ATTITUDEEVALUATIVE STATEMENTSEITHER FAVOURABLE ORUNFAVORABLE CONCERNINGOBJECTS, EVENTS OR PEOPLE.
ACCORDING TO KATZ ANDSCOTLAND„ATTITUDE IS A TENDENCYOR A PREDISPOSITION TOEVALUATE AN OBJECT ORSYMBOL OF THAT OBJECT INA CERTAIN WAY.
ACCORDING TO G.W.ALLPORTATTITUDE IS A MENTAL ORNEUTRAL STATE OF READINESS,ORGANISED THROUGHEXPERIENCE, EXERTING ADIRECTIVE OR DYNAMIC UPONTHE INDIVIDUAL‟S RESPONSE .
ATTITUDES ARE MADE UP OFTHREE COMPONENTS COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL
INFORMATION AFFECTIVE OR OR BEHAVIORAL COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL COMPONENT COMPONENT COMPONENT ATTITUDE COMPONENTS OF AN ATTITUDE
COGNITIVE COMPONENTIT IS MADE UP OF VALUESTATEMENT.E.G.-„DISCRIMINATION IS WRONG‟
AFFECTIVE COMPONENTIT IS THE EMOTIONAL ORFEELING SEGMENT OF ANATTITUDE.E.G.-„I DON‟T LIKE RAM BECAUSE HEDISCRIMINATES AGAINSTMINORITIES‟
BEHAVIORAL COMPONENTIT IS AN INTENTION TO BEHAVEIN A CERTAIN WAY TOWARDSOMEONE OR SOMETHINGE.G.-„I MIGHT CHOOSE TO AVOIDRAM BECAUSE OF MY FEELINGABOUT HIM‟
FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS REFERS TO FEELINGS OR BELIEFS OF AN INDIVIDUAL. TEND TO RESULT IN BEHAVIOR. ATTITUDE CAN FALL ANYWHERE ALONG A CONTINUUM FROM VERY FAVOURABLE TO VERY UNFAVORABLE. ARE GRADUALLY ACQUIRED OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. ALL PEOPLE IRRESPECTIVE OF THEIR STATUS AND INTELLIGENCE HOLD ATTITUDES. CONSTITUTE A PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA WHICH CANNOT BE DIRECTLY OBSERVED.
FORMATION OR SOURCES OFATTITUDES DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH OBJECT. VICARIOUS LEARNING. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING. FAMILY AND PEER GROUP. ECONOMIC STATUS AND OCCUPATION. MASS COMMUNICATION.
TYPES OF ATTITUDESIN RELATION TO O.B JOB ORG. JOB INVOLVEMENT COMMITMENTSATISFACTION ATTITUDE
JOB SATISFACTIONGENERAL ATTITUDE ORFEELINGS OF A INDIVIDUALTOWARDS HIS JOB.
JOB INVOLVEMENTIT MEASURES THE DEGREE TOWHICH A PERSON IDENTIFIESPSYCHOLOGICALLY WITH HISOR HER JOB AND CONSIDERSHIS OR HER PERCEIVEDPERFORMANCE LEVELIMPORTANT TO SELF WORTH.
ORGANIZATIONALCOMMITMENTIS A STATE IN WHICH ANEMPLOYEE IDENTIFIES WITHONE‟S EMPLOYINGORGANIZATION ANDITS GOALS AND WISHES TOMAINTAIN MEMBERSHIP IN THEORGANISATION.
Function perform by attitude Attitude determine meaning:-it determine meaning of what is seen in the environment.Favourable attitude enables the individual to find “GOOD” meaning whereas unfavourable attitude is linked with “BAD” meaning. Attitude organise facts:-Interpretation of facts and derivation of meaning for the words,thoughts and feelings basically depend on the way they are organised. 29
Attitude select facts:-attitude also facilitates the selection of facts.From a mass of objective information,an individual tends to select such facts as are favourable and consistent with his attitude and to ignore or discount those opposed. The adjustment function:-attitude often help people adjust to their work environment. 30
The ego defensive function:-people often form and maintain certain attitude to protect their own self image. The value expressive function:-attitude provide people a basis for expressing their values. The knowledge function:-attitude is often substituted for knowledge .In the absence of knowledge,we use our attitude to organise and make sense out of perceived object or person. 31
The Theory of CognitiveDissonance Desire to reduce dissonance • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance
Measuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that the attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. Moderating Variables • Importance of the attitude • Specificity of the attitude • Accessibility of the attitude • Social pressures on the individual • Direct experience with the attitude
Sources of attitude 36
Direct personal experience:-attitudes areformed on the basis of one‟s pastexperience is concerned object or person.Association:-a new attitude object may beassociated with an old attitude object andthe attitude towards the latter may betransferred towards the former.Social learning:-attitudes are also learntfrom others as for example fromparents,teachers superiors,models etc. 37
Formation of attitudes Psychological factor Family factor Neighbourhood Role model in one‟s life Institutional factor Social factors 38
Psychological factorThe Psychological make-up of a person is made up of his perception, ideas, beliefs, values etc. It has a crucial role in determining a person‟s attitudes. Eg.if a person perceives that generally all superiors are exploitative, he is likely to develop a negative attitude towards his superiors who infact may not be 39 exploitative.
Family factor During childhood, a person spends a major part of his time in the family. Thus , he learns from the family members. Eg. A person from a middle class family may hold a different attitude toward spending than a person from an affluent family. 40
Neighbourhood The neighbourhood we live in has a certain structure in terms of its having cultural facilities , religious grouping, and possibly ethnic differences. 41
Role model in one‟s life Some of the attitudes are developed through imitation of models. The process is something like this: In a particular situation, we see how another person behaves. We correctly or incorrectly interpret his behaviour as representing certain attitudes and beliefs. Eg. Children are often quite observe about how their parents react to different people. They learn by watching whom their parents respect, whom they treat with reservation, whom they regard as 42 friends and whom they dislike.
Institutional factor Many institutional factors functions as sources and support of our attitude and beliefs. Eg. Consider the description of a certain temple aarati. When the people come into temple, they bow down to pray, sit with heads bowed. When pujari signals and is with aarati all starts singing bhajan and clap. The entire process is devoted to ritual. 43