Price, Income  and Cross Elasticity
Elasticity – the concept <ul><li>The responsiveness of one variable to changes in another </li></ul><ul><li>When price ris...
Elasticity – the concept <ul><li>If price rises by 10% - what happens to demand? </li></ul><ul><li>We know demand will fal...
Elasticity <ul><li>4 basic types used: </li></ul><ul><li>Price elasticity of demand </li></ul><ul><li>Price elasticity of ...
Elasticity <ul><li>Price Elasticity of Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsiveness of demand  to changes in price </li...
Elasticity The Formula: Ped = % Change in Quantity Demanded ___________________________ % Change in Price  If answer is be...
Elasticity Price (£) Quantity Demanded The demand curve can be a range of shapes each of which is associated with a differ...
Elasticity Price Quantity Demanded (000s) D The importance of elasticity is the information it provides on the effect on t...
Elasticity Price Quantity Demanded (000s) D If the firm decides to decrease price to (say) £3, the degree of price elastic...
Elasticity Price (£) Quantity Demanded 10 D 5 5 6 % Δ Price = -50% % Δ Quantity Demanded = +20% Ped = -0.4 (Inelastic) Tot...
Elasticity Price (£) Quantity Demanded D 10 5 20 Producer decides to reduce price to increase sales 7 % Δ in Price =  - 30...
Elasticity <ul><li>If demand is price elastic: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing price would  reduce  TR (%Δ Qd > % Δ P) </li><...
Elasticity <ul><li>Income Elasticity of Demand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsiveness of demand  to changes in incomes ...
Elasticity <ul><li>Income Elasticity of Demand: </li></ul><ul><li>A positive sign denotes a  normal good </li></ul><ul><li...
Elasticity <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Yed = - 0.6: Good is an  inferior good  but  inelastic  – a rise in inco...
Elasticity <ul><li>Cross Elasticity: </li></ul><ul><li>The responsiveness of demand  of one good to changes in the price o...
Elasticity <ul><li>Goods which are complements : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross Elasticity will have negative sign (inverse r...
Elasticity <ul><li>Price Elasticity of Supply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsiveness of supply to changes  in price </l...
Determinants of Elasticity <ul><li>Time period  – the longer the time under consideration the more elastic a good is likel...
Importance of Elasticity <ul><li>Relationship between changes  in price and total revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Importance in ...
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Elasticity

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  • This slide has a ten second gap in between each example to allow the teacher to explain how the figures have been calculated. This gap can be increased or reduced as appropriate using the custom animation tool.
  • This slide also has an automatic response with ten second gaps in between each point. At this stage we have tried to keep things as simple as possible but to introduce issues that will be dealt with later in the course.
  • Elasticity

    1. 1. Price, Income and Cross Elasticity
    2. 2. Elasticity – the concept <ul><li>The responsiveness of one variable to changes in another </li></ul><ul><li>When price rises, what happens to demand? </li></ul><ul><li>Demand falls </li></ul><ul><li>BUT! </li></ul><ul><li>How much does demand fall? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Elasticity – the concept <ul><li>If price rises by 10% - what happens to demand? </li></ul><ul><li>We know demand will fall </li></ul><ul><li>By more than 10%? </li></ul><ul><li>By less than 10%? </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity measures the extent to which demand will change </li></ul>
    4. 4. Elasticity <ul><li>4 basic types used: </li></ul><ul><li>Price elasticity of demand </li></ul><ul><li>Price elasticity of supply </li></ul><ul><li>Income elasticity of demand </li></ul><ul><li>Cross elasticity </li></ul>
    5. 5. Elasticity <ul><li>Price Elasticity of Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsiveness of demand to changes in price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where % change in demand is greater than % change in price – elastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where % change in demand is less than % change in price - inelastic </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Elasticity The Formula: Ped = % Change in Quantity Demanded ___________________________ % Change in Price If answer is between 0 and -1: the relationship is inelastic If the answer is between -1 and infinity: the relationship is elastic Note: PED has – sign in front of it; because as price rises demand falls and vice-versa (inverse relationship between price and demand)
    7. 7. Elasticity Price (£) Quantity Demanded The demand curve can be a range of shapes each of which is associated with a different relationship between price and the quantity demanded.
    8. 8. Elasticity Price Quantity Demanded (000s) D The importance of elasticity is the information it provides on the effect on total revenue of changes in price. £5 100 Total revenue is price x quantity sold. In this example, TR = £5 x 100,000 = £500,000. This value is represented by the grey shaded rectangle. Total Revenue
    9. 9. Elasticity Price Quantity Demanded (000s) D If the firm decides to decrease price to (say) £3, the degree of price elasticity of the demand curve would determine the extent of the increase in demand and the change therefore in total revenue. £5 100 £3 140 Total Revenue
    10. 10. Elasticity Price (£) Quantity Demanded 10 D 5 5 6 % Δ Price = -50% % Δ Quantity Demanded = +20% Ped = -0.4 (Inelastic) Total Revenue would fall Producer decides to lower price to attract sales Not a good move!
    11. 11. Elasticity Price (£) Quantity Demanded D 10 5 20 Producer decides to reduce price to increase sales 7 % Δ in Price = - 30% % Δ in Demand = + 300% Ped = - 10 (Elastic) Total Revenue rises Good Move!
    12. 12. Elasticity <ul><li>If demand is price elastic: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing price would reduce TR (%Δ Qd > % Δ P) </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing price would increase TR </li></ul><ul><li>(%Δ Qd > % Δ P) </li></ul><ul><li>If demand is price inelastic: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing price would increase TR </li></ul><ul><li>(%Δ Qd < % Δ P) </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing price would reduce TR (%Δ Qd < % Δ P) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Elasticity <ul><li>Income Elasticity of Demand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsiveness of demand to changes in incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal Good – demand rises as income rises and vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior Good – demand falls as income rises and vice versa </li></ul>
    14. 14. Elasticity <ul><li>Income Elasticity of Demand: </li></ul><ul><li>A positive sign denotes a normal good </li></ul><ul><li>A negative sign denotes an inferior good </li></ul>
    15. 15. Elasticity <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Yed = - 0.6: Good is an inferior good but inelastic – a rise in income of 3% would lead to demand falling by 1.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Yed = + 0.4: Good is a normal good but inelastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to demand rising by 1.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Yed = + 1.6: Good is a normal good and elastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to demand rising by 4.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Yed = - 2.1: Good is an inferior good and elastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to a fall in demand of 6.3% </li></ul>
    16. 16. Elasticity <ul><li>Cross Elasticity: </li></ul><ul><li>The responsiveness of demand of one good to changes in the price of a related good – either a substitute or a complement </li></ul>Xed = % Δ Qd of good t __________________ % Δ Price of good y
    17. 17. Elasticity <ul><li>Goods which are complements : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross Elasticity will have negative sign (inverse relationship between the two) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goods which are substitutes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross Elasticity will have a positive sign (positive relationship between the two) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Elasticity <ul><li>Price Elasticity of Supply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsiveness of supply to changes in price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Pes is inelastic - it will be difficult for suppliers to react swiftly to changes in price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Pes is elastic – supply can react quickly to changes in price </li></ul></ul>Pes = % Δ Quantity Supplied ____________________ % Δ Price
    19. 19. Determinants of Elasticity <ul><li>Time period – the longer the time under consideration the more elastic a good is likely to be </li></ul><ul><li>Number and closeness of substitutes – the greater the number of substitutes, the more elastic </li></ul><ul><li>The proportion of income taken up by the product – the smaller the proportion the more inelastic </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury or Necessity - for example, addictive drugs </li></ul>
    20. 20. Importance of Elasticity <ul><li>Relationship between changes in price and total revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Importance in determining what goods to tax (tax revenue) </li></ul><ul><li>Importance in analysing time lags in production </li></ul><ul><li>Influences the behaviour of a firm </li></ul>
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