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    Palmberg tekes presentation Palmberg tekes presentation Presentation Transcript

    • *This presentation draws on ’Finnish Finnish Impact Framework and Indicators for Science, Technology, and Innovation’ heldby Tarmo Lemola in Budapest on April 27th, 2009 and Luoma et al. 2011. ’Better results, more value’. Tekes Review 288/2011 Public RDI systems – Rationale, indicators and impact assement* Christopher Palmberg Chief advisor, Ph.D Tekes Strategic Intelligence Copyright © Tekes
    • Structure of presentation1.  What are public RDI systems and how are they legitimized?2.  What are RDI indicators, why are they needed and which are the challenges?3.  Examples of impact assement models and indicators – the case of Tekes DM 02-2012 Copyright © Tekes
    • 1. What are public RDI systems and howare they legitimized? DM 02-2012 Copyright © Tekes
    • The Finnish public RDI system PARLIAMENTResearch and GOVERNMENT Innovation Council Ministry of Ministry of Other Education and Employment ministries and the Culture Economy and their institutes Academy of Sitra Finland Tekes Finnvera plc Finpro Finnish Universities VTT Industry Investment Ltd Regional ELY Centres Copyright © Tekes
    • R&D investments in some countriesPercentage of GDP 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators DM 36109 and 36054 09-2011 Copyright © Tekes
    • Public sector’s share of total R&D fundingin 2009 %Source: Eurostat DM 36109 and 36054 11-2011 Copyright © Tekes
    • Tekes R&D funding by sectors – from technologytowards services and intangibles Million eurosConstruction is included in the industrial figures. DM 906697 and 607668 01-2012 Copyright © Tekes
    • Why are public RDI policies needed –how are they legitimized?Traditional arguments§ Market failure •  Informationl assymetries, knowledge spill-overs, externalities, over- exploitation of commons New arguments…in response to societal challenges?§ Structural system failures •  Infrastructural , institutional, network, capabilities failures§ Transformational system failures •  Directionality, demand articulation, policy coordination, reflexivity failures Source: Weber & Rohracher,forthcoming in 2012. Copyright © Tekes
    • 2. What are RDI indicators, why are theyneeded and which are the challenges? Copyright © Tekes
    • What is an Research, Development andInnovation (RDI) indicator? “Indicators are quantitative representations that might reasonably be thought to provide summary information bearing on the scope, quality, and vitality of the science and engineering enterprise. They are intended to contribute to an understanding of the current environment and to inform the development of future policies” Modified from NSB/NSF Science and Engineering Indicators Copyright © Tekes
    • Why are RDI indicators needed?§ Importance of science, technology and innovation for social and economic progress – a stylized fact§ Continuous pressure to increase resources to RDI to compete globally§ Pressure to ascertain effective use of public resources such as taxes§ Need to legitimate risky RDI investmnents characterized by uncertainty§ Need to understand dynamics of scientific and technological progress§ Need to build an evidence-base for policy © Advansis Oy 2006 6/8/12 Copyright © Tekes
    • Criteria for RDI indicators1.  Clear connection to research and innovation2.  Clear connection to the phenomenon and impact area it represents3.  Clear policy connection4.  Transparency5.  Intuitive and easily understandable6.  Internationally comparable7.  Easy and regular updating, basis for regular statistics gathering8.  Statistically reliable9.  Good temporal, sectoral and geographical coverage10.  Clear message on the direction and distance to the target state11.  Based on solid theories or coherent frameworks 12 Copyright © Tekes
    • Basic framework for assessing impacts of RDI§  Traditional and well-studied role of RDI in creating preconditions for economic growth and renewal - other objectives and impacts known in less detail…§  Input-activity-output model most common framework§  The chain from research and innovation to socioeconomic benefits is not linear but involves several feedback loops that provide new inputs to the process at various stages 13 Copyright © Tekes
    • Key challenges in RDI impact assessment §  Causality: the relationships between research and innovation inputs, activities, outputs, and impacts are often unclear or nonlinear. §  Attribution: it is difficult or even impossible to separate the impact of research and innovation from other inputs and activities – the additionality problem §  Internationality: the impacts of research and innovation are international by nature – activities and value chains are global, and both positive and negative spillovers exist. §  Time scale: the impacts are realized both in the short and long-term. §  Breakdown of impacts to particular socio-economic target: how to define e.g. impact on environment, public welfare or culture. 14 Copyright © Tekes
    • Indicator sources – some examples§  U.S. National Science Board/National Science Foundation: Science and Engineering Indicators§  Other national indicator publications, including statistical agencies§  OECD: Main Science and Technology Indicators •  Indicator manuals: Frascati and Oslo manuals, Patent Statistics Manual etc.§  EU: European Innovation Scoreboard§  International competitiveness reports (WEF, IMD) Copyright © Tekes
    • Top 10 traditional RDI indicators1.  R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP2.  Publications3.  Citations4.  Patents5.  New products and processes6.  International trade and trade balance in high-tech products7.  Young innovative companies8.  Mobility of researchers9.  Science and technology labor force10.  Growth in productivityBut we also need ’blue-sky indicators, e.g. based on www Copyright © Tekes
    • 3. How are RDI impacts being assessed –the case of Tekes? Copyright © Tekes
    • Tekes model for RDI impact assesment* Tekes objectives Impacts • Economic growth • Welfare • Culture and and renewal • Environment learning Outputs Societal and • Innovative products and • Growth and internalization services • Productivity environmental processes and methods • Distribution and utilization • Organizational development of new knowledge and wellbeing • new enterprises, business skills areas and services Productivity and Activity Renewal of • Research and innovation activity • Education industries • New processes and networking Inputs Capabilities and • Investments in intellectual and tangible capital skills of • Existing capabilities and knowledge Innovative activity DM 196759 01-2010 Copyright © Tekes*Developed jointly by Finnish Academy and Tekes in collaboration with external experts Copyright © Tekes
    • Economy and economic renewal § Observes the effects that research and innovation activities have, or should have, on the development and renewal of the economy and the opportunities and challenges arising from this § Perhaps the most common and the furthest elaborated impact area of research and innovation activities, which also provides a good basis for international comparison 19 Copyright © Tekes
    • Hierarchy of phenomena related to economyand economic renewal National Productivity of High growth Foreign DirectImpacts prosperity the economy enterprises Job creation Investments Strengthening of intangible Position in global valueOutputs assets networks Continuous improivement Collaboration, networksActivities of competitiveness and knowledge flows Capability to innovate Human resources for General conditions andInputs Investments in R&D&I R&D&I incentives for R&D&I 20 Copyright © Tekes
    • Indicators related to economy and economicrenewal Phenomenom Indicators Na#onal  prosperity   GDP  per  capita   Overall  produc#vity  of  the  economy   Total  Factor  Produc2vity  TFP       Produc2vity  renewal  indicator   Foreign  Direct    Investments   Share  of  Foreign  Direct  Investments  per  GDP     Strengthening  of  intangible  assets   Share  of  new  innova2ve  products  and  services  from  business  turnover.       Volume  and  share  of  intangible  investments   Posi#on  in  global  value-­‐networks   Exports  of  knowledge-­‐intensive  sectors     Con#nuous  improvement  of  compe##veness   Development  of  turnover  in  knowledge  intensive  sectors  (or  alterna2vely  in  KI   jobs)   Collabora#on,  networks  and  knowledge  flows     Share  of  public  and  private  organisa2ons  having  collaborated  in  innova2on   projects   Capability  to  innovate   Development  of  paten2ng,  registered  trademarks  and  designs  (EPO  /  USPTO  /   TRIAD)   Investments  in  R&D&I   Share  of  R&D&I  expenditure  in  business  turnover     Government  direct  &  indirect  support  to  business  R&D   Foreign  direct  investments  in  Finnish  R&D&I   Human  resources  for  R&D&I   Availability  of  highly  educated  workforce   General  condi#ons  and  incen#ves  for  R&D&I   GDP  share  of  VC  investments  at  different  growth  stages   …   21 Copyright © Tekes
    • Environment §  Many of the causality chains from the inputs of research and innovation to the impacts on the environment are at least partly known based on the knowledge on natural sciences and technologies §  Environmental issues often have a global character – impacts are transnational §  Environmental issues are integrated to most of the activities in business and public sectors §  Energy is a remarkable part of this impact area as it drives economic activities and well-being in addition to its impact on the state of environment, climate change, and use of natural resources §  The operational environment is often playing a significant role in increasing the interest to innovate and use innovations 22 Copyright © Tekes
    • Hierarchy of phenomena related toenvironment Sustainable State  of  the  Finnish   Impacts environment Climate change Biodiversity consumption of  natural resources New  information  and   Environmentally Consumers  attitudes Outputs knowledge  related  to   positive innovations Green  business and  behavior environment Cooperation  within  environment  r elated   R&D&I  activities directed Activities towards environment value  networks  and  strengthening  of  skill   flows R&D&I  investments  in   Operational  environment   Inputs sectors  vital  to  environment Skills and  human resources supporting  the  aims 23 Copyright © Tekes
    • Indicators related to environment Phenomenom Indicators State  of  the  Finnish  environment   Water  systems  ecological  state   Climate  change   Green  house  gas  emissions  in  Finland   Biodiversity   Endangeredness  of  Finnish  species   Sustainable  consump#on  of  natural   Share  of  renewable  energy  in  energy  produc2on   resources   New  informa#on  and  knowledge  related   Scien2fic  environmental  publica2ons  among  the  top  10%  most  cited  publica2ons   to  environment   worldwide  as  %  of  total  scien2fic  publica2ons  of  the  country   Use of environmental information in political decision making Environmentally  bening  innova#ons   Interna2onal  patents/forwarded  references  of  patents  in  the  environmental  sector   Green  business   Revenue  of  companies  in  energy  and  environment  sector   Private sector energy efficiency Consumers  aKtudes  and  behavior   Household  energy  efficiency     R&D&I  ac#vi#es  directed  towards   Companies  with  innova2on  opera2ons  in  the  energy  and  environmental  sectors   environment  (quality,  challenges,  extent)     Amount of environmental R&D&I activities in research institutions Coopera#on  within  environment  related   Coopera2on  between  private  sector,  universi2es  and  research  centers  in   value  networks  and  strengthening  of  skill   environment  sector   flows     R&D&I  investments  on  environment   Private  R&D&I  expenditure  on  environment   Public R&D expenditure on environment Venture capital directed towards environment Skills  and  human  resources   No  relevant  indicator  so  far   Opera#onal  environment  suppor#ng   No  relevant  indicator  so  far   environmentally  benign  ac#ons   24 Copyright © Tekes
    • Summing up§ The focus of public RDI systems is broadeding, Finland being a good example of this§ RDI indicators remain important but RDI impact assessment is increasingly challenging§ There is also a need for new types on real-time ’blue- sky’ indicators§ Emerging and developing countries also need public RDI systems •  What kind of systems? •  Where should they focus? •  How could their impacts be assessed? Copyright © Tekes
    • Thank you! For further information:christopher.palmberg@tekes.fi Copyright © Tekes