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    Physiology paper UG Physiology paper UG Document Transcript

    • M.B.B.S. Time: 3 Hrs. [Max. Marks: 100]PHYSIOLOGY – Paper IYour answers should be specific to the questions asked.Draw neat labeled diagrams wherever necessary.LONG ESSAY 2 X 10 = 20 Marks1. Describe the process of erythropoiesis. How is this process regulated?2. Describe the renal mechanisms of maintenance of normal specific gravity of urine.SHORT ESSAY 10 X 5 = 50 Marks3. Rhesus factor4. Lung surfactant and its applied aspects.5. Rennin – angiotensin system6. First and second heart sounds.7. Regulation of gastric secretion8. Korotkoff‟s sounds9. Hypoxia10. Mechanism of deglutition11. Baroreceptor reflexes12. Components and functions of bileSHORT ANSWERS 10 X 3 = 30 Marks13. Einthoven‟s triangle.14. Secondary active transport15. Laboratory classification of anaemia16. Triple response17. Types of cyanosis18. Cardiac index19. Autoimmune phenomenon20. Two non-respiratory functions of lung21. Normal values for O2 and CO2 tensions in air, alveoli and blood22. Herring – Brewer reflexes M.B.B.S. Time : 3 Hrs. [Max. Marks : 100] PHYSIOLOGY – Paper II ( Your answers should be specific to the questions asked. Draw neat labeled diagrams wherever necessary.
    • LONG ESSAY 2 X 10 = 20 Marks1. What are the mechanisms to perceive color vision? Add a note on color blindness.2. Discuss in brief the hormonal control of menstrual cycle. What is menopause?SHORT ESSAY 10 X 5 = 50 Marks3. Hypothalamo – hypophysial axis4. Cushing‟s syndrome5. Hypocalcemic tetany6. Thalamic syndrome7. Five differences between smooth muscle and cardiac muscle8. Turner‟s syndrome9. Site of lesion and reflexes present in decerebrate cat10. Stages of slow wave sleep11. Feedback control of thyroid hormone secretion12. Myasthenia gravisSHORT ANSWERS 10 X 3 = 30 Marks13. Sarcomere14. Babinski sign15. Somatomedins16. Mention neuromuscular junction hormones17. Habituation and sensitization18. Accommodation in eye19. Masking20. Triple response21. Mass reflex22. Role of hypothalamus in hungerM.B.B.S. PHASETime: 3 Hrs. [Max. Marks: 100]PHYSIOLOGY – PAPER IYour answers should be specific to the questions asked.Draw neat labeled diagrams wherever necessary.LONG ESSAY 2 X 9 = 18 Marks1. What are chemoreceptors? Describe the chemical control of respiration. Add a note onCheynes Stokes breathing.
    • 2. Give an account of the principles and methods used to obtain and ECG (Electrocardiograph)record in man. Discuss how an ECG recording helps to evaluate conduction disorders of theheart.SHORT ESSAY 10 X 5 = 50 Marks3. Role of lymphocytes in immune mechanism.4. Describe the fate of hemoglobin of the damaged red blood corpuscle.5. Describe the movements of the stomach.6. Achalasia cardia.7. Describe the renal function tests8. Describe the haemodynamics of blood flow through the kidneys.9. Functions of Juxta-Glomerular apparatus.10. Hyaline membrane disease.11. Define cardiac output and mention the factors regulating it.12. Describe the cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments during exercise.SHORT ANSWERS 16 X 2 = 32 Marks13. Heparin14. Functions of plasma proteins15. Centers of deglutition16. Obstructive jaundice17. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate18. Functions of proximal convoluted tubules19. Write the Poiseuille Hagen formula20. Facultative reabsorption of water21. Explain the cause of the second heart sound22. Oxygen debt23. What is Bohr‟s effect? What is its physiologic significance?24. Define “Dead Space” air and give its importance25. Work of breathing26. Maximal mid expiratory flow rate (MMEFR)27. A.S. Paintal28. Deglutition apnoea M.B.B.S. Time: 3 Hrs. [Max. Marks: 100] PHYSIOLOGY – PAPER II Your answers should be specific to the questions asked. Draw neat labeled diagrams wherever necessary.LONG ESSAY 2 X 9 = 18 Marks1. What is a sarcomere? Describe the molecular basis of muscular contraction in skeletal muscle. Add a note on myasthenia gravis.2. Describe the optic pathway. What are the effects of lesions at various levels of the Optic
    • pathway?SHORT ESSAY 10 X 5 = 50 Marks3. Ionic basis of nerve action potential.4. Describe the auditory.5. Describe the biosynthesis and functions of thyroxin.6. Describe the role of hypothalamus as a target for anti fertility agents.7. Describe the hormonal regulation of blood glucose level.8. Describe the neural mechanism of Pain. Add a note on acupuncture analgesia9. Describe the neuro-endocrine interrelationships.10. What is EEG? Discuss the neurophysiologic basis of EEG?11. Describe the functions of Hypothalamus12. Mention the various Brodman‟s (numbers) in the frontal lobe. Describe briefly each oneSHORT ANSWERS 16 X 2 = 32 Marks13. Classify nerve fibres14. Enumerate the electrical properties of nerve15. Referred pain16. Tri chromatic theory of colour vision17. Organ of Cortii18. Prostaglandins19. Enumerate the different gastrointestinal hormones20. Write a note on Addison disease.21. List the different types of the sensory receptors22. Ascending reticular activating system23. Draw the reflex arc for patellar tendon reflex24. Syringomyelia25. Safe method of family planning26. Pregnancy tests27. Endocrine functions of testis28. Role of oxytocin in female reproductionM.B.B.STime: 3 Hrs. [Max. Marks: 90]PHYSIOLOGY – PAPER IYour answers should be specific to the questions asked.Draw neat labeled diagrams wherever necessary.LONG ESSAY 2 X 10 = 20 Marks1. Define shock. Describe stages of shock. Describe the compensatory mechanisms incompensated hypovolemic shock.2. Describe the composition and functions of pancreatic juice. Describe the regulation of itssecretion.SHORT ESSAY 10 X 5 = 50 Marks3. Describe the Na+ – K+ pump and Ca+ pump with their physiological significance.4. Define homeostasis and describe the different control systems of the body with examples.
    • 5. What is meant by cross matching? Describe the hazards of mismatched blood transfusion.6. Describe the stages of erythropoiesis with their characteristic features. Mention the sites whereerythropoiesis occurs.7. Describe the excitation- contraction coupling.8. What is myasthenia gravis? Describe the physiological basis of its treatment.9. Define glomerular filtration rate and describe the factors affecting it.10. Describe micturition reflex. Write a note on automatic bladder.11. Define lung compliance and describe the factors affecting it.12. Describe oxygen dissociation curve and factors affecting it.SHORT ANSWERS 10 X 2 = 20 Marks13. State the differences between simple and facilitated diffusion.14. Name two anticoagulants with their mechanism of action.15. Define chronaxie and rheobase.16. State the functions of transverse tubular system.17. Write the actions of CCK-PZ.18. Insulin clearance test.19. State the Poiseuille‟s law.20. State the duration of each of first to fourth heart sounds.21. Cyanosis22. Define tidal volume and residual volume.***** M.B.B.S.Max.Marks: 90 Your answers should be specific to the questions asked. Draw neat labeled diagrams wherever necessary.LONG ESSAY 2 X 10 = 20 Marks1. Describe the detail the endocrine regulation of serum calcium level.2. Draw diagrams to show the pathways for somatic pain (No explanation needed). Explain „phantom pain‟.SHORT ESSAY 10 X 5 = 50 Marks3. Explain the endocrine basis of stunted growth.4. Explain the role of antidiuretic hormone.
    • 5. Explain the role of synapses.6. In a tabular column compare the features of upper motor neuron lesions and lower motor neuron lesions.7. List four features of diseases of the basal ganglia and explain any one.8. Explain the mechanisms by which the oral contraceptive pills act.9. Draw labeled diagrams to show the changes in the ovarian follicle during a menstrual cycle (No explanation needed)10. Draw a diagram to show the pathway for „near reflex‟ in the eye. (No explanation needed)11. Explain „pitch discrimination‟ by the ear.12. Explain the role of skin in heat loss mechanisms.SHORT ANSWERS 10 X 2 = 20 Marks13. Give the total diopteric power of the eye. Define presbyopia14. Name the nerves carrying taste sensations from the oral cavity15. Name the locations in the cerebral cortex: of a) primary visual area b) auditory area16. Define audiogram17. Give the significance of a) Blind spot b) Fovea centralis18. Define amenorrhoea and menopause19. Name the gonadotrophins20. Name two secondary sexual characteristics of females21. Define impotence and infertility22. Classify the functions of the testes Max. marks=100Long essays1. Explain the role of arterial baroreceptors soon after blood loss. Name the othercompensatory mechanisms available.2. With the help of graphs, explain the mechanism of air entry and exit from the lungs.Short essays3. Draw a diagram and explain the location and role of each part of the conducting system ofthe human heart.4. Explain the special features of coronary circulation.5. Draw a labeled diagram to show the pathways for reflex salivation.6. Draw a cross section of the small intestine to show the various layers. State the roleof enteric nervous system.7. Describe tissue fluid formation and explain two mechanisms which produce edema.8. In a tabular column compare the urine tests used to differentiate pre- and post-hepaticjaundice. Explain the basis of their difference.9. Draw a flow chart to show the regulation of erythropoiesis. List four dietary substancesneeded for erythropoiesis.10. Describe the naturally occurring mechanisms which normally prevent clotting.11. Explain the changes which occur in the respiratory system during muscular exercise.
    • 12. Explain the term „partial pressure‟ of a gas and draw a graph to show the value of PO2 inthe a) atmosphere b) alveoli c) arterial blood d) mixed venous blood.Short answers13. Explain why creatinine clearance is used to estimate glomerular filtration rate.14. Explain how bicarbonate ions are generated in the renal tubules.15. List six functions of the kidneys.16. Explain the role of „vasa recta‟ in renal function17. Explain how the structure of the urinary bladder is suited to its function.18. Explain facilitated diffusion with an example.19. List the effects of cholecystectomy.20. List six functions of the liver.21. Write the Poiseuille-Hagen formula and state its importance.22. Explain the abnormalities of „P‟ wave of ECG.Long Essays1. Describe the endocrine regulation of blood glucose level.2. Draw the diagram to show the pathway for pain from the upper limb. Explain the endogenousanalgesia system.Short Essays3. Explain the regulation of mineralocorticoids.4. Explain the basis of two features of hyperthyroidism.5. List four features of basal ganglia disease and explain the basis of any one.6. In a tabular column compare „local potential‟ and „action potential.‟7. Draw the visual pathway. Explain homonymous hemianopia and molecular sparing.8. Draw the auditory pathway and list two special features of this pathway.9. Explain the role of „chemical senses‟ in humans.10. Draw a diagram to show the circulation of aqueous humor. Give the significance ofregulation of intraocular pressure.11. Describe the salient features of neuromuscular transmission in skeletal muscle.12. Explain temporal and spatial summation in muscle.Short Answers13. List the features of sertoli cells.14. List the various stages in the development of ovarian follicle. Mention three tests ofovulation.15. Draw a graph to show the HCG level throughout pregnancy.16. Define menarche and menopause and give the timing of each.17. Explain the role of shivering in temperature regulation.18. Explain the ionic basis of significance of absolute refractory period.19. Explain the role of ionic calcium in nerve excitability.20. Explain the significance of motor units.21. List the sensations carried by the dorsal column tract.22. Describe the representation on motor homunculus.
    • Long Essays:-1. Differentiate between hemolytic and obstructive jaundice on the basis of relevant laboratorytests. Explain the differences in the results.2. Give the normal tensions of respiratory gases in arterial & venous blood. Describe in detailchemical control of respiration.Short Essays:-3. List six erythropoietic factors. Specify the defects when any two are deficient.4. Name the steps in the normal formation of urine. Explain their significance.5. Give the normal value of end-diastolic volume. Name two factors that increase this volume.Explain its significance in ventricular function.6. Name the features of hemorrhagic shock. Explain the purpose of any one change.7. Draw a labeled graph to show auto-regulation of blood flow. Explain any one mechanism bywhich it occurs.8. Draw a graph to show changes in intra-pleural pressure during a normal respiratory cycle.Explain the significance of these changes.9. Explain the factors regulating gastric emptying time.10. Explain the mechanism of defecation in an adult.11. Name the different types of blood vessels & give an example for each. Explain the role ofanyone type.12. Draw a neat labeled diagram of innervation to the urinary bladder. Explain how micturitionis affected in spinal shock.Short Answers:-13. Define „voltage gated‟ channels and „Ligand gated‟ channels.14. Define exchange transfusion. Mention two indications.15. Classify lymphocytes based on functions & specify their roles.16. Location and innervation of peripheral chemo receptors.17. List the natural mechanisms responsible for arrest of bleeding from small blood vessels18. Name two principles to determine volume of body fluid compartments.19. Calculate alveolar ventilation at a respiratory rate of 12 per minute, tidal volume of 400 mland dead space air of 100 ml and comment.20. Define starling‟s law of heart.21. Significance of AV nodal delay.22. What are accessory muscles of respiration? Name them.23. Name two stimuli that inhibit gastrin secretion.24. Role of lower esophageal sphincter.25. Compare hepatic and gall bladder bile.26. Explain „TROPHIC‟ action of gastrointestinal hormone.27. Name the enzymes that help in triglyceride digestion.28. Give the role of counter current exchangers in the kidneys.
    • Long Essays:-1. Draw a neat labeled diagram of cortico-spinal tracts. Describe the role of cortico-spinalpathways in control of posture and movement.2. What are the physiological actions of growth hormone? Describe the effects of excess anddeficiency of growth hormone.Short Essays:-3. Describe the properties of polysynaptic reflexes.4. Write a brief note on postsynaptic potential.5. Give the physiological basis of tests of hearing.6. With the help of a diagram, explain dark adaptation.7. Compare the effects of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine on heart and blood vessels.8. Describe the regulation of secretion of aldosterone.9. Describe various factors that affect spermatogenesis.10. What are the physiological effects of prolactin?11. What is the physiological basis of treatment of myasthenia gravis?12. Describe the differences between the two types of smooth muscles.Short Answers:-13. Describe the physiological basis of inverse stretch reflex.14. Classification of memory.15. Briefly explain denervation supersensitivity.16. What is the physiological basis of Tetany?17. Explain the basic defect in Astigmatism.18. What is the role of tympanic reflex?19. What is the effect of leision in the visual pathway at the level of optic chiasma?20. What are synthetic senses? Give examples.21. What is capacitation?22. What is vestibule-occular reflex?23. Name the factors that affect visual acuity.24. What are the characteristics of catelectrotonus?25. What is the physiological significance of myelination?26. What are the physiologic mechanisms activated by an increase in body temperature?27. Describe the mechanism of milk ejection reflex.28. List the functions of cerebro-spinal fluid.Max Marks: 100Long Essays: [9 marks each]1. Explain how plasma albumin determines fluid movement across capillaries. Name four otherfunctions of plasma proteins. [7+2=9 marks]2. Describe the role of the different types of blood vessels. Explain how it is related to theirstructure. [6+3=9 marks]Short Essays: [5 marks each]3. List the changes in erythroid precursors during maturation. Explain the basis of macrocyticanemia. [3+2=5 marks]
    • 4. Draw a labelled diagram to show the membrane potential of cardiac pacemaker tissue. Explainthe effect of vagal stimulation on this potential. [2+1+2=5 marks]5. Write the Poiseuille Hagen formula. Name two factors that normally alter in it and explain theeffect of each. [2+1+1=5 marks]6. List six changes in the cardiovascular system in response to muscular exercise. Explain thepurpose of any one change. [3+2=5 marks]7. Name the muscles of inspiration and expiration. Explain the role of muscles in normalrespiration. [3+2=5 marks]8. Draw the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve. Explain the significance of its shape. [2+3=5marks]9. Name the components of the enteric nervous system and outline its functions. [2+3=5 marks]10. Name four stimuli that increase gastrin secretion. List the physiologic actions of gastrin.[2+3=5 marks]11. Draw a diagram to show the structure of the renal filtration membrane. Explain thesignificance of each layer. [2+3=5 marks]12. Give the formula to determine effective filtration pressure in glomerular capillaries and statethe normal values.Short Answers: [2 marks each]13. Name two anticoagulants used in the laboratory and explain the mechanism of action of anyone. [1+1=2 marks]14. Name two tests to assess platelet function and give the normal value of each. [1+1=2 marks]15. Define Hematocrit value. Give its significance. [1+1=2 marks]16. Classify body fliud compartments. Give their normal values.17. Compare Simple diffusion and Facilitated diffusion.18. Define Vital capacity. Give its normal value. Name two physiological conditions where it isdecreased.19. Define “Dead space” air and give its importance.20. Draw a labelled diagram to show the layers of respiratory membrane.21. Give the normal content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood.22. List four changes during acclimatization to high altitude.23. What is Achalasia cardia? What is it due to?24. Name the bile salts. Give any two functions.25. Role of receptive relaxation in stomach.26. List the enzymes produced by intestinal mucosa.27. Name two substances absorbed mainly in lower small intestine. Give the role of any one.28. What is artificial kidney? Give any two indications.Long Essays: [ 9 Marks]1. What is the Normal Serum Calcium Level? Describe the Clinical features of Tetany?[1+6+2=9 marks]2. Describe the structure of a Chemical Synapse & the steps involved in transmission across sucha Synapse. Explain any two properties of Synapses. [3+4+2=9 marks]Short Essays: [5 marks each]3. Describe the Metabolic functions of Thyroxine.
    • 4. Describe the endometrial changes occurring in the secretory phase of Menstrual Cycle. Whatis the Hormonal basis for these changes?5. Describe the functions of the Placenta.6. Write a short essay on Parkinsonism.7. Describe the Muscle Spindle and its functions.8. Describe the Steps involved in Excitation-Contraction Coupling in the Skeletal Muscle.9. Classify Nerve Fibres based on diameter & conduction velocity. Mention the factorsinfluencing Nerve Fibre Conduction Velocity.10. Describe the Errors of Refraction and their Correction.11. Trace the Auditory Pathway with the help of a diagram.12. Mention the Basic Modalities of Taste Sensation and their representation on the Tongue.Describe a Taste Bud.Short Answers:13. Explain the actions of Anti Diuretic Hormone.14. Mention the factors regulating secretion of Aldostreone.15. Explain the Mechanism of action of Steroid Hormones on their target cells.16. Explain the mechanism of action of the Oral Pill.17. Explain the Babinski‟s Sign.18. Mention the features of representation of the body in the sensory Cortex.19. Explain Renshaw Cell Inhibition.20. What is Aphasia? Classify21. What is Myasthenia Gravis? What is the basis for its treatment?22. Explain “All or None Law” with reference to Cardiac Muscle & Skeletal Muscle.23. Draw and label a diagram of a Sarcomere.24. What is “ Blind Spot”? Why is it Blind?25. What is the Normal Intra Ocular Pressure? What is its importance?26. Explain Weber‟s Test and its application.27. What is the Normal “Core” Body Temperature? Mention the ways in which the body cangain heat.28. What are the physiological changes that occur when one is exposed to high temperature?Max. Marks: 100Long Essays: [9 marks each]1. Draw a labelled diagram showing nerve supply to the Urinary bladder. Explain the mechanismof Micturition. [3+6=9 marks]2. Describe the conducting system of Heart. Explain the pathway of spread of cardiac impulse.What is A-V Nodal delay? What is its importance? [3+2+2+2=9 marks]Short Essays: [5 marks each]3. What is Haemophilia? Who are the sufferers and who are the carriers and why> how do youmanage a case of Haemophilia? [1+3+1=5 marks]4. What is Reticuloendothelial (Monocyte-Macrophage) system? Outline its function. [2+3=5marks]5. What is meant by Mismatched blood transfusion and explain the consequences of Mismatched
    • blood transfusion. [1+4=5 marks]6. What is Renin? What is the stimulus for its production? How it will help in the regulation ofBlood pressure. [1+2+2=5 marks]7. Define Shock. What are the causes of Shock? What is meant by irreversible Shock? [1+2+2=5marks]8. Name the Peripheral chemoreceptors. Where it is present? How it will regulate respiration?[1+1+3=5 marks]9. Classify Hypoxia. Explain any two of them. [2+3=5 marks]10. What is Surfactant? Where it is present? What is its chemical nature? Explain its role inpulmonary function. [1+1+1+2=5 marks]11. Describe the Hormonal regulation of Pancreatic juice and its functions. [2+3=5 marks]12. What is Gastric Emptying time? Explain the factors which influence it. [1+4=5 marks]Short Answers:13. What is Reticulocytes? What does Reticulocytosis indicate?14. What is Normal E.S.R? What is its clinical importance?15. What is the difference between Diffusion and Osmosis. Give one example for each.16. What is meant by Mitosis and Meiosis? Where does it take place?17. Explain Triple response.18. Explain Bainbridge reflex.19. What is Haldane‟s Effect?20. What is Periodic breathing? Name any two types.21. Give the normal partial pressure of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in the Arterial and Venousblood.22. List the important functions of Saliva.23. List the functions of Liver.24. Explain “SHAM FEEDING”.25. Explain Entero-Hepatic Circulation.26. Name the different cell types of Gastric Mucosa. Mention the functions of each of them.27. Define Renal clearance. Give the normal value for Inulin clearance. What do they indicate?28. What is Artificial kidney? How does it function?Max. Marks: 100Long Essays: [9 marks each]1. Describe the functions and regulation of secretion of Thyroxine. What are the manifestationsof Cretinism? [5+2+2=9 marks]2. Describe the connections and functions of Basal ganglia. Mention the features of Basal ganglialesion. [3+3+3=9 marks]Short Essays: [5 marks each]3. Describe the regulation of secretion of Aldosterone.4. Explain the stages of Spermatogenesis. List the factors regulating it. [3+2=5 marks]5. Explain the methods of contraception applicable to the male.6. Describe the endogenous pain inhibiting mechanism.7. Describe the role of the Hypothalamus in the regulation of (a) Food Intake and (b) Water
    • Intake.8. Outline the steps involved in Neuro-Muscular Transmission.9. Define chronaxie, rheobase and utilization time. Draw a strength duration curve. [1+1+1+2=5marks]10. What is Dark adaptation? Describe the time course of dark adaptation. Name the factorscontributing to dark adaptation. [1+2+2=5 marks]11. Trace the auditory pathway with the help of a diagram.12. Define and classify colour blindness. What is the peculiarity of Inheritance of colourblindness. [1+3+1=5 marks]Short Answers: [2 marks each]13. List the functions of Glucagon.14. List the functions of calcium in the body.15. Explain positive feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation with a suitable example.16. What is corpus leuteum? What are its functions?17. List the functions of C.S.F.18. Explain stereognosis.19. What is phantom limb phenomenon? How do you explain its occurrence?20. List the features of spinal shock.21. What is salutatory conduction and what is its importance?22. Draw and label taste pathway.23. Distinguish between isometric and isotonic contractions.24. What is field of vision? What are the limits of field of vision in the different meridians?25. Describe impedance matching.26. Indicate the pathway of circulation of the aqueous humour.27. What is the normal body temperature? Enumerate the bodily reactions that tend to prevent arise in body temperature.28. What is the normal ICF volume and ECF volume? Mention any one method for thedetermination of the same.Max Marks: 100Long Essays: [9 marks each]1. Explain the intrinsic & extrinsic mechanism of blood coagulation. [6+3=9 marks]2. Describe the composition, functions & regulation of secretion of Gastric juice. [2+3+4=9marks]Short essays: [5 marks each]3. Explain the role of lymphocytes in immunity.4. Classify the fluid compartment of the body giving their normal values. Mention two methodsto determine E.C.F.5. Draw a labelled diagram of Juxta-glomerular apparatus. What are its functions?6. What is G.F.R? What is its normal value? How is it measured?7. Explain the origin & spread of cardiac impulse.8. Define cardiac output. Explain one method of measuring it.9. Describe the circulatory changes during muscular exercise.
    • 10. What is the chemical nature of surfactant? Explain its role in pulmonary function.11. What is asphyxia? Describe the changes occurring in asphyxia.12. Draw a spirogram including various lung volumes and capacities.Short Answers: [2 marks each]13. List the types of hypoxia with examples.14. List the functions of nasal cavity.15. Draw a labelled diagram of ECG.16. Differentiate between First and Second heart sound.17. Explain Bainbridge reflex.18. List the functions of liver.19. Explain “Sham feeding”.20. Explain why glycosuria occurs in diabetes mellitus.21. What is erythroblastosis fetalis?22. What is normal ESR? Mention factors that influence it.23. What are (a) Resistance vessels; (b) Capacitance vessels; (c) Exchange vessels?24. Explain functions of colon.25. What is Haldane‟s effect?26. Explain alveolo-capillary membrane.27. How does renal tubule secrete ammonia? What is its role in acidification of urine?28. What is plasmapheresis? What is its importance?Max. Marks: 100Long Essays: [9 marks each]1. Describe the Endometrial changes during normal Menstrual Cycle. Explain their hormonalbasis. [5+4=9 marks]2. Describe connections and functions of Basal Ganglia. List the clinical features of Parkinson‟sdisease. Explain the physiological principles used in treatment of the symptoms. [4+3+2=9marks]Short Essays:3. Describe the role of hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system in the regulation of anteriorpituitary secretion.4. Name the hyperglycemic Hormones. Explain the mechanism of action of anyone of them.5. Trace the pathway for accomodationreflex. Explain the changes occurring accommodation.6. Mention the contents and functions of middle ear. Explain the tympanic reflex.7. Explain the hormonal control of lactation.8. Briefly outline the role of Endogenous pain inhibiting system.9. Give the neural circuit for reciprocal innervation. Give its functional importance.10. What is EEG? What are its normal waves? What is Alpha block?11. What are the differences between upper motor neuron lesion & lower motor neuron lesion?12. Discuss the molecular basis of muscle contractions.Short Answers:13. List the functions of ADH.
    • 14. Explain with an example “Permissive action” of hormones.15. Mention the clinical features of Addison‟s disease.16. Mention the clinical features of Acromegaly.17. Name the retinal receptors. What are their functions?18. Explain Rinne‟s Test. How do you interpret it?19. Describe impedance matching.20. What are Purkinje-Samson images? What do they demonstrate?21. Explain the basis of visual acuity.22. What is Rigor mortis? What is its medicolegal importance?23. Draw a diagram of Sarcolenticular system and label it.24. Define Starling‟s law of muscle contraction. Explain its molecular basis.25. What is Sarcomere? Draw a labelled diagram.26. What is normal body temperature? What is the role of skin in maintaining it?27. Describe salutatory conduction.28. Four functions of saliva.ESSAYS : ANSWER ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING (1 X 10 = 10 MARKS) 1) Define cardiac cycle; describe the pressure volume changes during the cardiac cycle withneat labelled graph OR2) Describe the respiratory centres and explain the neural regulation of respirationWRITE SHORT NOTES ON ANY THREE (3 X 5 = 15 MARKS)1) Stages of gastric juice secretion2) Define GFR? Give the normal value, how is GFR determined?3) Define vital capacity and FEV1 , give the normal values of each, what is the significance ofeach?4) Sinoaortic reflex mechanism of regulation of blood pressure.WRITE SHORT NOTES ON ANY FIVE (5 X 3= 15 MARKS)1) Define plasma clearance. Mention its formula.2) define hypoxia, its classification and give examples for each.
    • 3) State FICK‟S principle. How cardiac output is determined by this method?4) What is entero hepatic circulation?5) Graphical representation of ECG. Mention the cause for each.6) Mention the properties of cardiac musclesM.M. : 50 Time : 3 HoursNote : Attempt all questions.Illustrate your answers with suitable diagrams & graphs.USE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET FOR EACH PART.PART - I1. What is normal blood pH. How it is maintained. [10]2. Write short notes on:a. Erythropoiesis and factors affecting it. [4]b. Cystometrogram. [3]3. Write in brief:a. Dietary fibre. [4]b. Hypothermia. [4]PART – II4. Write short notes on:a. Neural regulation of Respiration. [5]b. Functions of Platelets and its clinical importance. [4]5. Write in short:a. Renin angiotensin mechanism. [4]b. Cellular immunity. [4]6. Write in short:a. Cardiovascular changes during moderate exercise. [4]b. Axon reflex. [4]M.M. : 50 Time : 3 HoursNote : Attempt all questions.USE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET FOR EACH PART.
    • PART - I1. Describe the connections, functions and applied aspect of Basal ganglia. [10]2. Describe briefly:a. Sequence of events in excitation contraction coupling. [5]b. Structure of Cell membrane and its significance. [3]3. Write notes ona. Simple and facilitated diffusion. [4]b. Ionic basis of action potential. [3]PART – II4. Describe the following:a. Hypothyroidism. [5]b. Actions of Antidiuretic hormone. [5]5. Write notes on:a. Tests done to detect Ovulation. [4]b. Intrauterine contraceptive devices. [4]6. Explain briefly:a. Role of middle ear in hearing. [3]b. Different waves of Electroencephalogram and significance. [4]