UNIT 1 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: AN INTRODUCTIONLesson 11 – Non Verbal Communication After completion of this lesson you will be able to: • Understand the meaning and importance of non-verbal communication. • Categories of Non verbal communication • Ways in interpreting the non verbal cues • Steps to improve non verbal communicationStudents, this is the last lesson of Unit one and here we shall learn about nonverbalcommunications. The blank faces I see today is also a nonverbal communication whereinthe class tells me how prepared they are for the lesson. Ok, lets proceed.Why do we study nonverbal communication?Nonverbal messages communicate emotionsAs we know, it forms the bulk of our communication. Most of that communication isabout emotional information, which in turn is a powerful motivator in human behavior.We base our feelings and emotional responses not so much upon what another personsays, but upon what another person does.Because of nonverbal communication, you cannot not communicateThe very attempt to mask ones communication communicates something in and of itself.If you are playing poker with someone who has been talking normally, but who suddenlystops talking and goes "stone-faced," that person has communicated something. It may bea very good hand, or a very bad hand, but at the least the poker player has communicateda desire to hide what is there. Long periods of silence at the supper table communicate as
clearly as any words that something may be wrong.Nonverbal communication is strongly related to verbal communicationNonverbal cues substitute for, contradict, emphasize, or regulate verbal messages. For instance, if someone asks us which way the restroom is, we may simply point downthe hall. We may compliment someones new haircut while our faces give away the realfeeling of dismay we have. We may describe a fish we caught with a motion of our handsto emphasize the monster-like proportions. And most certainly we regulate the flow ofconversation nonverbally by raising an index finger, nodding and leaning forward, raisingeyebrows, and/or changing eye contact.Problems of studying nonverbal communicationStudying nonverbal communication presents a whole range of challenges that are uniqueto its nature. They include:Nonverbal cues can be ambiguousNo dictionary can accurately classify them. Their meaning varies not only by culture andcontext, but by degree of intention, i.e., you may not be intending to communicate (in theabsence of nerve disorders, people seldom talk out loud when they dont intend to). Arandom gesture may be assumed to have meaning when none at all was intended. Plus,some people who may feel emotion strongly nevertheless find that their bodies simply donot respond appropriately, i.e., someone who is feeling happy may not necessarily smile.Nonverbal cues are continuousThis is practically related to the last point. It is possible to stop talking, but it is generallynot possible to stop nonverbal cues. Also, spoken language has a structure that makes iteasier to tell when a subject has changed, for instance, or to analyze its grammar.Nonverbal does not lend itself to this kind of analysis.Nonverbal cues are multichannelWhile watching someones eyes, you may miss something significant in a hand gesture.Everything is happening at once, and therefore it may be confusing to try to keep up witheverything. Most of us simply do not do so, at least not consciously. This has bothadvantages and disadvantages. Because we interpret nonverbal cues subconsciously andin a "right-brained", holistic fashion, it can happen quickly and fairly accurately.However, because it is not conscious and more "right-brained" it is difficult to put onesfinger on exactly why one got a certain impression from someone, or even to put it into"left-brained" wording.
Nonverbal cues are culture-boundEvidence suggests that humans of all cultures smile when happy and frown whenunhappy. A few other gestures seem to be universal. However, most nonverbal symbolsseem to be even further disconnected from any "essential meaning" than verbal symbols.Gestures seen as positive in one culture (like the thumbs-up gesture in the USA) may beseen as obscene in another culture.Categories of nonverbal communicationsThe major categories of nonverbal communications include the following: personal space eye contact position posture paralanguage expression gesture touch locomotion pacing adornment context physiologic responsesPersonal Space: This category refers to the distance which people feel comfortableapproaching others or having others approach them. People from certain countries, suchas parts of Latin America or the Middle East often feel comfortable standing closer toeach other, while persons of Northern European descent tend to prefer a relatively greaterdistance. Different distances are also intuitively assigned for situations involving intimaterelations, ordinary personal relationships (e.g., friends), social relations (e.g., co-workersor salespeople), or in public places (e.g., in parks, restaurants, or on the street.)Eye Contact: This rich dimension speaks volumes. The Spanish woman in the NineteenthCentury combined eye language with the aid of a fan to say what was not permissible toexpress explicitly. Eye contact modifies the meaning of other nonverbal behaviors. Forexample, people on elevators or crowds can adjust their sense of personal space if theyagree to limit eye contact. What happens if this convention isnt followed? This issue ofeye contact is another important aspect of nonverbal communication.Modern American business culture values a fair degree of eye contact in interpersonalrelations, and looking away is sensed as avoidance or even deviousness. However, somecultures raise children to minimize eye contact, especially with authority figures, lest onebe perceived as arrogant or "uppity." When cultures interact, this inhibition of gaze maybe misinterpreted as "passive aggressive" or worse.Position: The position one takes vis-a-vis the other(s), along with the previous twocategories of distance between people and angle of eye contact all are subsumed under amore general category of "proxemics" in the writings on nonverbal communications .
Posture: A persons bodily stance communicates a rich variety of messages. Consider thefollowing postures and the emotional effect they seem to suggest: slouching stiff slumped twisted (wary) cringing towering crouching angled torso legs spread pelvis tilt shoulders forward general tightness kneeling angle of head jaw thrustParalanguage: "Non-lexical" vocal communications may be considered a type ofnonverbal communication, in its broadest sense, as it can suggest many emotionalnuances. This category includes a number of sub-categories:Inflection (rising, falling, flat...)Pacing (rapid, slow, measured, changing...)Intensity (loud, soft, breathy,... )Tone (nasal, operatic, growling, wheedling, whining...)Pitch (high, medium, low, changes...)Pauses (meaningful, disorganized, shy, hesitant...)]Facial Expression: The face is more highly developed as an organ of expression inhumans than any other animal. Some of these become quite habitual, almost fixed intothe chronic muscular structure of the face. For instance, in some parts of the South, theregional pattern of holding the jaw tight creates a slight bulge in the temples due to anovergrowth or "hypertrophy" of those jaw muscles that arise in that area. This creates acharacteristic appearance. The squint of people who live a lot in the sun is anotherexample. More transient expressions often reveal feelings that a person is not intending tocommunicate or even aware of. Here are just a few to warm you up: pensive amused sad barely tolerant warning pouting anxious sexually attracted startled confused sleepy intoxicatedGesture: There are many kinds of gestures: clenching fist shaking a finger pointing biting fingernails tugging at hair squirming rubbing chin smoothing hair folding arms raising eyebrows pursing lips narrowing eyes scratching head looking away hands on hips hands behind head rubbing nose rocking sticking out tongue tugging earlobe waving
These, too, have many different meanings in different cultures, and what may be friendlyin one country or region can be an insult in another .Touch: How one person touches another communicates a great deal of information: Is agrip gentle or firm, and does one hold the other person on the back of the upper arm, onthe shoulder, or in the middle of the back. Is the gesture a push or a tug? Is the touchcloser to a pat, a rub, or a grabbing? People have different areas of personal intimacy, andthis refers not only to the sexual dimension, but also the dimension of self-control. Manyadolescents are particularly sensitive to any touching that could be interpreted aspatronizing or undue familiarity. Even the angle of ones holding anothers hand mightsuggest a hurrying or coercive implicit attitude, or on the other hand, a respectful, gentle,permission-giving approach .Locomotion: The style of physical movement in space also communicates a great deal, aswell as affecting the feelings of the person doing the moving slither crawl totter walk stroll shuffle hurry run jog spring tiptoe march jump hop skip climb swing acrobatics swim slinkPacing: This is the way an action is done. jerky pressured nervous gradual graceful fatigued tense easy shaky deliberate furtive clumsy A related variable is the time it takes to react to a stimulus, called "latency ofresponse." Some people seem to react to questions, interact in conversations, or areslower or faster "on the uptake" than others.Adornment: Our communications are also affected by a variety of other variables, suchas clothes, makeup, and accessories. These offer signals relating to context (e.g. formalvs. informal), status, and individuality. The ways people carry cigarettes, pipes, canes, orrelate to their belts, suspenders, or glasses also suggests different semiotic meanings.(Semiotics is the science of the emotional or psychological impact of signs, appearances–not words–thats "semantics"-- but of how things look.)Context: While this category is not actually a mode of nonverbal communication, thesetting up of a room or how one places oneself in that room is a powerfully suggestiveaction. Where one sits in the group is often useful in diagnosing that persons attitudetoward the situation. Group leaders need to be especially alert to the way the group roomis organized. Consider the following variables and imagine how they might affect theinteraction:
- amount and source of light- color of the lighting- obvious props, a podium, blackboard- the size of the room- colors of the walls, floor, furniture- seating arrangements- number of people present- environmental sounds, smells, and temperature- the numbers and ratios of high-status and low status people- the positioning of the various people in the space, who sits next to whom, who sits apart, who sits close, etc.Physiological Responses: This, too, is an exceptional category, because it cannot bepracticed voluntarily. Still, its useful for therapists and group members to become moreaware of these subtle signs of emotion. It often helps to comment on these observations,as it implicitly gives permission to the person experiencing the emotion to more fullyopen to that feeling; or, sometimes, to more actively suppress it. Either way, the existenceof that signal is made explicit in the group process. Some of the clues to physiologicalprocesses include: shaking flaring of nostrils trembling chin sweating blanching cold clammy skin blushing moisture in eyes flushing blinking swallowing breathing heavilyWhile a few of these behaviors can be mimicked, for the most part these reactions happeninvoluntarily. The only exercise is to watch for these reactions in oneself or others, atleast mentally note their occurrence, and consider what the meaning of that emotionalreaction might be.Interpreting nonverbal cuesImmediacyImmediacy cues communicate liking and pleasure. We move toward persons and thingswe like and avoid or move away from those we dislike. Generally, we instinctivelydecide whether we like someone or not and then later find "reasons" to back up ourfeelings. We can summarize the nonverbal behaviors then by saying that cues that moveor lean or otherwise open up or go toward the other person communicate liking. Cues that fall in this dimension include eye contact, mutual eye contact, touching,leaning forward, and touching.
ArousalArousal in this usage is similar to animation. That is, when we are interested incommunicating with someone else, we tend to be more animated. A flat tone of voice andvery little movement indicate a lack of interest. Cues that fall in this dimension include eye contact, varied vocal cues, animated facialexpressions, leaning forward, movement in general.DominanceThese cues indicate something about the balance of power in a relationship. Theycommunicate information about relative or perceived status, position, and importance. For instance, a person of high status tends to have a relaxed body posture wheninteracting with a person of lower status. High-status people tend to have more spacearound them, such as bigger offices, and more "barriers" such as more hallways, doors,and gatekeepers such as secretaries.Furniture, clothing, and location also tend to communicate in this dimension.Improving nonverbal communicationCheck contextDont try to interpret cues isolated from other such cues, from the verbal communication,or from the physical or emotional context. As weve said in class, someones arms beingcrossed may indicate nothing more than physical discomfort from a cold room.Look for clustersThis is the nonverbal context itself. See if the arms being crossed are accompanied by aresistance to eye contact and a flat tone of voice.Consider past experienceWe can more accurately interpret the behavior of people we know. For one thing, wenotice changes in behavior more than the behavior itself. Unless we know someone, we
cant know that something has changed. For another thing, we interpret patterns ofbehavior. Your mother may always cry when you come home from school with an A, andso you learn that this represent happiness in that particular situation.Practice perception checkingThis is basically the art of asking questions. For instance, you come home and announceto your significant other that you have received a great promotion that requires you tomove to another state. Your announcement is met with silence. Rather than assume thats/he is upset, ask, "Does your silence mean that youre opposed to the move?" You mayfind out that s/he is simply stunned at the opportunity. Recognize that you are interpretingobserved behavior, not reading a mind, and check out your observation.SIX WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION It is not only what you say in the classroom that is important, but its how you say it that can make the difference to students. Nonverbal messages are an essential component of communication. Some major areas of nonverbal behaviors to explore are: • Eye contact • Facial expressions • Gestures • Posture and body orientation • Proximity • Para linguistics • Humor Eye contact: Eye contact, an important channel of interpersonal communication, helps regulate the flow of communication. And it signals interest in others. Furthermore, eye contact with audiences increases the speakers credibility. Teachers who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth and credibility. Facial expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits: • Happiness
• Friendliness • Warmth • Liking • AffiliationThus, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warmand approachable. Smiling is often contagious and students will react favorably andlearn more.Gestures:If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring, stiff andunanimated. A lively and animated teaching style captures students attention, makesthe material more interesting, facilitates learning and provides a bit of entertainment.Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate positive reinforcement to students andindicate that you are listening.Posture and body orientation:You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk, talk, stand and sit.Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to studentsthat you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Furthermore, interpersonalcloseness results when you and your students face each other. Speaking with yourback turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicatesdisinterest to your class.Proximity:Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with students. Youshould look for signals of discomfort caused by invading students space. Some ofthese are: • Rocking • Leg swinging • Tapping • Gaze aversionTypically, in large college classes space invasion is not a problem. In fact, there isusually too much distance. To counteract this, move around the classroom toincrease interaction with your students. Increasing proximity enables you to makebetter eye contact and increases the opportunities for students to speak.Paralinguistics:This facet of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as:
• Tone • Pitch • Rhythm • Timbre • Loudness • Inflection For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of your voice. One of the major criticisms is of instructors who speak in a monotone. Listeners perceive these instructors as boring and dull. Students report that they learn less and lose interest more quickly when listening to teachers who have not learned to modulate their voices. Humor: Humor is often overlooked as a teaching tool, and it is too often not encouraged in college classrooms. Laughter releases stress and tension for both instructor and student. You should develop the ability to laugh at yourself and encourage students to do the same. It fosters a friendly environment that facilitates learning. Obviously, adequate knowledge of the subject matter is crucial to your success; however, its not the only crucial element. Creating a climate that facilitates learning and retention demands good nonverbal and verbal skills. To improve your nonverbal skills, record your speaking on video tape. Then ask a colleague in communications to suggest refinements.PERCEPTIONS, ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, VALUES, NORMS AND EXPERIENCESAND THEIR IMPACT ON COMMUNICATIONHuman beings constitute the integral part of any communication. It is people who giveout messages. It is people who receive messages. It is people who understand messagesand act on them. Herein lies the significance of human behavior and its impact oncommunication. Human beings are extremely divergent and no two individuals areidentical in all respects. Man is not just a physical being or a rational being. He is a socialand an emotional being. These factors bring in a new dimension to the entire process ofcommunication. Effective communication becomes more challenging. It is rightlyobserved, "meaning is in people, not in words". Human beings interpret the words. Theytranslate the messages they receive. In translating the messages, in interpreting the words,each individual brings into the process his or her total personality. The literal andmechanical dimension apart, the behavioral dimension assumes significance.Human behavior in any given context is the product of his or her perceptions, attitudes,beliefs, values, norms and experiences. They distinctly influence a persons role andresponse in communication as the sender and the receiver. In order to ensure theeffectiveness of communication, it is, therefore, very essential that we understand themeaning and impact of each one of them. Each one of them may bring in a bias or an
expectation that will affect communication. Let us, therefore, take a brief look at each ofthem.PerceptionThe word perception has many shades of meaning as per the dictionary. It can mean "actor power of perceiving or discernment or appreciation of any modification ofconsciousness. It could also be used to indicate the combining of sensations into a . recognitionof an object or reception of a stimulus or action by which the mind refers its sensation3to external object as cause and so on.Perception implies discernment, reception of a stimulus and an act by which the mindrefers its sensations to an external object as cause. In other words, perception is a processof making sense out of events. It is we who perceive the meaning of any event. In theorganisational context, the commonly used word is "role perception". As against adefined role, there is a perceived role. The definition mayor may not be adequate. It is theattitude of the individuals that will influence their perception of the role-whether tocontinue in the defined role or go beyond it. Great leaders and achievers bring their ownperceptions to the legally or organizationally defmed roles. It is such positive perceptionsthat help people become more creative and make human endeavour much moremeaningful.Good or BadBeautiful or UglySincere or ManipulativeFair or UnfairPrecise or ExaggeratedThese are not absolutes. They have an element of judgment. Perception is the action bywhich the mind refers its sensations to these external stimuli and the individual draws hisown interpretations. A good communicator has to have a good understanding of theperceptions of the persons with whom he is communicating. He has to recognize the factthat others may not necessarily perceive his intentions as he himself does.MAKING SENSE OUT OF EVENTSPerception is the process of making sense out of events. A classic example is that of twosalesmen of a shoe making company who visit a remote village and make the followingobservations:Salesman A: "There is absolutely no scope. No one wears shoes here".Salesman B: "No one wears shoes here. There is tremendous scope". .Although the event or information base is the same, the inferences are quite different.AttitudeThe dictionary provides several meanings to the word attitude. Attitude means a >postureor position or affected posture; settled behaviour, as indicating any condition of things orpersons viewed as expressing some thought, feeling etc.
Attitudes exercise a strong influence on human relationships .in any sphere" be it family,society, group, organisation or nation. Attitudes can be both positive and negative.Positive attitudes contribute to the _,effectiveness of any process. Negative attitudeshinder-or vitiate the process. Attitudes, however, are not necessarily permanent in nature.It is possible, with conscious efforts, to change the’ attitude of a person or group ofpersons. Organisations and businesses are all the time making efforts to change attitudesto make them more positive. Negative attitudes bring negative: feelings that undermineachievement of personal and organisational objectives.Deficiencies in service by the staff at the counters and the front line staff, in serviceorganizations like banks can be attributed to attitudinal factors as well. They cancommunicate better, they can interact more meaningfully by developing the right attitude.In the training programmes organised by various organisations, the attitudinal andbehavioural aspects are recognised to be as important as imparting of knowledge anddevelopment of skills.BeliefsThe word belief again has different shades of meaning: faith-, intuition, judgement, trustor confidence, acceptance as true or existing of any fact or statement, persuasionof the truth of anything etc.Like perceptions and attitudes, people have their beliefs as well. They are not easilychanged. Beliefs can cover different areas. Belief in God, fate, superstition, religion andbelief in future. So strong are such beliefs, that quite often people spend much time,energy and efforts in pursuing those beliefs.While it is appropriate to recognise the existence of beliefs, it is not always desirable tomake a judgement on various beliefs. The fact that one individual, or a group ofpersons, believes-in a particular father judgement does not mean that all others have tonecessarily subscribe to it. Organisations generally exhibit a degree of tolerance toaccommodate such beliefs as long as they do not affect their functioning. Every country,every race, every group has its share of beliefs developed over the years, which must berecognised.ValuesValues constitute yet another dimension of human behaviour. Values exist at variouslevels. There are individual values, social values, organisational values, national valuesand one can even refer to global values. They are so integral that often one can see theexistence of a value system within a group or community.Values refer to a certain intrinsic quality or worth. Values are seen as standards or criteriathat people develop for guiding their actions. Values are Cleve loped or adopted in termsof various influences, upbringing, group identification, needs, expectations andc<5mparative standards. Values and ethics often go together. Ethics relates to thetreatment of morality or duty. Ethics deals with that branch of philosophy which isconcerned with human character and conduct. When we refer to values we are alsoreferring to the ethical dimensions, i.e., the human character, conduct and moral values.
It is widely accepted that any business or organisation can achieve sustainable successonly when its activities are governed by a sound value system. Every- profession has tohave its set of values. There are values in teaching, in banking, in trading, in corporategovernance etc. These values cover various groups of people with whom interaction takesplace. These are values in relation to employees, values in relation to customers, values inrelation to competitors, values in relation to community and so on.The process of communication is influenced _Y.. values and value systems. It would benecessary to take note of the degree of congruence or divergence in values. When there isa high degree of congruence, communication is easy. If the values are highly divergent,communication becomes more complex.Norms and experiencesNorms and experiences are also among the factors which influence the process ofcommunication. A norm relates to a rule, a pattern or an authoritative standard. It is alsounderstood as the ordinary or most frequent value or state.While discussing the norms, it is also appropriate to refer to the normal standards. Everybusiness or profession normally adopts and articulates such norms or standards. Theymay be in the nature of expectations, compliances or prescriptions. Norms may alsorelate to a set of dos and donts. We often talk about prudential norms, priority sectornorms (in banking), entry norms, and the like. Similarly human beings face a variety of experiences in their lives and work situations.People naturally tend to relate events and messages to their previous experience indealing with them. People associated with the process of communication shouldnecessarily take cognizance of this. Based on their past experience, people maycategories communicators and communications like boring speaker, impatient listener,not very articulate, prone to exaggeration, evasive, contradicts himself, persuasive, wellinformed, insightful, etc. A good communicator makes it a point to be in the know ofsuch perceptions and impressions. He tries to overcome negative impressions throughconscious efforts.Various aspects of human behavior generally come into play in any human interactionand thereby make the communication process more complicated. There are both positiveand negative aspects. Some of them exercise a strong influence, others dont. Some of thenegative factors may exist and will have to be removed so as to make communicationeffective. A good communicator is one who develops a clear insight into human behaviorand uses that knowledge to his advantage.
Honing Your Nonverbal CommunicationSkillsTHE BOTTOM LINE: To improve your communication skills use bodylanguage such as eye contact, facial expressions and gestures to make yourconversation more interesting.The words you use have only a 7% impact on your communication; your tone of voice,another 38%. But your nonverbal body language has a 55% impact on the message youretrying to communicate.Body language refers to the way you sit, stand, move and look when talking to others.Without it, your conversations would be boring and less effective. These five nonverbalcommunication skills will help you add vitality to your conversations.EYE CONTACTWhere you look is one of the most obvious aspects of behavior when talking to anotherperson. Looking directly at the person as you speak helps to communicate your sincerityand increases the directness of your message. It shows you respect the person, whichhelps create a more positive relationship.
Even more importantly, avoiding eye contact can make you seem sneaky, guilty, bashfulor frightened. The common expression “He couldnt look me in the eye” is often used todescribe a persons guilt.While using eye contact, be careful not to stare, squint or blink your eyes rapidly. Itsmore natural to look away from time to time in a relaxed, comfortable manner.BODY POSITIONObserve how people stand or sit while talking to others. Youll be surprised how manypeople talk with their bodies turned away from those theyre speaking to.Standing side by side may disconnect you from your partner, and standing face to facemay seem confrontational. Instead, stand or sit at an angle from the other person. And,whenever possible, sit or stand at the same eye level as the other party, which signalsyoure equals and decreases any feelings of intimidation.Posture also matters. Good posture reflects your confidence and helps ensure others willpay more attention to your message.DISTANCEPay attention to how close you are to another person. Some people feel comfortable withphysical closeness; others may be offended. Many cultures also place limitations on suchcloseness. If you sense someone feels uncom fortable, put a little more space betweenyou.GESTURESGesturing with your hands adds life and meaning to your message. Practice in front of amirror using your hands to emphasize important points. When not gesturing, dont crossyour arms; that signals anger or a lack or openness. And dont play with your clothing,jewelry, pencils, etc., which is distracting. Instead, relax your arms at your side.FACIAL EXPRESSIONHave you ever seen someone trying to express anger while smiling? It just doesnt comeacross. Effective assertions require an expression that agrees with the message. If youresending mixed messages, others will believe your facial expression, not your words. Forexample: A forced smile makes you appear insincere. Tension can be seen in your facewith a wrinkling forehead or a pursed or tight-lipped moutb. Rolling your eyes and otherdisapproving looks can have powerful negative effects on communication.If you have to say something negative, sit down and have a meaningful discussion withthe other person; your body language will naturally coincide with your verbal message.
PRACTICE MAKES PERFECTTry to use these five skills each day to improve your nonverbal communication. Otherswill find you more enjoyable to talk to, and youll communicate more persuasively,interestingly and effectively.By Harriet Meyerson, president of the Confidence Center in Dallas.
The Graduates CV elements like interviewing methods, what to expect, how to BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONTo successfully sell yourself to a prospective employer, as a handle those tricky questions, preparation, what to take withgraduate, you need to show him your strengths and minimize you, what to discuss and what not to discuss.your weaker points. The way to do this successfully is to The job interview is a time for them to get to know you better.emphasize on your studies and the relevant experience you have. They have already decided that you have the experience andAt this stage of your career, it is probable that your recent knowledge that they require, that is why they want to meet yougraduate studies are your biggest selling point and therefore in person. What they really want to see at the interview is whothey need to