MMBD - Multimedia Databases

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MMBD - Multimedia Databases

  1. 1. MULTIMEDIA DATABASES AND MPEG7 Rahmi Volkan Başar Department of Computer Engineering METU May, 2013
  2. 2. Multimedia Databases • Introduction • Capabilities of DB Types • Search on MMDB • Multimedia Content Description • Research Fields
  3. 3. Multimedia Data • Text: using a standard language (SGML, HTML) • Graphics: encoded in CGM, postscript • Images: bitmap, JPEG, MPEG • Video: sequenced image data at specified rates • Audio: recordings in a string of bits in digitized form
  4. 4. Database vs Multimedia Database • Databases – well structured data organization – efficient storage of large amounts of data – querying – transactional support for concurrent users – numbers, strings • Multimedia Databases – large content – different structures – not easily searched/queried
  5. 5. Use Cases • Repositories: central location for data maintained by DBMS, organized in storage levels • Presentations: delivery of audio and video data, temporarily stored, ‘VCR-like functionality’ • Collaborative: complex design, analyzing data
  6. 6. Capabilities • Relational Databases – Atomic / Tables – Data relation – Common Foreign Keys – Record: Content – No meta information – A predefined set of domains for columns • Hard to extend • BLOB data type exist
  7. 7. Capabilities • Object Oriented Databases – Schema is “Class” – All data is “Object” – References – New data types • Easy. New class is a new data type. – Appropriate for multimedia data
  8. 8. Capabilities • Object Relational Databases – In addition to RDBMS • Object references • New types – Multimedia – MMDBMS • Extensible ORDBMSs
  9. 9. Search • Collection of data. How to search? – Any standards? – Workarounds? • Search: Retrieve similar images… – Fast, Correct • Content-based – New techniques?
  10. 10. Search • Content Based Retrieval Facilities – Supported by MMDBMS • Organize and Manage accordingly – Compare based on a number of features • Shape/Color/Texture • Meta-Data? – Always.
  11. 11. Content Based Retrieval • Accurate representation of the multimedia objects in the database – For accuracy and efficiency – Combination: Different features • Similarity Search – High-dimensional feature vectors • Special multi-dimensional indexing structures • Dimension reduction methods.
  12. 12. Multimedia Content Description Standard: MPEG-7 • Influential XML based multimedia meta-data standard • Description of the storage media: – Format, Image Size, Audio Quality, Video Frames etc. • Creation and production information: – Creation date and location, title, genre, etc. • Content semantic description: – Events, concepts, objects, etc. • Content structural description: – Shot and key frames with color, texture and motion features, etc. • Metadata about the description: – Author, version, creation date, etc.
  13. 13. MPEG-7 • Expression of multimedia data • Missing: Search for Implicit Data – The meaning of the structure: Not expressed – Ex. A video: length, format, name, dates etc. • Gender: Documentary, Interview, Movie • Theme: Science, Sports, Horror • No consideration on search engines
  14. 14. MPEG-7 • Search: – XPath, XQuery – Semantic Views Query Language
  15. 15. Simple MPEG7 Example <Mpeg7> <Description xsi:type="SemanticDescriptionType"> <Semantics> <Label> <Name> Car </Name> </Label> <Definition> <FreeTextAnnotation> Four wheel motorized vehicle </FreeTextAnnotation> </Definition> <MediaOccurrence> <MediaLocator> <MediaUri> image.jpg </MediaUri> </MediaLocator> </MediaOccurrence> </Semantics> </Description> </Mpeg7>
  16. 16. MPEG7 Details • Standardizes 3 parts: – Description tools • Descriptors (D) • Description Schemes (DS). – Description Definition Language (DDL) • To specify these schemes – System tools
  17. 17. MPEG7 Details • Descriptors (D) – Representation of a feature • Syntactic and Semantic – Low-level audio or visual features • Color, motion, texture etc – Audiovisual content • Location, time etc • Objects can be described – Several descriptors.
  18. 18. MPEG7 Details • Description Schemes (DS) describe – Specification of the relations • Between Descriptors • Between Description Schemes – Relations can be structural and semantics – High-level audiovisual (AV) features • Regions, segments, events etc
  19. 19. MPEG7 Details • Description Definition Language – Based on XML • Defines the structural relations between descriptors – Creation and modification of description schemes – Creation of new descriptors.
  20. 20. MPEG7 Details • System Tools – Deal with Descriptor management • Binarization • Synchronization • Transport • Storage
  21. 21. MPEG7 Details - Overview
  22. 22. MPEG7 Details • Next Slide – Description of a Video Segment
  23. 23. MPEG7 Details • How to extract semantics? – i.e. Intelligent Information Retrieval – Drawback of the standard – Ontology help required: • Domain Specific Ontology (Football, Location) • Automatically extract information • Use for a better search result
  24. 24. Research Fields • Design: still in research • Queries: techniques need to be modified • Rest: – Modeling: complex objects, wide range of types – Storage: representation, compression, buffering during I/O, mapping – Performance: physical limitations, parallel processing
  25. 25. • Thank you! • Questions?
  26. 26. References • Wikipedia: Various Pages • Computer Science and Engineering Department Resources: – University of Notre Dame – Northumbria University – Carnegie Mellon University – Boston College – Simon Fraser University – Georgia Institute of Technology • Interview with A. Anil Sinaci

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