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Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context
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Rethinking Language For A Diversified Context

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Academic Paper on Review of National English Curriculum for Pakistan

Academic Paper on Review of National English Curriculum for Pakistan

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  • 1. RETHINKING LANGUAGE FOR A DIVERSIFIED CONTEXT – reviewing the National Curriculum of Pakistan for English LanguageABSTRACT The paper analyzes the National Curriculum of Pakistan (Ministry of Education, Englishcurriculum for classes I–XII, 2006) from a learner-centered ideological perspective. It evaluatesthe appropriateness of the curriculum for the diverse contexts of Pakistan and the possibility ofits implementation on a wider scale. The curriculum does acknowledge the diverse contexts with uneven availability ofresources in its statement of philosophy. However, the conceptualization and documentation ofsubsequent chapters is concerned more towards standardization. There are no guidelines onimplementing various standpoints such as integration of skills and thematic learning. Moreovercurriculum focuses more on conventions than language use and performance. In such milieu,assessments are exclusive of teaching and learning and are carried as one-off paper-pencil testevent. This paper attempts to review the learning and assessment based expectations ofcurriculum and provides recommendations for possible changes in the documented policies suchas „Experiential and Need-based Integrated Alignment‟ of benchmarks of competencies,inclusion of few chapters and change in assessment framework. It also gives implications for theactual practices. 1
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract ........................................................................................................................................... 1Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3Rationale ......................................................................................................................................... 3Literature Review............................................................................................................................ 4Overview of the Curriculum ........................................................................................................... 4Methodology ................................................................................................................................... 5Findings........................................................................................................................................... 6Analysis........................................................................................................................................... 7 1. No Guidelines for Integration .............................................................................................. 7 2. Focuses on Conventions ...................................................................................................... 8 3. Assessment is Exclusive of Teaching and Learning ............................................................ 9 4. Assessment is Summative and Grade Based ....................................................................... 9Recommendation ............................................................................................................................ 9 1. Experiential and Need-based Integrated Alignment ............................................................ 9 2. Inclusion of Chapters ......................................................................................................... 10 3. Changes in Assessment Framework .................................................................................. 10Implications................................................................................................................................... 11Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 13Appendix A ................................................................................................................................... 14Appendix B ................................................................................................................................... 22Appendix C ................................................................................................................................... 26Appendix D ................................................................................................................................... 28REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 29 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION English is considered as a language which leads to the national development andindividual‟s growth in socio-economic conditions (Shamim, 2008). However, there is always adebate that, are we employing it in our curricula with proper consideration to specific needs andavailability of resources in our sub/contexts of urban and rural population? This academic paper discusses my analysis on the wide scenario of National Curriculum(Ministry of Education, English curriculum for classes I–XII, 2006) with specific emphasis onthe areas of learning and assessments, emerging out of a review activity. The review wasconducted along with four other course participants for CTLA1 course in M.Ed. program atAKU-IED2. Learner-centered ideological lens was used to evaluate the appropriateness of thecurriculum for the diverse context like Pakistan and henceforth, provides recommendations forpossible changes in the documented policies and gives implications for the actual practices.RATIONALE Learner-centered ideology has been selected for the review as language use is based onan individual‟s need for personal and social meaning-making processes (Tudor, 1996). Longfocus on social efficiency or academic scholar has lost learners interest in functional use oflanguage and English has been tread as a scholarly subject than a language (Siddiqui, 2010). Moreover, according to Article 30 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, each childhas right to have his/her mother tongue as medium of instruction (United Nations, 1948).Undoubtedly, English is an imperative language for economic development and communicationin a globalized world. However, before conceptualizing the instruction of language in curricula,we need to think about whose interest the language serves. If “there is political will fordeveloping increased levels of literacy in English” (Shamim, 2008) then there is a dire need torethink about how English can be taught as a language which fulfills the need of a particularcontext rather than the political agendas.1 Curriculum, Teaching, Learning and Assessment2 Aga Khan University – Institute for Educational Development 3
  • 4. English serves as either second or in most cases as foreign language for Pakistanis(Rahman, 2004). In such multilingual setting, learner-centered ideology fits English curriculumwhere child‟s and teacher‟s growth according to their own needs rather than subject (Ministry ofEducation, National Educational Policy, 2009, Pg. 20) or societal demands. Furthermore, thecurriculum is also organized based on competencies and not subject content which puts stress onusefulness based on needs. Hence, I strongly believe that learner centered approach will help in identification andfulfilling needs according to diverse contexts.LITERATURE REVIEW Learner-centered ideology is based on the educational philosophy of Rousseau andDewey. The basic premise of this theory is that curriculum should be focused on the needs of theindividuals rather than societal or academic needs. It advocates that the goal of education shouldbe growth of all stakeholders of the educational process, especially the learners (Schiro, 2008). There is a specific emphasis on aligning the learning aims with the learner‟s own uniquesocial, emotional and physical attributes (Rugg & Shumaker, 1928 as cited in Schiro, 2008). Foreffective learning and continuity of growth, the ideology proposes experience as the key learningprocess embedded in the real-life context (Dewey, 1998). If learner‟s experiences are of value the corresponding needs and concerns relating to the(educational) experience should be the cornerstone of curriculum development andimplementation processes. Therefore, “the people are… the source of content for curriculum.”(Schiro, 2008, p. 5)OVERVIEW OF THE CURRICULUM The curriculum is a standard-based where four language competencies have beenhighlighted such as Reading and Thinking, Writing, Oral Communication and Grammaticalskills. An additional competency of ethical and social development is also included. Standards,benchmarks and learning outcomes have been outlined separately for each competency. Thereare individual chapters on introduction (including statement of philosophy), text types and 4
  • 5. themes, classroom methodology, assessment, guidelines for material development and teacher‟straining.METHODOLOGY The methodology adopted for this review was largely based on document analysis.Former to the actual analysis, the rationale for selecting an ideology was build throughexamining human rights document and the contextual realities. The analysis of documentsinvolved a systematic procedure (Merriam, 1998). First the philosophy of the curriculum and underpinned competencies (C), standards (S),benchmarks (BM) and outcomes for language learning were compared with the principlesunderlined in the literature related to learner-centered ideology. The analysis of findings was conducted. Again, contextual researches and books wereconsulted to provide recommendations and practical implications. As this review was aconducted in a group setting, various discussions helped to refine the views and at someinstances brought understanding of contextual diversity. Document Analysis Literature on Ideology Curriculum Document Comparision with International Documents Literature on Contextual Realities like UDHR, Handbooks & IB Curriculum Findings and Analysis Recommendations Implications 5
  • 6. FINDINGS The following are the findings after the document analysis conducted for understandingthe viewpoints of English Curriculum on learning and assesment in relation to learner-centeredideology. 1. Ministry of Education, English curriculum for classes I–XII (2006) views effectivelearning as “spiral progression with a major focus on development of skills rather than oncontent” (p. 2). Learning is multidimensional where skills are learned through integration ofindividual skills (p. 2) and use of thematic approach (p.143). At documentation, it is similar tothe principle for learning in the learner-centered ideology as integrated and not atomistic (Schiro,2008). Though the curriculum talks about integrated skills but each competency has its own setsof standards and benchmarks. A separate chapter on suggested themes has also been included inthe curriculum. 2. In contrast to the learning as experiential and naturally enjoyable, the curriculumpresents the standards and the corresponding benchmarks in a structured manner where fluency,accuracy and different genres of text are focused and not the experience of engaging in language.For example, standard 1 for competency of writing skills says, “all students will produce withdeveloping fluency and accuracy, academic, transactional and creative writing, which is focused,purposeful and shows an insight into the writing process (C2, S2)” (p. 12). Grammar is not aninclusive component but holds a separate competency. The ideological principle of learner-centered ideology which appreciates diverse learningstyles is found in the curriculum at few places. Though examples of different text types and fewactivities have been listed which highlights different learning styles and experiential learning butthe standards, benchmarks and outcomes are not aligned with them. Though benchmarks atelementary level propose creative ideas such as cartoon strips, role-plays and speech bubbles asproposed in ideology, however at later stage a lot of emphasis has been given to conventions.The same can be found in standard 1 of oral communication skills which expects, “all studentswill use appropriate social and academic conventions of spoken discourse” (p.14). Moreover, the concept of meaning-making (not the transfer of information) in ideology isvery implicitly addressed in learning outcomes of curriculum, such as “make simple inferences 6
  • 7. using context of the text and the prior knowledge” (p. 40) and “relate what is read to their ownfeelings and experiences” (p. 41) in reading and thinking skills (C1, S1, BM2). 3. As far as assessment is concerned, the ideology considers assessment as a processwhich facilitates the growth in learning i.e. continuous whereas the chapter on assessments in thecurriculum considers it as testing knowledge having 60% weight-age (p.158) and providingfeedback on weaknesses during and at end of annual year through tests based on curriculumguidelines. Ideology proposes formative assessment; the curriculum also features this notion butat the same time puts an emphasis on summative assessment (p. 153). 4. Ideology considers the methods of authentic assessments like portfolio assessment, selfand peer assessment, teachers‟ diaries and informal anecdotal records, reflective journals etc. butthe curriculum relies on paper-pencil tests, teachers observation and some performance-basedtasks where peer and self-assessment is also proposed (p. 154 – 156). Ideology asks to followpractice of giving lengthy reports and avoiding numerical grades where as the curriculum assertsfor percentage and grade system with use of rubrics to assess oral skills (p. 157-159).ANALYSIS As a language teacher, I find this curriculum as an effective document as it outlines the corerequisites for achieving proficiency in each competency. However, if we see it from a learner-centered ideological perspective, the articulation and presentation of the curriculum does losesight when it comes to presenting the material in a way which can facilitate firstly the learningthrough integrated instruction and secondly satisfying students‟ varied needs. Learning in thecurriculum does not represent how one skill can be merged with the other or how onecompetency can help in building another at the same time. Moreover, assessments do not signifygrowth. 1. No Guidelines for Integration As far as learning processes are concerned, the curriculum talks about integration of skillsbut provides no framework or pedagogical content knowledge about the ways of integration.Moreover, curriculum in its philosophy is integrated but the division and presentation of variouscompetencies individually with its specific standards and benchmarks seems to serve the purpose 7
  • 8. of an atomistic curriculum and not an integrated one. Theme-based learning and teaching hasbeen proposed for managing the focus on integration of skill (as content in such approach isfamiliar and easier to comprehend). However, no practical guidelines have been provided forplanning and implementing themes. 2. Focuses on Conventions Curriculum puts less emphasis on self-expression and more on abiding rules. It talksabout the processes involved in reading, writing and oral communication but it expects todevelop understanding of the conventions through these processes and not to provideopportunities creative expression and meaning-making through experience. The curriculumasserts that competencies and its concepts should be first introduced and then practiced which issimilar to drilling and opposite to the experiential method. In this way, it ignores the coreconcept of experience proposed by John Dewey, the key proponent of learner-centered ideology.When experience is ignored, the child‟s meaning-making ability and processes are alsocompromised. This disposition is very much clear in the outlook through which curriculum approachescompetencies. Heavy dependency on receptive skills such as reading and grammar is evident asthese garner a greater number of standards which shows that the purpose of curriculum is gearedtowards knowing the rules, words and word-by-word reading. In such case writing and speakingskills which are experienced through interaction take back-foot, where rules are actually appliedafter learning. Additionally, writing and reading has been projected in a simplistic mannerwithout acknowledging the need of not one but multiple experiential-based standards for diversecontexts. Eventually, gifted (advanced level) or special needs students are also excluded in suchapproaches. However, individual learning styles have been incorporated where graphical organizersfor comprehension and expression have been applied. There is also a mention of variety of texts,genres and activity examples but it has not been identified whether a genre of text is listed forreading or writing or speaking purpose or all of those functions. 8
  • 9. 3. Assessment is Exclusive of Teaching and Learning The curriculum does give an illusion of continuous assessment but one cannot assert thereliability of feedback because of the assessment and reporting methods; assessment isconsidered as separate and not a part of teaching. Though the curriculum is competency based, the curriculum gives 60% weight-age toconventional knowledge. In reporting, it compares the ability among students and expects tomeet all standards. However in our diverse contexts, it is not possible to achieve all benchmarks.English is not a native language so academic excellence should not be imperative, that too onknowledge of rules and not functional performance. 4. Assessment is Summative and Grade Based There is no reflection of formative assessment on students‟ final result as summativeassessment seems to dominate the evaluative practices. Moreover, the formative assessmentseems to be prototype of summative which includes test-based methods and homework. Thecurriculum recommends allocation of particular standards in tests based on specific percentages(p. 159). In contrast, the assessment should be conducted for learning purposes and to satisfystudents‟ needs and not the expectations based on percentages. Through such approach, it is alsoassumed that learning takes place due to extrinsic motivation of grades and percentage.Innovative and authentic assessment techniques are found missing in the curriculum.RECOMMENDATION 1. Experiential and Need-based Integrated Alignment In order to align the curriculum with variety of needs and integrated approach towardslearning, it is recommended that standard should be based on a need and meaningful such ascommunicative, pleasure or academic. This standard should be same for all competencies underwhich benchmark for each competency should outlines. As assessment in our culture influencesthe pedagogies throughout the year (Siddiqui, 2010), therefore text types and assessment(pertaining to different learning styles) for each standard should be mentioned parallel to thebenchmarks of the competencies (Refer Appendix A). The reframing of propositions gives moreopportunities for meaning making. This alignment would guide teachers about how to integrate 9
  • 10. these skills and assessments would compel teachers to introduce experiential learning throughactivities and projects which can be counted in formative assessments. 2. Inclusion of Chapters Our curriculum has only outlined themes which are not enough. Separate chapters /articles on thematic approach and integration of skills are needed to be included so teachers canselect appropriate topics and corresponding texts according to the contexts and implement it.Teacher Guide-books should be prepared in this regard so they are aware about experientiallearning pedagogies. Use of Graphic Organizers and Reflective Exercises should be included inall competencies (Refer Appendix B for samples). Addition of chapters on inclusive educationalpractices is proposed so students in diverse contexts with varied ability could be facilitated. 3. Changes in Assessment Framework Firstly, the purposes of assessment should be reframed and articulated correctly. It shouldinclude following purposes, Assessment as an integral part of instruction. Assessment to diagnose student‟s learning and moving ahead. Assessment for enhancing student‟s self-concept and sense of efficacy. Assessment as a guide for student to assess their own learning and organize their academic and personal targets. Assessment to compare child with his or her own abilities and satisfaction of needs rather than his/her counterparts. Methods of assessment should be aligned with benchmarks and learning outcomesincluding innovate and cost-effective ways and not merely varieties of paper-pencil response-based tests (Refer Appendix A). Teachers should be trained to formulate authentic assessmentsaccording to the needs of the students and rubrics (Refer Appendix C for sample) for markingtheir achievements. Assessment should not be limited to evaluate learning achievements butshould also be used to understand learning needs (Refer Appendix D for sample). These sheetscan help teachers to gauge student‟s needs and learning styles. 10
  • 11. Rather than providing a report card, log-sheets should be maintained that are formulatedand provided by district officers so context should be considered. Detailed feedback in form ofreports and letters should be addressed to students so they can be engaged in improvementprocess so reporting and results are no longer one-off events for communicating parents andconcerned authorities about students. The weightage would be ignored in such systems andstudents will be seen on their positive and improvement till secondary school. More thanknowledge of conventions, assessment of application of language should be encouraged throughthis document as learner-centered ideology is concerned with “not what students know aboutlanguage but what they do with the language” (Nunan, 2000).IMPLICATIONS In order to apply these recommendations in order to shape a learner-centered curriculum,certain step would have been taken by concerned authorities. Implementation Child Needs Human Resource Curriculum Development Revision Proper Dissemination 11
  • 12. Curriculum revision and dissemination needs to be carried out by Curriculum Wing. Inrevision and for inclusion of context relevant chapters, localized research and text will berequired for analysis for appropriate content production. At the same time, Ministry of Educationwill have to form partnership with publishers to provide variety of textbooks, resource materialsand teachers‟ guide which are contextual relevant and is of varied proficiency levels as urban andrural contexts have different needs but maximum room for growth should be assured throughincreasing difficulty level at higher stages. As learner-centered curriculum puts high responsibility on teachers pedagogicalknowledge and expertise for its successful in implementation in classroom settings, teacher‟straining have to be conducted where master trainers for each district should be trained. Firstly, itwould be important to educate them how to select texts and pedagogies which are relevant tocontextual and students‟ need and how standards and learning outcomes should be prioritized asachievement of all of them is an impractical expectation to be set. It is imperative as thematicthinking, integration of skills and authentic assessments are notions which are new in our contextwhich would also lead to professional growth of teachers. To implement such pedagogies, a lot of planning and organization would be required forwhich teaching load needs to be reduced. With already a shortage of teachers, such curriculumwould not only need human resource development but also expansion. Students training on selfand peer assessment would also be needed to implemented by teachers after their own training. Assessment system needs to be re-conceptualized and restructured. The assessmentframework which currently is under district offices (Shamim, 2008) in public context needs to bechanged so these can be part of classroom learning processes. School should have liberty todesign assessments which needs to be submitted to district officers for approval. Samples couldalso be collected from schools for monitoring purposes. Increased investment in education sector by Government of Pakistan would improve theteaching and learning process with more opportunities for carrying revisions, trainings andproviding infrastructure and resources. 12
  • 13. CONCLUSION The curriculum serves as a reasonable for the second-language learning. However, incontexts where English is seen as a foreign language, the need of learners should be considered.For such purposes standards should be revised and all benchmarks should be aligned throughintegration of skills. Therefore, it is important to restate the learning goals of curriculumdocument so the teachers can implement it easily for their context. More work on pedagogicalsupport to teachers through workshops is also needed. Assessment system needs to be re-conceptualized, restructured and decentralized. Moreover, the child‟s and teacher‟s growth is animperative not only academic achievement in terms of numerical presentations. 13
  • 14. APPENDIX AThe alignment contains reframed and restructured the proposition in different chapters ofNational Curriculum for English Language. Existing SLOs can be fitted accordingly with minorreframing by including experiential and meaning-making action words.Standard 1Students can discover, analyze, understand and use the language for communicative purposes throughmeaningful tasks which are experiential in nature.BenchmarksGrade Reading and Writing Oral Formal and Text Types3 Assessments4 Thinking Communication Lexical Suiting variety of learning stylesIII-V Comprehend Write a Use language Formal and *Brochures Reading, information variety of for expressing Non-formal *TV Ads Writing and from the interpersonal opinions, use of *Letters Speaking for modeled texts texts such as apologies and language *Memos an audience to use for notes, requests. according to *Recipes variety of informal the audience *Dialogues Examples: purposes using invitations Communicate and *Emails -Journals various aids and letters, information and purpose. *Greeting -Anecdotal such as and ideas through cards records graphical dialogues. role plays, -Classroom organizers and discussions and Discussions visual clues. Use of conversations. - Projects speech such as bubbles, Advocacy or cartoon strips News3 All three skills should be focused when using such texts and projects.4 This is not an exhaustive list and should be altered according to availability of resources in your context.PORTFOLIOS should be maintained at all levels. Assessment should be innovative and aligned with pedagogy andclassroom proceedings where multiple skills are being focused. 14
  • 15. etc for Telecast expression.VI- Discover, Write a Use language Punctuation *Interviews Reading,VIII Comprehend variety of for expressing and *Talks Writing and and Analyze interpersonal opinions, Sentence *Tables Speaking for information and emotions, Structures and an audience from the texts expressive requests and are learned. diagrams used for texts such as instructions. *News Examples: communication formal and Identify and reports -Previous using various informal Communicate recycle *Editorials -Letter aids such as letters, information and structures to *Campaign exchanges graphical dialogues, ideas through understand literature -Magazine organizers and role plays, panel the function formation visual clues. debate scripts discussions and of narration using presentations. in reading Incorporate appropriate and writing. study skills tone and like critical style. thinking and identifying Use of bias, compare creative and contrast, topics and cause and situations. effect.IX -X Discover, Write a Use language Recognize *Biography Reading, Comprehend variety of for expression and use *Resumes Writing and and Analyze interpersonal of advice, various *Maps Speaking for information and hopes, fears, parts of *Summary an audience from the texts transactional queries. speech, *Interviews used for texts such as grammar *Talks Examples: communication official Communicate functions *Tables -Previous 15
  • 16. using various letters, information and like and -Model UN aids such as applications, ideas through complex diagrams -Film making graphical letter to the panel clauses and *News or Theater organizers and editors and discussions, improve reports -Youth visual clues. also conflict stylistics. *Editorials articles expressive resolution *Campaign -Reflective Incorporate texts using presentations, literature Journals study skills appropriate interviews. like critical tone and thinking and style. identifying bias, compare Use of and contrast, situations cause and leading to effect. personal, professional and communal growth.Standard 2Students can discover, analyze, understand and use the language for enjoyment and expressivepurposes with ample opportunities of meaning-making.BenchmarksGrade Reading and Writing Oral Formal and Text Type Assessments Thinking Communication LexicalIII-V Describe basic Write short Use language Grammar *Stories Reading, elements of descriptive, for creative should be *Poems Writing and stories and expository expression. focused *TV Ads Speaking for simple poems and narrative Reciting poems through *Dialogues creativity and express paragraphs and songs. practice. No *Collage personal and stories particular *Puzzles Examples: 16
  • 17. preferences by for creative Express benchmark -Journals providing purposes. creatively as the -Puzzles reasons. through jokes, standard is -Mood short skits and exploratory. Meters conversations. -Like/Dislike accounts -Picture compositionVI- Analyze short Write Express Grammar *Short Reading,VIII stories and descriptive, creatively should be Stories Writing and poems and expository through story- focused *Poetry Speaking for explain their and narrative telling with through and Lyrics creativity emotional texts and visuals and practice. No *Dialogues responses on stories for audio, particular -Caption characters‟ creative monologues, benchmark Writing motivates and purposes dialogues and as the -Personified actions. with visuals. role-plays. standard is writing, If I exploratory. were a… -Short movie clips -Dramatics -Toast messagesIX -X Make Write Express Grammar *Fantasy Reading, connections personal creatively should be and science Writing and between narratives, through street focused fiction Speaking for literary texts short stories theater, one-act through *Novels creativity and their own and creative plays, practice. No *Ballads lives. writing composing particular *Sonnets -Idea essays. songs and other benchmark *Personal Generation visual mediums as the Narratives - Life 17
  • 18. of art. standard is History exploratory. - Personality Charts - Visual Poetry - Short films and plays - Personified Writings -ContestsStandard 3Students can discover, analyze, understand and use the language for academic purposes with meaning-making and opinion articulation.BenchmarksGrade Reading and Writing Oral Formal and Text Type Assessments Thinking Communication LexicalIII-V Comprehend Identify and Demonstrate -Proper *Essays Reading, words, use academic Stress and *Posters Writing and sentences and techniques discourse intonation Speaking for paragraphs as for writing through oral -Basic academic meaningful clear presentation and punctuation purpose units of sentences poster displays like hyphen, expression. and a on collected comma and Examples: paragraph. information colon -Essays Interpret from various -Speeches factual Revise and sources. -Letters information, edit for word -Poster procedures, order, presentations events and spellings and issues, school punctuation. and public 18
  • 19. related information applying reading comprehension thinking strategies such as visual cues and graphic organizers.VI- Analyze Analyze Use language -Pronounce *Comment Reading,VIII patterns of text written for inquiries, with proper aries Writing and organization discourse to persuasion, stress and *Essays Speaking for and functions use in their comparisons intonation *Editorials academic of various own and general -Build *Reviews purpose devices used in compositions discourse. vocabulary a paragraph. through -Debates Use Demonstrate contextual -Essays Extend factual techniques academic clues and -Letter to the information, for effective discourse use of editor procedures, paragraph through panel resources -Magazine school and organization discussions, like articles public related such as clear debates, talks dictionary. -Oral information topic on social issues -Idioms. presentations applying sentence and and report -Tenses and - Poster reading supporting presentations to parts of presentations comprehension details. share collected speech -Photo thinking information. -Use of esssays strategies such Plan, draft punctuation as visual cues and revise like and graphic their own semicolon, 19
  • 20. organizers. writing for dash and clarity and quotation unity. marksIX -X Evaluate Analyze Use language -Pronounce *Analytical Reading, patterns of text written for presenting with proper articles Writing and organization discourse to positions and stress and *Reports Speaking for and functions use in their discourse based intonation *Comment academic of various own on arguments. with aries purpose devices used in compositions sustained *Essays a paragraph. Demonstrate speech and *Editorials Debates Use academic fluency. *Reviews -Essays Analyze techniques discourse -Identify -Letter to the complex for effective through panel lexical items editor processes, paragraph discussions, through -Magazine events, issues organization, debates, talks contextual articles and various development on social issues, clues -Inquiry viewpoint and author‟s report -Correct Reports applying techniques presentations, spellings -Book various reading that influence book reviews, -Idioms. Reviews and reader. and knowledge- -Tenses and -Oral comprehension based inquiries parts of presentations thinking Distinguish to share speech - strategies such between collected -Use of Documentary as visual cues spoken and information. correct and graphic written word punctuation organizers. choice. Plan, draft and revise their own writing for 20
  • 21. logical flowof ideas –comparison/contrast/cause-effect,clarity andunity. 21
  • 22. APPENDIX B OUTLINEParagraph 1: Paragraph 2: Paragraph 3:Details of Event Feelings and Learning Importance Future PlanIdeas: Ideas: Ideas:1. 1. 1.2. 2. 2.3. 3. 3.4. 4. 4.Rough Work: 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. APPENDIX C Rubric for Letter Writing Student Name: ________________________________________CATEGORY **** *** ** * I think I am…Salutation Salutation and closing Salutation and closing Salutation and closing Salutation and/orand have no errors in have 1-2 errors in have 3 or more errors closing are missing.Closing capitalization and capitalization and in capitalization and punctuation. punctuation. punctuation.Ideas Ideas were expressed in Ideas were expressed in Ideas were somewhat The letter seemed a clear and organized a pretty clear manner, organized, but were to be a collection of fashion. It was easy to but the organization not very clear. It took unrelated figure out what the letter could have been better. more than one reading sentences. It was was about. to figure out what the very difficult to letter was about. figure out what the letter was about.Length The letter is 8 or more The letter is 7-6 The letter is 4-5 The letter is less sentences. sentences. sentences. than 4 sentences.Tone Fulfills with all the Complies with almost Complies with several Complies with less requirements for a all the requirements for of the requirements than 75% of the friendly letter. a friendly letter. for a friendly letter. requirements for a friendly letter.Use of The letter contains at The letter contains at The letter contains at The letter containsIdioms least 3 idioms. least 2 idioms. least 1 idiom. no idioms. 26
  • 27. Role-Play Observation Checklist Students used meaningful gestures. Students maintained eye-contact most of the time. Students’ volume was neither too loud nor too soft. Students took turns and tried to act naturally. Students didnt hesitate or lose my place. Students didnt use filler words. Students stayed focused; they did not stray off my topic. Students were able to ask and answer questions effectively. Ideas flowed logically from one point to the next; well-organized and coordinated. Students’ communication was understandable with a suitable degree of grammaticalcorrectness. 27
  • 28. APPENDIX D Self-Evaluation of Learning Activities and Materials (Nunan, 2000)    Listening to conversations Watching TV Singing Songs Role-Plays Playing Games Reading Newspaper Learner DiaryThis week I learnedThis week I used my English in these placesThis week I spoke with these peopleThis week I made these mistakesMy difficulties areI would like to knowMy learning places for next week 28
  • 29. REFERENCESDewey, J. (1998). Experience and Education (60 ed.). Indiana: Kappa Delta Pi.Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Ministry of Education. (2006). English curriculum for classes I–XII. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from Pakistan Ministry of Education: http://www.moe.gov.pkMinistry of Education. (2009). National Educational Policy. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from Pakistan Ministry of Education: http://www.moe.gov.pkNunan, D. (2000). The Learner-Centred Curriculcum (11th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Rahman, T. (2004). Language Policy in Pakistan. In Language, policy, planning & practice - a south-asian perspective (pp. 27-52). Karachi: Oxford University Press in association with AKU.Schiro, M. S. (2008). Curriculum Theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns. California: SAGE Publications.Shamim, F. (2008). Trends, issues and challenges in English language education in Pakistan. Asia Pacific Journal of Education , 235-249.Siddiqui, S. (2010). Rethinking Education in Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan: Paramount.Tudor, I. (1996). Learner-centredness as language education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.United Nations. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved February 2011, 02,from http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html 29

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