Today we are presenting a seminar on neogeography. Maps has been in use by the man for thousands of year. The early maps were handmade and were limited to his knowledge of the routes. Maps are still in use in todays world by people from various walks of life. The only difference is thjat maps then were hand made and not very realistical and accuarate but today with the expansion of technologies maps have been digitilised and have been analysed to such an extent such that almost anything and everything on this earth is now plottable. Maps now can be used in big configuartion machines like in nasa or in something as small as our cellphones.
DefinationAnd it was cartographers who starting making maps .. \m/
According to cartographers knowledge the maps were desgined .
1. Since the maps started helping people to find other routes unexplored by them ; led to navigation .
Hence with navigation the cycle of discovery and exploration of world started .
Maps tilll today are being used by people as their travel guides .
Benchmarking , landmarking , routes.Pxomity of a particular place . We try to tell a route , is according to visualization to us . We tell that route wrt to landmarks and benchmarks that we have seen in surrounding area
1.Extract meaningfull info from various maps built ..2.Reasons for GIS3.Satellite survey4.Industrial Revolution 5.Remote sensing.6.Toposheets- study abt the topograghyRoots not used yetAdvancement of technology , the map got digitalised , this version of maps was used for study of earth to very accurate detail in order to discover lands for mining , agricultural land , and also for surveys done wrt to population n plantation of a particular zone of an area . . . .
Visualization tool , DB , Map editing tools . . .
Sources of data - satellite , UAV , federal govt . ( ordanace survey of GB )
When point , line , polygon are used.Point benchmark Line river or a path to be traced Polygon refers to particular area in a given zone .
Area to be analysed as is taken as a collection of pixels , each location to be marked on the map , points to certainl cell in the grid , hence a pixel .Point is a cellLine is array of cells Polygon is zone of cells .Raster model is given more preference , since its highly detail oriented and accurate .
Geologist , botnonist , Archaelogic survey of India , disaster management so that precautions can be ,Railways , airports. Soil erosion , landslides . .. transportation . Etc etc . . .
GIS is confined to federal Govt org , Research instiutions like NASA , ISRO.
Objective of the GIS Wither be a survey , govt by remote sensing to understand particular portion of india . Hence lay down business rules and plans for operation of GIS .
Scenario:Read the books lines .Raw data processing , storing in DB and gives output as per requirement of the usr .
Modellingconsisit of 3 steps Headline , want to find shortest distance between ne 2 benchmarks , describe the spatial data associated with it .
Vector and raster model , as described earlier . In vector model , house shown as a polygon , In raster model its collection of pixels .
Once the data has been subsumed as a data , and appropriate model is stored in a DB . The tool highly used in GIS is ARCGIS .It uses GeoDB .
But first GIS software came only in late 1970s from the lab of the ESRI. Canada was the pioneer in the developmentEvery technology has its own growth period right from its inception till saturation , and GIS is no exception. As the adaptation increases ,the requirements for the particular tech also increases . Some requirements are tech based and some are perspective based .Some of these requirements eventually grow and become potential problems which would at somepoint become diffcult to address due to Lack of advanced techChange in perspectives which digresses into something else And theres a need for different perspectives .. And that’s where GIS comes to picture .GIS started 1990s and it was only confined to a partiucular sect of ppl and was used for purposes of universal importance
.Propriety data sets Steep learning curveMoney + time costTool centric and not user centric
Propriety data sets ESRI ( Economic and Social Research institute )AutoDeskData confined to govt institutions , NASA , ISRO etc Different country maintained its own content , and thus data discrepancies There was no way data was shared .Licensing issues
Gis is not accesible to general public besides its very expensive to develop a full fledged gis appOpen source tools made this process cheaper and though they were not user frndly in the initial stages they were certainly cold be used in different approaches
All the gis app were built to solve a particular problem and were not appealing to the public massesTool centric and not user centricThe information was completely technology dependent and general masses had no contribution or connection to it.
Need to be aware of spatial dataProcessing contents from raw satellite imagesTheproblems in vector and raster formatsAs these major bottlenecks in here , created a major obstacle for GIS to proceed any further , not just because of technical reasons but also due to change in perspectives.
The 4 problems were bottleneck to GIS , thus impede the progress of this technology , not just cuz of techincal constraints , but also due to change in perspectives .Geography is study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena . And in one way or another we all are a connected to geography , thus the technology connected to it must be appealing to normal users. Sadly in the geo community is pretty esoteric and may be a daunting task for him to comprehend and use technologies based on it .The separation between scientist and layperson, between expert and novice, is driven in many disciplines by the complexity of subject matter, by terminology that may be essential to precise communication within the discipline, but inaccessible to the outsider, by the high cost of entry into the observational process and the difficulties of empirical measurement, and by the complexity and abstraction of the discipline’s main concepts. All of these contribute to making many sciences impenetrable to the average citizen
Neogeographycombines the complex techniques of cartography and GIS and places them within reach of users and developers . Gis had to be made accesible to the ppl which was done later on and hence a new term was coined known as neogeographyWeb 2.0 is the only platform where GIS tech could appeal to all the masses , and users could actively involve in learning and using the technology at ease . With web 2.0 era all the tools began to focus on being user centric and put the complete social experience online .
Since the era of 2.0 was user centric focusing on putting social experience online where the information was shared among the people.
GPX <trkseg> A Track Segment holds a list of Track Points which are logically connected in order. To represent a single GPS track where GPS reception was lost, or the GPS receiver was turned off, start a new Track Segment for each continuous span of track data. <trkpt> trk represents a track - an ordered list of points describing a path.<ele> is elevation in meters<speed > instantaneous speed in that point .Keyhole Microformat
Intro to open street mapsPpls contribution
Add figureNeogeography is a concept evolved from GIS where all open source tools were combined and shared by the people online.The GeoStack is a collection of tools and mechanisms that together cover all parts of collecting, gathering, and sharing location information. It enables using a GPS system to capture a waypoint and eventually have other users around the world view and comment on that waypoint.Exchangeable image file format (Exif) is a specification for the imagefile format used by digital cameras (including smartphones) and scannersGeoRSS is geo markup language RSS = Really simple syndication Web Feature Service Interface Standard (WFS) provides an interface allowing requests for geographical features across the web using platform-independent calls. Used by google , bing maps , yahoo maps etc
Comparison study betweengis and neoJustification to neoThe 3 main entities data , info , knowledge led to era of neogeography . HPV = high production volume Cadastre = Cadastral surveys document the boundaries of land ownership, by the production of documents, diagrams, sketches, plans (plats in USA), charts, and maps. They were originally used to ensure reliable facts for land valuation and taxationLIDAR = Laser Imaging and Distance RangingRs = Radiation sensing
MAPPING OUR PLACE IN THE WORLD
Brief history of cartography
From where mapping began . . .
HAND DRAWN MAPS BASED ON VARIOUS BELIEFS AND LIMITED
GIS (Geographic Information System)
• GIS also referred as Geospatial Information
System, is the merging of cartography,
statistical analysis, and database technology.
• A GIS is a computer-based system to aid in the
collection, maintenance, storage, analysis,
output, and distribution of spatial data and
What is Spatial Data?
• Also known as geospatial data or geographic
information it is the data or information that
identifies the geographic location of features and
boundaries on Earth, such as natural or
constructed features, oceans, and more.
• Spatial data is usually stored as coordinates and
topology, and is data that can be mapped. Spatial
data is often accessed, manipulated or analyzed
through Geographic Information Systems.
the computer on
which a GIS
monitor on which
displayed, and a
printer for making
hard copies of the
A GIS will
data with other
and can even use
system, used by
data, to manage
those who use
it to help them
Map of US showing the tourist
population in the country
Satellite image showing the topography
of the land in an area
A successful GIS operates according to a well-designed plan
and business rules, which are the models and operating
practices unique to each organization.
STEP 1: IDENTIFY THE SPATIAL FEATURES FROM
THE REAL WORLD THAT ARE OF INTEREST
STEP 2: REPRESENT THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL
BY AN APPROPRIATE DATA MODEL, IT COULD
BE VECTOR, RASTER OR BOTH
STEP 3: SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE DATA
STRUCTURE TO STORE THE MODEL WITHIN THE
The data that has been
processed by the system
needs to be stored in an
structure that can allow
retrieval and updation of
this data. One such
highly popular storage
system is GEODATABASE.
WHEN GIS MEETS WEB 2.0
• Neogeography literally means "new geography“ and
is commonly applied to the usage of geographical
techniques and tools used for personal and
community activities or for utilization by a non-
expert group of users
• GPX, or GPS eXchange Format is an
XML schema designed as a common
GPS data format for software
• In GPX, a collection of points, with
no sequential relationship is
deemed a collection of individual
waypoints. An ordered collection of
points may be expressed as a track
or a route. Conceptually, tracks are
a record of where a person has
been, routes are suggestions about
where they might go in the future