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Group dynamics Group dynamics Document Transcript

  • GROUP DYNAMICS“Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful citizens can change the world.”Margaret MeadA group is constantly developing and changing when Interaction takes place. A group is - connections linking the individual members - two or more individuals.We define "group" as more than two employees who have an ongoing relationship inwhich they interact and influence one mothers behaviour and performance. Thebehaviour of individuals in groups is something more than the sum total of each actingin his or her own way. In other words, when individuals are in groups, they act differentlythan they do when they are alone.A group refers to the association of two or more persons interacting among themselvesfor the achievement of common goal.Jennifer and Gareth have defined a group as set of two or more people who interactwith each other to achieve certain goals or to meet certain needs.A group may be defined as a collection of people who have a common purpose orobjective, interact with each other to accomplish the group objectives, are aware of oneanother and perceive themselves to be part of group.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 1
  • A group can be identified by:1. Studying the perception group and cognition of each of the group members todetermine as to which other individuals exist for each of the members psychologically.2. Analysis of the group itself and the itself and the behavior of each of its members toascertain as to whether or not a particular individuals fits in a member.Here group interaction and common goal are very important elements of group. Theinteraction reflects regular discussions and communication which may influence thebehaviour of the group members. Moreover, the group members agree to achieve somecommon goal which is termed as group goal. The group goal binds the memberstogether for making effort in the direction of realisation of the goal.Given the important role that groups play in organisations, let us concentrate our focusupon the meaning of a work group. In true sense and for our purpose of studying groupbehaviour, the collection of individuals is called a group, when: They have a common goal;• The members of the group constantly interact with each other, so that one person’sactions affect andare being affected by the action of another person;• Each member of group identifies with other member of the group;• The member of the group is psychologically aware of each other;• The behaviour of each member is interdependent on others.Thus, a group is a set of two or more people who continuously interact with each otherto achieve certain goals or meet certain needs. Accordingly, only gathering ofindividuals cannot be called a group.Mere collection of people cannot constitute a group. eg:-a crowd in front of a shop in themarket watching India vs Pakistan one day cricket match on T.V. will not be called asGroup. Because people do not interact with one another, do not know one another, andalso do not share a common purpose..TYPES OF WORK GROUPSWhatever may be the causes for which groups are formed, the formation of groups hasbecome inevitable phenomenon in every organisation. There exists different types ofgroups in organisations. Each group plays crucial role in achieving organisationaleffectiveness. There are different ways through which we can classify the groups. Onebroad way to classify the group is on the basis their formation. Accordingly, the groupcan be formal group or informal group.1.1.1 Formal Work GroupsFormal work groups are formed by the organisations. These groups are formed in orderto help the organisation to achieve its specific goals. The goals of formal work group arePrepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 2
  • determined according to the needs of the organisation. For example, purchasecommittee, quality control group, disciplinary action committee are the formal groupsconstituted by an organisation. These groups are established to accomplish certainorganisational goals such as increasing product quality, safety, discipline, etc. in anorganisation.Types of Formal Work GroupsThere are different types of formal groups in an organisation. Four important kinds offormal groups are command groups, the committees, teams, and self-managed workteams. Let us learn them in detail.Command Group : It is the collection of employees who report to the same supervisor.Command groups are based on the basic reporting relationship in organisations. Theexistence of formal groups is represented on organisational charts as departments(such as finance, personnel, marketing, sales, or accounting). Command groups helpan organisation to accomplish variety of tasks. They have tremendous impact upon theextent to which an organisation is able to achieve its goals. The leaders of thecommand group play an important role in determining the effectiveness of these groups.The Committees : It is the collection of people who are brought together by theorganisation to accomplish a specific goal. Once the goal is achieved, the organisationdisbands the committees. In case such committees are dealing with long termproblems, in that case they may not be disbanded but the members in the committeescan be changed or rotated on the basis of seniority and other criteria. These kinds ofcommittees are known as standing committees.The Team : It is a formal work group. People work in a group does not mean that theywork in a team. A team is formed by the organisation for some specific purpose. In ateam, there is a high level of interaction among its members. The members of the teamwork together very intensely to achieve a common goal. In course of working together,the member of the team learn the abilities and experiences of their members toaccomplish things that could not be achieved by individuals working separately or byany other kinds of work groups.Self-Managed Work Teams : Self-managed work teams are little different from normalteams . The members of self-managed work team are responsible for ensuring that theteam accomplishes its goals.Leader of this team is identified by its members. The performance of leadership tasks isassigned to individual group members. The team is empowered to discipline itsmembers who are not performing at an adequate level. There is coordinating effortsacross group members, and even hiring and firing for and within the team is done by theteam itself. In the recent years self-managed teams are gaining popularity and theyhave created a dramatic impact on organisations as well as on their members.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 3
  • 1.1.2 Informal Work GroupsInformal work groups emerge naturally in organisations. It is just like the shadow of theformal organisation. It is because organisational members perceive that it is difficult fortheir organisations to formally fulfill some of the bare needs and feel that membership ina group can help them to achieve their goals and meet their needs.For example, when a group of five factory workers who go for a picnic, movie, or booztogether to satisfy their common need for affiliation and friendship this is the case of aninformal group. Even sometimes, some employees form informal group.due to theirideological similarity.Types of Informal Work GroupsInformal groups can be broadly divided into two types They are :(i) friendship groups; and (ii) interest groups.i) Friendship Groups : It is a group of employees in an organisation who enjoy eachother’s company and love to socialise with each other. They may socialise on the joband off the job.For example, a group of workers in a company who go for a picnic or a group of ladiesstaff who frequently have lunch together. Friendship groups help its members to meetthe needs of social interaction. It also acts as an important source of social support tothem. It contributes to its members to experience positive moods at work which canultimately enable them to be satisfied with their respective jobs.ii) Interest Groups : Employees may form interest groups when they have a commoninterest or goal to achieve in the organisation. The interest of the members may besometimes ignored or neglected by the organisation. The members of this group try toachieve their goal by uniting their efforts. Because of the common interest, it helps themembers to voice their concerns, which some times provides an important pressure fororganisational changes.12.5.3 Small Groups vs Large GroupsGroup size is an important determinant of the way group members behave. The size ofa group is normally measured by the number of full-time members who are involved inachieving the group’s goals. However, a group can be composed of just two or morepeople. On the basis of number of members, a group can be a small or large group. Letus learn them.Small Groups : In a small group, members are likely to know everybody and interactregularly. In a small group, it is relatively easier for members to share information andrecognize individual’s contribution to the group. The members of a small group identifythemselves easily and quickly with group’s goals. The motivation and commitment of itsmembers to group goals is very high hence, the member of this groupderive higherlevels of satisfaction.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 4
  • Large Groups : In a large group, there are so many members. Because of manymembers, they are less likely to know one another and may have little personal contactwith each other on a day-to-day basis. As a result, there exists lower level of interactionamong members of this group and it makes information sharing difficult among them.Some times, the factors which individuals consider lead to their own contributions to thegroup, may become unimportant to the group, which ultimately reduces their motivationand commitment towards group. Therefore, people normally tend to be less satisfied inlarger groups.Group formationGroups, which we find in organisations in our day-to-day life, are not formed over night.Employee turnover, new selection, transfers and promotions of the employees in theorganisation have impact upon the group status and may bring change in the existinggroup. As a result, group tasks and goals also change. How do groups change overtime? It is very interesting and significant. In order to increase group performance, it isvery important to manage these changes effectively. For example when a new batch ofemployees joins an organisation, and starts forming group on the basis of variousfactors discussed earlier, they face lot of difficulty to form a group.In fact, initially at each stage the group faces many difficulties. Similar is the case withwork groups, from their inception to adjournment , they undergo important changes.Tuckman has divided the developments of a group in to five stages. They are forming,storming, norming, performing and adjourning. Let us learn them in detail.Stages of group formationForming : The first stage of group development is called forming. At this stage,members try to know each other and establish a common understanding among them.They struggle to clarify group goals and determine appropriate behaviour within thegroup. The forming stage is completed once individuals within the group feel that theyare truly the members of the group.Storming : As its name implies, this stage is characterised by considerable amount ofconflict. At this stage, group members try to resist for being controlled by the group veryoften, the members disagree about who should lead the group. They also havedifference of opinion over how much power should the leader of their group have, etc.This stage is completed when group members no longer resist the group’s control andthere is mutual understanding and agreement about who will lead the group. Normallythis stage is completed when group members consider that is it is better to worktogether for the achievement of the group goals.Norming : This is the third stage in the group development. At this stage, groupmembers really start feeling that they belong to the group. They develop a very closeintimacy and relationship with one another. A feeling of friendship develops amongthem. A well-developed sense of common purpose of the group emerges among thePrepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 5
  • members. In this stage, group members agree on standards to guide the behaviour inthe group.Performing : When this stage reaches, the group is ready to tackle all types of grouptasks. The members of the group work toward achievement of the group goals. The realwork of the group gets accomplished at this stage. To arrive at this stage, groups shouldnot take very long time.Adjourning : This is the last stage of the group development. At this stage, a groupdisbands after having accomplished its goals. However, ongoing work groups inorganisations do not go through this stage rather they remain at the performing stage.Thus, the five-stages model of group development forming-storming-norming-performing-adjourning though sounds logical, research reveals that not all groups gothrough each of the stages and groups do not necessarily go through the stagessequentially. There can be considerable levels of conflict throughout their existence. Asa result, the elements of storming stage continue for a long time.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 6
  • FACTORS OF GROUP FORMATIONThere are various factors, which influence the formation of groups in organisations. Letus learn following important factors of group formation:Psychological Factors : After joining the organisation, individual joins a particulargroup in which he/she finds him/her interest, attitude, personality, perception etc.matching with other individuals within the department or the organisation. As a result,group is formed.Social Factors : Individuals also form or join the group based upon their social class,caste, and religion to satisfy their social needs. They do it primarily for satisfying theirlove, affection and care needs, which initially they feel deprived after leaving theirfamilies.Security Factors : As an individual, sometimes one can feel insecure over unexpecteddevelopments such as sudden health problem, termination, suspension, local problemsetc., therefore, everyone likes to be in a group to feel secured to work. Especially in anew place, for a new employee, the security need could be one of the major factors forjoining a group.Economic Factors : When an individual works in an organisation, he/she gets all types ofeconomic incentives and benefits available within the rules and regulations. Sometimesorganisations cannot meet an individual’s accidental or obligatory needs like money formarriage, house construction, medical care and other proposes. So he/she gets associated withthose people who help him/her at the time of need.Cultural Factors : Individuals come to work from different society and culture. In casethe place at which they work are far away from their place of origin , region and culture;they feel like a fish out of water. It may be due to the absence of cultural celebrations.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 7
  • This is one of the reasons for which people coming from same culture, tradition andspeaking similar language usually form the group.Proximity, Interaction, Interest and Influence : This is one of the common and logicalreason for which people form the group in the organisation. Some people have to worktogether. Due to the similarity of nature of job, they have to interact with each other forthis purpose. In course of interaction, interest develops which ultimately influences eachother to sit, eat, discuss and share besides working together.Difference between group and teamSometime we are confused that a group is also a team. A group can be called a teamwhen it is formally formed by the organisation. Katzenbach & Smith have defined ateam as a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to acommon purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they holdthemselves mutually accountable. Thus, major difference between the team and groupis that the group can also be informally formed without any complementary skills andformal efforts of the organisation ; team is always constituted by the organisation. It sohappens because it is practically impossible for a formal organisation to meet theinformal needs of its employees.Theories of group FormationThere are four theories explaining why people interact and form groups. These are:PROXIMITY THEORY: Individuals tend to affiliate with one another because of spatialor geographical proximity or nearness. For instance, peasants in a village or studentsnext to each other in class interact more and thus will eventually form a group.ACTIVITY THEORY: When people are involved in similar activities, they tend togenerate spontaneous interaction and sentimentality leading to cooperation andproblem solving. Commonness in occupational interests makes it possible for people tosocialize on a wide range of issues related to the particular activity.EXCHANGE/BENEFIT THEORY: It holds that some groups are formed purely onbusiness-like relations. Members will only decide to form, join or continue together onthe basis of the gains thereafter. Rewards in this context, will yield gratification while thecosts involved include material loss, privileges, anxiety, frustrations or fatigue. Therewards could be tangible or non-tangible e.g power, leadership and prestige.BALANCE THEORY: It borders closely with the activity theory except that it would drawon emotional cum-intellectual dimension of the interaction. People are attracted togetheron the basis of similar attitudes towards life e.g likes and dislikes, beliefs, politicalideologies etc.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 8
  • FUNCTIONS OF THE GROUPS:1. Formal organizational functions: These relates to basic mission attainment by theorganization. The group completes the work, creates ideas and embraces all activitiesfor which they are accountable.2. Psychological Personal functions: The group formation facilitates psychologicalfunctioning, satisfaction of the needs, outlet for affiliation and helps in getting stabilityand enhancing the achievements.3. Mixed or Multiple functions: The formal as well as informal both kinds of roles aretaken up by the members of the group. The formal group can try to fulfill variouspsychological roles and leading to increased loyalty, commitment and energy foreffective attainment of the administrative and organizational goalsGROUP COHESIVENESSGroup cohesiveness is nothing but it is the attractiveness of a group to its members. Ahighly cohesive group very much appeals to their members. The cohesiveness of agroup affects its performance and effectiveness. There are a large number of factors,which influence the level of cohesiveness of a group. Those factors can be broadlycategorized into five types.They are : size of the group, homogeneous character of group members, success of thegroup, competition with other groups, and the exclusiveness of the group. Let us learnthem in detail.Size of the Group : Just like small family is more cohesive, similar is the case with agroup. In case the size of the group is large, their members tend to be less satisfied anddo not tend to be cohesive. Normally in a large group, only a few members of the grouptry to dominate every thing such as suggestion, opinion, its day to day functioningwithout giving opportunities for participation to the other members in the group.Therefore, the large groups are more prone to conflict, and members find it difficult toform close ties with each other, than a small or medium size group in which there existscohesiveness.Homogeneous Character of Group Members : More similarity the member feel witheach other, better the chances that they will well get along with, and feel comfortable tocommunicate with each other. The most cohesive group is one where members aremore homogeneous in terms of age, sex, education, marital status etc. and they sharecertain attitudes, values, experiences, and other characteristics, which are common toeach other.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 9
  • Success of Group : It is the success of the group which can make it cohesive. Arealisation develops among its members to avoid differences for achieving group goals.When groups are successful in achieving their goals, they become especially attractiveto their members, and group cohesiveness enhances.Competition with Other Groups : Competition between groups in an organisationincreases group cohesiveness when it motivates members of each group to bandtogether to achieve group goals. For this reason, organisations often promote groupcohesiveness by having work groups competition in the organisation between /amonggroups over sales target, zero defect production, minimization of wastages; etc. A groupof production workers may compete to see which group can maintain the highest qualitystandards, and groups of maintenance workers may compete to have the bestattendance record. Giving groups names and publicizing also encourage healthycompetition, which groups are doing extraordinarily well.Exclusiveness : A group’s exclusiveness is indicated by how is it difficult to become amember of the group, the extent to which outsider look up to group members. Theexclusiveness of a group gives status in the organisation. It also provides special rightsand privileges to its group members. Relationship between Group Cohesiveness and Productivity High Moderate High Productivity Productivity Performance Norms Low Moderate to Productivity Low Productivity Low Model Group Cohesiveness and ProductivityPrepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 10
  • Thus, in cohesive group members become more active participants in the groupactivities and the level of communication within the group increases. They share acommon goal, develop high group loyalty and get united to perceive threat. Moreover, ina cohesive group information flows through the group very fast.GROUP NORMSWhen there are more than one individual in a group, there is every possibility of tension,confusion and conflict over the rights, duties and status of the group among itsmembers. For the smooth functioning of the group, every group, develops its rolenorms, and rules irrespective of its type. Roles and rules help the group members aswell as managers not only to control the member’s behaviour in group but also specifywhat behaviours should group members engage in, so that the group will be effective,perform at a high level, and achieve its goals. Roles and rules are formal requirementsto facilitate the smooth functioning of group.Norms on the other hand are unwritten rules and regulations, which govern thebehaviour and actions of its members. It is the acceptable standards of behaviour of agroup which is commonly shared by its members. We can only call a group effectivegroups, which control the behaviour of its members through its norms and channelizetheir effort for the attainment of group as well as the organisational goals. Grouprewards its members who conform to the norm in a specified manner through verbalpraise and they also get help from other members. Group also punishes its memberswhen somebody in the group deviates from the norm.Norms develop when members in a group share a common idea of acceptablebehaviour, which, monitor each other’s behaviour in the group. Many norms developbecause several members bring their past experiences from other groups and fromother organisations. Sometimes some critical incidents in the life of the organisationmay also set the norm for the group.The first and the most commonly used criteria for conformity of the group norms iscompliance. It is assenting to a norm in order to attain rewards or avoid punishment. Arealisation is developed among them that the compliance of norm will bring certainbenefits and ignoring it will bring certain costs. Groups put tremendous pressure on themembers to change their attitude and behaviour for the conformity of group norms.Following are the advantages of norms for a group:• Norms enables a group to accomplish its goals.• Norms help the group to control and regulate the behaviour of its members withoutexternal influence.• Norms enable a group to survive in the face of threat and competition from othergroups. They protect the group and its members from outside pressure andinterference.• Norms help the group and its member to express group’s value and give the group aunique identity of its own.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 11
  • • Norms of the group enhance the predictability of group members in terms ofperformance, appearance etc.Group DynamicsThe group dynamics refers to changes which take place within groups and is concernedwith the interaction and forces obtained between group members in social settings .It isa study of forces operating within a group. A group doesn’t simply mean individualspossessing same identical features. For instance, A collection of students or beggarsdoesn’t form a group. These are class. A group is formed when the “Two or Moreindividuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieveparticular objectivesThe social process by which people interact face-to-face in a group environmentis called Group Dynamics.The word ”Dynamics” comes from the Greek word meaning ”force” ;hence groupdynamics refers to the study of forces operating within a group. Suppose we say “oneplus one equals eleven.” In the world of Mathematics that is a logical error, but in theworld of Group Dynamics it is entirely rational to say “one plus one equals eleven”.FEATURES OF GROUP DYNAMICS:Concerned with group - Group dynamics is concerned with group .Wherever a groupexists the individuals interact and members are continuously changing and adjustingrelationship with respect to each other . The members of the group may interact , maybe in state of tension , may be attracted or repelled to each other , may seek theresolution of these tensions and return to equilibrium after the resolution.Changes - Changes go on occurring like introduction of the new members, changes inleadership , presence of old and new members and the rate of change – fast or slow.The groups may dissolve if the members are not enthusiastic about the goals, they haveno faith in the ideology and donot identify themselves with the group. This means thatthe cohesiveness in the group has decreased.Rigidity or Flexibility - There may be rigidity or flexibility (cohesiveness or conflict) thatinfluence a group dynamics. If the members get along well there is smooth sailing forthe group and if there is conflict it leads to problems. A rigid group may not change andlacks adaptability to change. But the members if are able to solves the problems, theequilibrium can be maintained. The conflict and tension if increases within the group,this can cause an open flare up and strong measures are urgently.Group organization - The group organization is essential. It leads to greater groupeffectiveness, participation, cooperation and a constructive morale. The leader will beeffective only if the group is organized and stable. Some degree of organization isessential for effective functioning of the group and depends on the proportion of thePrepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 12
  • well-defined roles members have in the group. The organized group, is one with everymember having specific roles and acting towards other members in the prescribedmanner.Continuous process of restructuring, adjusting and readjusting members -Dynamic group always is in continuous process of restructuring, adjusting andreadjusting members to one another for the purpose of reducing the tensions ,eliminating the conflicts and solving the problems which its members have in common.The changes may take within a group and it is interesting to study the way the changedo occur. The frequent changes indicate the capacity of the group to change and adapt.PRINCIPLES OF THE GROUP DYNAMICS: 1- The members of the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group .The barrier between the leaders and to be led must be broken down. 2- The more attraction a group is to its members, the greater influence it would exercise on its members. 3- The grater the prestige of the group member in the eyes of the member in the eyes of the members, the greater influence he would exercise on the theme. 4- The successful efforts to change individuals sub parts of the group would result in making them confirm to the norms of the group. 5- The pressures for change when strong can be established in the group by creating a shared perception by the members for the need for the change. 6- Information relating to the need for change, plans for change and the consequence of the changes must be shared by the members of the group. 7- The changes in one part of the groups may produce stress in the other parts, which can be reduced only by eliminating the change or by bringing about readjustments in the related parts. 8- The groups arise and function owing to common motives. 9- The groups survive by pacing the members into functional hierarchy and facilitating the action towards the goal. 10- The intergroup relations, group organization, member participation is essential for effectiveness of a group.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 13
  • CONCEPT OF TEAMPrepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 14
  • If you visit an organisation, you will find that most of the activities of the organisation areperformed by a group of persons. In an organisation, activities are arranged in such away that require collective contribution. Every individual contributes for the achievementof a common goal. The individuals interact, collaborate, coordinate and influence amongthe members. Thus, most of the time individuals work in a team.A team may be defined as a group of two or more people who interact and influence themembers for the achievement of common goal.Steven and Mary Ann Von have defined team as groups of two or more people whointeract and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving commonobjectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity within an organisation. Based on this definition, the characteristics of the teams may be elaborated as under :• a group of two or more persons• regular interactions among members• influence the behaviour of team members• mutually accountable• interdependent• social entity• achievement of common goalThe frequency of interactions, influence and the nature of task may determine theformation of group, i.e., long-term, short-term, formal, informal etc.TYPES OF TEAMFormal TeamFormal teams or groups are created deliberately by managers carrying out specifictasks to help the organisation achieve its goals.Types of Formal TeamCommand team - The most prevalent type of formal group is the command team,which includes a manager and all employees who report to that manager. In someorganisations that want to deemphasize hierarchy, the titles may change.Committee- Another type of formal team is the committee, which generally lasts a longtime and deals with recurrent problems and decisions. For instance, your university orcollege probably has a committee for student affairs to deal with recurring issues thatinvolve students’ lives. While members of this committee may come and go, thecommittee remains in place over time.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 15
  • Some formal teams are temporary. They may be called task forces or project teams.These teams are created to deal with a specific problem and are usually disbandedwhen the task is completed or the problem is solved.Informal TeamInformal teams or groups emerge whenever people come together and interactregularly. Such groups develop within the formal organisational structure. Members ofinformal teams tend to subordinate some of their individual needs to those of the teamas a whole. In return, the team supports and protects them.The activities of informal teams may further the interests of the organisation. Saturdaymorning games, for example, may strengthen the players ties to each other. Or awomen’s group may meet to discuss various actions that can make the organisation abetter place for women to work.informal groups independently and outside management auspices. The groupsencourage, recognize, and strengthen the bonds of women at all levels of the company..TEAM DEVELOPMENTAs you have already learnt that the team is formed as a result of interactions andinfluence of members who strive for the achievement of common goal. In this process,the team members try to understand others behaviour, realize the appropriateness ofthe behaviour and the roles of the team members.This is an on going process because the composition of team may keep on changing.The new members may join and the old members may leave the team. Thus, the teammembers pass through several stages for the development of team. Bruce Truckmanhas identified five stage model of team development.Forming:StormingNorming :Performing:Adjourning:Kormanski and Mozenter have identified following stages of team development:• Awareness• Conflict• Cooperation• Productivity, and• SeparationPrepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 16
  • 4.5 TEAM BUILDINGTeam building refers to shaping of the team for smooth functioning. Steven and MaryAnn Von have definedteam building as any formal intervention directed toward improving the developmentand functioning of a work team. Thus, the process of team building aims at enhancingthe effectiveness of a team.Pareek Udai has suggested following approaches for team building.The Johari Window Approach : This approach aims at helping members to expresstheir feelings, opinions reactions and accept feedback from team members. Thisenhances their sensitivity towards the team members.The Role Negotiation Approach : This approach focuses on understanding theexpectations of the team members and accommodating their behaviour according to theexpectations. This enhances the collaborative effort of the team members.The Team Roles Approach : This approach advocates that there are certain roleswhich each team members are expected to perform. Belbin has identified eight roles.They are :Chairman/coordinator, shaper, plant, monitor/ evaluator, company worker, resourceinvestigator, team worker and completer/finisher. Smooth performance of these rolesbrings harmony in the effort of the team members.The Behaviour Modification Approach : This approach focuses on examiningmembers behaviour towards the team. The individual member evaluates his/her ownbehaviour and finds out the most suitable behaviour. Now he/she adopts the mostsuitable behaviour for the performance of the team.The Simulation Approach : In this approach an artificial team is formed wheremembers interact, discuss,deliberate and learn from other members behaviour. In this situation, the team memberslearn the mosteffective way of dealing with the challenges and meet the requirements and theexpectations of the teammembers.The Action Research Approach : In this approach, the whole range of behaviour isanalysed and evaluated. The researcher interacts with the team members andevaluates their behaviour. The effort is made to find out most suitable behaviour of theteam members.The Appreciative Inquiry Approach : This approach focuses on the identification ofpositive qualities in the team members. The effort is made to channelize these positivequalities towards the achievements of the team goal.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 17
  • Pareek Udai has integrated the above approaches and further suggested followingapproaches for team building which are discussed below :Projection into Future : In this approach, the team members prepare common visionof the team. Several small teams may prepare their own vision which may be furtherdeveloped as a broader organisational vision. The team members may be encouragedto make effort towards realising them,.Linkage with Individual Goals : As you must be aware that the building block of theteam is individual. Each person has his/her individual goal as well as team goal.Therefore, the individual goal must be integrated with the team goal. This bringsharmony in the team effort and enhances the performance of the team.Force Field Analysis : Several forces influence the performance of the team. Teammembers are required to analyse these forces and identify the positive forces. Thesefavourable forces are channelised for the achievement of the team goal.Strengthening Positive Forces : The positive forces are identified and furtherreinforced. The reinforcement of behaviour motivates the members for making effortstowards the realisation of team goal. This further strengthens the positive behaviour ofthe team members.Reducing Negative Forces : In this approach, the forces which inhibit the performanceof the team are identified. The efforts are made to remove these negative forces.Monitoring : The team members chalk out detailed plans and targets to be achieved.The mechanisms forachieving these targets are spelt out. The steps are devised tomonitor them at each step. The proper monitoring mechanism facilitates the process ofaccomplishment of team goal.While building the team, the managers must take into account those factors whichcontribute to effective accomplishment of the team goals. The integrated view of theabove approaches may provide better insights for enhancing the effectiveness of theteam.TEAM EFFECTIVENESSIn an organisation, you may find that some teams are very successful and workeffectively than others. The question arises what is team effectiveness? Steven andMary Ann Von have defined team effectiveness as the extent to which the teamachieves its objectives, achieves the needs and objectives of its members and sustainsitself over time. This means that the effective team has following parameters:• The degree to which the objectives of the team are achieved;• The degree to which the team achieves the needs and well being of its members; and• The ability of the team to survive.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 18
  • Steven and Mary Ann Von have suggested following elements of team effectiveness:1) Organisational and Team Environment : Organisational and team environmentrelates to the following elements:• Reward System• Communication• Systems• Physical Space• Organisational Environment• Organisational Structure, and• Organisational Leadership2) Team Design : It involves following elements:• Task Characteristics• Team Size; and• Team Composition3) Team Processes : It includes:• Team Development• Team Norms• Team Roles; and• Team CohesivenessKormasnski and Mozenter have identified following elements which contribute to teameffectiveness:• Members understand and are committed to group goals;• They are friendly, concerned and interested in others;• They acknowledge and confront conflicts openly;• They listen to others and understand them;• They involve others in the process of decision making;• They recognize and respect individual differences;• They contribute ideas and solutions;• They value ideas and contributions of others;• They recognize and reward team efforts; and• They encourage and appreciate comments about team performance.These are the major elements contributing to the team effectiveness. Moreover, theremay be several factors which influence the team effectiveness. Managers are requiredto make detailed analysis of these factors and find out broader perspectives of the teameffectiveness. The proper management and implementation of these elements maycertainly improve the effectiveness of the team.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 19
  • Questions 1- What is Group ? Distinguish between group and team. Why do people form groups in organisations ? 2- Distinguish between formal team and informal team. 3- Distinguish between storming and norming. 4- Enumerate five most suitable process of team building. 5- Enumerate the process of development of group. 6- What is Group Cohesiveness? 7- What is a group ? Why do people form groups in organisation? Do you think that formation of group serve their purpose. Discuss. 8- How is group different from team? Explain the features of different types of formal work group. 9- What do you mean by group development? Explain different stages of the development of a group.Prepared By Mrs. Neha Rathi Faculty of KKPIMS Page 20