Introduction to chemotheraphy : Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point Presentations

467 views
328 views

Published on

Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point Presentations

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
467
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introduction to chemotheraphy : Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point Presentations

  1. 1. DR.RAHUL
  2. 2. 6/15/2014 2 “Treatment of systemic infections with specific drugs that selectively suppress the infecting microorganism without affecting the host”.
  3. 3. 6/15/2014 3 • Treatment of neoplastic diseases with drugs is also called as Chemotherapy • This is due to analogy between the pathogenic organism and malignant cells
  4. 4. : Naturally occurring substance produced by the microorganism, that inhibits or kills other microorganism at very low concentration 6/15/2014 4
  5. 5. : Natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic substance that inhibits the growth or kills bacteria Natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic substance that inhibits the growth or kills microorganisms. 6/15/2014 5
  6. 6. • Medications used to treat bacterial infections • Ideally, before beginning antibiotic therapy, the suspected areas of infection should be cultured to identify the causative organism and potential antibiotic susceptibilities. 6/15/2014 6
  7. 7. Treatment of an infection before specific culture information has been reported or obtained Treatment with antibiotics to prevent an infection, as in intra-abdominal surgery 6/15/2014 7
  8. 8. • Chemical structure • Type of action • Spectrum of activity • Type of organism against which primarily active • Source of antibiotics • Mechanism of action 6/15/2014 8
  9. 9. 6/15/2014 9 • Sulfonamides • Tetracycline • Macrolides • Aminoglycosides
  10. 10. Kill bacteria Inhibit growth of susceptible bacteria, rather than killing them immediately; will eventually lead to bacterial death 6/15/2014 10
  11. 11. • Antibiotics inhibit a narrow range of bacteria • Preferable when organism has been identified • Antibiotics inhibit a wide range of bacteria • Indicated if infecting organism not yet identified Broad spectrum Narrow spectrum 6/15/2014DR RAHUL KUNKULOL 11
  12. 12. 6/15/2014 12
  13. 13. 6/15/2014 13
  14. 14. Antimicrobial agents inhibit 5 essential bacterial processes 1. Protein synthesis 2. Folic acid synthesis 3. DNA synthesis 4. RNA synthesis 5. Cell wall synthesis 6/15/2014 14
  15. 15. • Ribosome is a protein factory in bacteria takes mRNA in and produces proteins from them. • Bacterial ribosome has 2 parts: • 30S binds to mRNA to translate mRNA into amino acids, which form proteins • 50S required for peptide elongation • 3 phases from mRNA to protein • Initiation • Elongation • Termination 6/15/2014 15
  16. 16. • Macrolides • Aminoglycosides • Tetracyclines • Chloramphenicol • Oxazolidinones 6/15/2014 16
  17. 17. Dihydropterate Dihydrofolate Tetrahydrofolate 6/15/2014 17
  18. 18. • Enzymes required for DNA replication • Topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase): GyrA and GyrB • Topoisomerase IV: ParC and ParE • Quinolones interact/bind to the topoisomerases, which stops DNA replication e.g. Nalidixic Acid, Ciprofloxacin 6/15/2014 18
  19. 19. • Forms a stable complex with bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase • Prevents chain initiation process of DNA transcription • Mammalian RNA synthesis not affected as RNA polymerase is much less sensitive to Rifampicin 6/15/2014 19
  20. 20. 6/15/2014DR RAHUL KUNKULOL 20
  21. 21. 6/15/2014 21
  22. 22. • Exposure to sub-optimal levels of antimicrobial • Exposure to microbes carrying resistance genes
  23. 23. • Prescription not taken correctly • Antibiotics for viral infections • Antibiotics sold without medical supervision • Spread of resistant microbes in hospitals due to lack of hygiene
  24. 24. • Lack of quality control in manufacture or outdated antimicrobial • Poverty or war • Use of antibiotics in foods
  25. 25. • Antibiotics are used in animal feeds and sprayed on plants to prevent infection and promote growth • Multi drug-resistant Salmonella typhi has been found in 4 states in 18 people who ate beef fed antibiotics
  26. 26. • Infections resistant to available antibiotics • Increased cost of treatment
  27. 27. 6/15/2014 28DR RAHUL KUNKULOL
  28. 28. 6/15/2014 29DR RAHUL KUNKULOL

×