command group structure to solve recurring problems. The life of a committee may be relatively short or long
Informal groups :- Emerge naturally in response to organizational or member interests. These are groups that are neither formally created nor controlled by the organization. The various kinds of informal groups are:-1.Friendship Groups: Friendship groups are associations of people who like each other and who like to be together.2.Interest Groups: These groups are composed of individuals who may not be members of the same organization, but they are united by their interest in a common issue.
The Group Development Process Bruce W. Tuckman•FORMING•STORMING•NORMING•PERFORMING•ADJOURNING
FORMINGThere is confusion about �What to do �How to interact (members get to know each other and seek to establish ground rules)
STORMING 1. Counter-Dependent 2. Confrontation 3. Criticism 4. Conflict(members come to resist control by group leaders )
NORMING•develop social agreements• cohesion• establish group norms (interdependence)(members work together, developing closerelationships and evinces cohesiveness.)
PERFORMINGThey work toward getting their jobs done
Either after meeting their goals or because membersleave
THEORIES OF GROUP FORMATIONHoman’s Exchange Balance Theory Theory Theory of RewardActivities and Balance between Cost outcome IndividualsInteraction Attitudes ValuesSentiments Related to Reward
Group NormsGroup Norm is standard of behaviour. In other words Group Norms is a rule that tells the individual how to behave in a particular group. Thus , the group norms have following characteristics :-1). Norms are applied to all members of the group, though not uniformly2). They predict and control the behaviour of group members .
Group CohesivenessGroup cohesiveness means the degree to which the group members are attached to each other and remain with in the groupFactors increasing group cohesion:-1. Increasing interaction among group members.2. Down-sizing of the group.3. Allocating rewards to the group not to the member4. Encouraging Competition with other rival group
Relationship between Group Cohesiveness and Productivity High Moderate High Productivity ProductivityPerformanceNorms Low Moderate to Productivity Low Productivity Low Model Group Cohesiveness and Productivity
Group DynamicsThe social process by which people interactface-to-face in a group environment is calledGroup Dynamics.The word ”Dynamics” comes from the Greekword meaning ”force” ;hence group dynamicsrefers to the study of forces operating within agroup
Suppose we say “one plus one equals eleven.” In the world of Mathematics that is a logical error, but in the world of Group Dynamics it is entirely rational to say “one plus one equals eleven” 1+1=11
Group Decision-Making ProcessDiagnose Evaluating Implementation Developing And The The Alternatives Monitoringproblem Alternatives The Decision
Techniques to improve Group decision making Brainstorming; Nominal Group; Delphi.
BrainstormingThis technique was originally adopted by Alex Osborn. According to him brainstorming means using the brain to storm the problem. For this a group of 10-15 persons is constituted. The participants should be connected with the problem directly or closely. It is based on the following basic guidelines:-1. Generate as many as ideas as possible.2. Be creative and imaginative.
The Process in Brainstorming1. The problem on which decision is required is given to the group2. Each member is asked to give ideas through which problem can be solved. This session is meant to be free, frank and relaxed one to generate maximum number of ideas irrespective of qualities.3. The members are expected to put their ideas for problem solution without taking into consideration any limitations-financial, legal, organizational (as these limitations stop them to free flow of ideas
The success of brainstorming depends on each member’s capacity and willingness to listen to others’ thoughts, to use these thoughts as a stimulus to spark new ideas of their own and then feel free to express them. All ideas are encouraged without criticism and evaluation.
Nominal Group TechniqueThe members of the group have interaction prior to making a decision. The NGT follows the following process:1. Members are brought together and presented a problem.2. Each member develops solution or ideas independently and writes them on cards.3. Each member presents his/her ideas to the group.4. When the presentation of ideas by each member is over, brief time is allotted to clarifications of ideas or solutions.5. Group members individually rank their preferences for the best alternatives.6. Based on above, the group decision is announced.
Delphi TechniqueIn this technique members are scattered over large distances and do not have face to face interaction for decision making. This technique has the following process:-Firstly a small group of members designs a questionnare which is administered in a larger group. The results so obtained are then tabulated and used in developing a revised questionnare. The questionnare is then completed by the larger group. The results of the first round are fed back to the respondent group to use these in their subsequent responses. The process is repeated several times until the response is reached.