WOMEN EMPOWERMENT DR. RAGHAVENDRA HUCHCHANNAVAR JUNIOR RESIDENT PGIMS, ROHTAK.
The origin of a child is a mother, a woman… sheshows a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman. Sushmita Sen, Miss Universe, 1994
CONTENTS• Introduction• Current status of women 1. Economic participation 2. Political empowerment 3. Educational attainment 4. Health and well-being 5. Legislative measures• Gender budgeting• Some bright spots
INTRODUCTION UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)•Article 1: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights…” •Article 3: “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person”
INTRODUCTION• According to the UN definition, women’s empowerment has five components: • Womens sense of self-worth; • Right to have and to determine choices; • Right to have access to opportunities and resources; • Right to have the power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home; • Ability to influence the direction of social change to create more social and economic order, nationally and internationally.
INTRODUCTION• Vedic period: Scholars believe that in ancient India(1500-1000 BC), the women enjoyed equal status with men in all fields of life, had freedom to choose partners for marriage. Daughters were not considered as liability or unwelcomed guest in the family.• However, later (approximately 500 B.C.), the status of women began to decline.• Age of Manusmriti (500 – 200 BC): Women were not given freedom at any point of time in her life. Not marring a girl before the age of 14 years was a sin.
INTRODUCTION Sati system, child marriage, purdah,Medieval Period devdasi, ban on widow remarriage
INTRODUCTION19th century Raja Ram Mohan Roy Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Sati practice abolished - 1829 Widow Remarriage Act – 1856
INTRODUCTION Annie Besant Sarojini NaiduQueen of Jhansi 1st female president 1st Indian female president ofIndian Rebellion of 1857 INC - 1925
I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achievedDr B R Ambedkar
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT• According to International Labour Organisation (ILO) reports • while women represent – 50 percent of the world adult population and – a third of the official labour force, • they perform – nearly two-third of all working hours, and – receive only a tenth of world income.
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENTAmong the population age 15-49 87• Men are 2 times as likely to be 79 employed• Men are 2.7 times as likely to be employed for cash 43 29• Among the employed, 64% of women vs. 91% of men earn cash• Female share of population employed for cash in non- Employed Employed for cash agricultural occupations is 22% Women Men Source: NFHS 3, India, 2005-06
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT HAVE TAKEN LOAN FROM 5 MICROCREDIT PROGRAM HAVE MONEY WHICH THEY CAN 45 DECIDE HOW TO USEHAVE A BANK OR SAVINGS ACCOUNT 15 THAT THEY THEMSELVES USE 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percentage of women Source: NFHS 3, India, 2005-06
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT• DISTRICT RURAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY:• covers aspects of Self Employment in rural areas such as organization of the poor into self help groups, training, credit, technology, traditional industries, infrastructure and marketing.• specifically earmarked for upliftment of certain target groups (SC/ST, women and disabled).
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT• Swayamsidha scheme; 2001 : Self Help Groups based programme with emphasis on convergence activities. Objective is to ensure that Self Help Groups members avail the benefit of all schemes and services in an integrated and holistic manner. Involved in Income Generating Activities i.e. Food preservation, Vermi Compost, Embroidery, Beautician, Dari making, Gur patti making, Cutting & Tailoring etc. Implemented in 6 districts of Haryana State (Ambala, Panchkula, Rewari, Hissar, Narnaul and Yamuna Nagar) under which 13 blocks have been
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT• Haryana Women Development Corporation (HWDC); 1982 – Set up as Haryana Economically Weaker Sections Kalyan Nigam Limited – Later it was named as HWDC – Micro Credit Scheme through HWDC: loans to SHGs and the individual members. HWDC District office, Rohtak • H. No. 557-B, Kamal Colony, Tilak Nagar • Phone No.: 01262-279701
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT• Rashtriya Mahila Kosh Scheme recognizes SMS as an eligible NGO for the purpose of promoting micro-credit and undertaken the responsibility of training members of SMS. Skill Development training regarding MushroomCultivation, Tailoring ,Beauty Culture Training andIntegrated Training programme on Diary productions havealso been conducted respectively in District Sonipat.
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT• Support to Training and Employment Programme of Women (STEP) scheme under Ministry of WCD – with a view to help assetless and marginalised women become economically self-reliant• Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana - Development of Women & Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)• Short stay home for Women and Girls (SSH)• Schemes of department of animal husbandary, dairying, fisheries.• Promotion and strengthening of agricultural mechanization through training, testing and demonstration.• Marketing assistance scheme
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT• Scheme of fund for regeneration of traditional industries (SFURTI)• National award scheme.• Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme (CLCSS)• Performance and credit rating scheme for small industries• Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana• Indira Awaas Yojana
POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT• The global average of women holding parliamentary seats (18.6 percent) is far from the target of 30 percent set in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action.• Many factors hinder women’s political participation, such as – political parties being slow to respond to Women’s interest, – under-investment in women’s campaigns, – cultural barriers, and – their domestic and social responsibilities.• Proven means for supporting Women’s engagement in political competition: – Quotas such as reserved seats,
POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT No. of women candidates contested in election• 556 women candidates 600 556 contested the polls in 2009 No. of women candidates 500 AS AGAINST 400 355 284 300 355 (2004) & 284 (1999) 200 100 0 1999 2004 2009 Year
POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT 58.2 48.0 • Participation of women in elections increased over the years • Proportion of women turnout for voting (2009) – 58.2%Source: Election Commission of India
POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT 11 • Proportion of women in 10.5 10.3Proportion of women in national parliament 10 9.5 9.7 9.6 9.2 national parliament 9 9.1 8.5 dipped till year 2007 8 7.5 7 6.5 6 Source : upsc.gov.in 1991 1999 2004 2007 2009
POLITICAL EMPOWERMENTWomen’s position in the administrative jobs (2009) 100% 10.4 11.9 4.4 4.7 90% 80% 70% 60% Women 50% 89.6 88.1 95.6 95.3 Men 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2002 2006 2005 2006 IAS IPS Source : upsc.gov.in
POLITICAL EMPOWERMENTWomen’s position in the administrative jobs (2009)Panchayti raj institutions Parliament 10.3 36.8363.17 89.7 Women Men Women Source : upsc.gov.in Men
POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT• The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill, 2010 as approved by Rajya Sabha, seeks to reserve one third of all seats for women in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, and the state legislative assemblies including Delhi.
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT The education andempowerment of women throughout the world cannot fail to result in amore caring, tolerant, and peaceful life for all. - Aung San Suu Kyi General SecretaryNational League for Democracy, Burma, Nobel Peace Prize in 1991
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Percent distribution of men and women age 15-49 by highest level of education No education Men 18 27 20 35 < 8 years completeWome 8-9 years n 41 23 14 22 complete 10 years complete and above
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT• Barriers to Female Education – Poverty: one-third of India’s population : BPL – Social values and parental preferences – Inadequate school facilities – Shortage of female teachers: 29 % (prim.) & 22% (univ.) – Lack of transport facilities – Lack of hostel facilities for girls – Sexual harassment in school
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT• Women with some formal education are more likely to – delay marriage and child birth, – ensure their children are immunized, – be better informed about their own and their children nutritional requirements & – adopt birth spacing practices. As a result, their children have higher survival rates & tend to be healthier & better nourished.
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT• SARVA SIKSHA ABHIYAAN (SSA - 2000) aims to bridge social, regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the management of schools.Goals of SSA :• Open new schools in areas which do not have them and to expand existing school infrastructures and maintenance.• Address inadequate teacher numbers, and provide training a development for existing teachers• Provide quality elementary education including life skills with a special focus on the education of girls and children with special needs as well as computer
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT• National Mission for Empowerment of Women: notified on 8th of March, 2010. The Mission aims at implementing the women centric programmes in a mission mode to achieve better coordination.• The Mission has also been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women.
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT• The Poorna Shakti Kendra (PSK)• Focus areas of mission – Access to health, – Drinking water, – Sanitation and hygiene facilities for women coverage of all girls especially those belonging to vulnerable groups in schools from primary to class 12, – Higher and Professional education for girls/women – Skill development, – Micro credit,
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT– Vocational Training,– SHG development– Dissemination of information taking steps to prevent crime against women and taking steps for a safe environment for women.
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT• Education Loan Scheme: – to encourage women/ girls belonging to Haryana State to pursue higher education at Graduate/ PG/ Doctoral/ Post Doctoral level in the country and abroad. (HARYANA WOMEN DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION) – Integrated child protection scheme – Vocationalization of secondary education – Higher and technical education• Swadhar – A scheme for women in difficult circumstances (destitute and deserted women, widows, women ex -prisoners, victims of sexual abuse)
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT• Around 60 per cent of countries have achieved gender parity in primary education, 30 percent in secondary education and only 6 per cent in tertiary education.
WOMEN’S HEALTHNote: Countries are categorized according to GII scores into four quartiles, reflecting a relative grouping with 34-35 countries in each.GII – MMR, Adolescent preg %, seats occupied in parliament & women labour %
WOMEN’S HEALTH• Maternal mortality ratio• Sex ratio• Malnutrition• Family planning• Institutional delivery• Domestic violence
WOMEN’S HEALTH 940FEMALE PER THOUSAND MALE 940 933 920 900 877 880 861 2001 860 2011 840 2011 820 2001 INDIA SEX RATIO HARYANA SEX RATIO Sex ratio of Rohtak - 868
FEMALE PER THOUSAND MALE WOMEN’S HEALTH 914 940 927 920 900 880 830 860 840 2001 820 819 2011 800 2011 780 760 2001 INDIA CHILD SEX RATIO HARYANA CHILD SEX RATIO Child sex ratio of Rohtak - 807
WOMEN’S HEALTH Percent of women and men age 15-49 Women Men 55 36 34 24 13 9BMI below normal Overweight/Obese Anaemic
WOMEN’S HEALTHPercent Delivery assisted by health Institutional Delivery personnel 49 41 34 42 NFHS-2 NFHS-3 NFHS-2 NFHS-3
WOMEN’S HEALTH• Population stabilization cannot be achieved by mere physical provisioning of contraception mix or emergency obstetric care. It is critical to involve people - and enable women in particular – to have a say in decisions relating to reproduction and livelihood.• This brings in the issues of reproductive rights of women and of the larger conceptual issues of gender equality and of empowerment of women within and outside the household.
WOMEN’S HEALTH Any ANC increased by 11 percentage points and 3+ ANC visits by 7 percentage points between NFHS-2 and NFHS-3 Still, less than half of women get ANC in the first trimester and get 3+ ANC visits Institutional deliveries increased by 7 percentage points between NFHS-2 and NFHS-3 Nonetheless, more than half the deliveries still take place at home; half are not assisted by health personnel
Trends in Institutional Deliveries by StatePercentage point change between NFHS-2and NFHS-3 StatesRemained unchanged Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland(2 states)Increased less than 7 percentage point Assam, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, (7 states) Jharkhand, Tripura, West BengalIncreased by 7-14 percentage points Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya(10 states) Pradesh, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh , MizoramIncreased by 15 or more percentage points Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal(10 states) Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttaranchal
WOMEN’S HEALTH Percent of currently married women age 15-49 56 48 49 NFHS-1 NFHS-2 NFHS-3 43 41 37 37 34 27 3 5 4 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 D ll d om n n d Pi ho IU tio ho tio d et za et za on m m ili ili C er erny n er st stA od e e al al m M m ny Fe A
WOMEN’S HEALTHDesire for No More Children among Women with 2 Children Percent 83 90 88 72 76 66 61 47 37 NFHS-1 NFHS-2 NFHS-3 2 sons 1 son and 1 daughter 2 daughters
WOMEN’S HEALTH• SABLA scheme (Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent girls – RGSEAG)• The SABLA scheme aims at empowering Adolescent Girls of 11-18 years by improving their nutritional and health status, upgradation of home skills, life skills and vocational skills. The girls will be equipped with information on health and family welfare, hygiene and guidance on existing public services.• The scheme would be implemented using the platform of ICDS and AWCs would be the focal point for the delivery of services. However, where infrastructure and other facilities are inadequate in AWCs, then alternative arrangements will have to be made in schools/ Panchayat Community buildings.
WOMEN’S HEALTH• New schemes for well being of mother and new born care - Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK), launched on 1st June, 2011, entitles all pregnant women delivering in public health institutions to absolutely free and no expense delivery including Caesarean section. The initiative stipulates free drugs, diagnostics, blood and diet, besides free transport from home to institution, between facilities in case of a referral and drop back home.
WOMEN’S HEALTH• Reproductive and Child Health (RCH)• Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)• NRHM• Janani suraksha yojana• Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana• Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme• Kishori Shakti Yojana• Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
“Domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women, more than car accidents, mugging, or rapes combined.”
DOMESTIC VIOLENCESpousal Violence: The most common form of violence against married women Percent of ever-married women age 15-49 40 Ever In the past 12 months 37 35 27 24 21 16 10 11 7 Physical, Physical or Physical Sexual Emotional sexual, or sexual violence violence violence violence emotional violence
DOMESTIC VIOLENCEPercent of women who haveexperienced spousal violencewho had: Severe burns 2 Wounds, broken bones/teeth, 7 other serious injury Eye injuries, sprains, 9 dislocations, or burns Cuts, bruises, or aches 36 Any of these injuries 40
• National Mission for Empowerment of Women-Ministry of Women and Child Development.Partner Ministries & Departments for programmes relatedto empowerment of women facilitated by NMEW: – Ministry of Human Resource Development – Ministry of Finance – Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation – Ministry of Rural Development – Ministry of Panchayati Raj – Department of Agriculture and Cooperation
– Ministry of Health & Family Welfare– Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises– Ministry of Law & Justice– Ministry of Environment & Forests– Ministry of Labour & Employment– Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment
NATIONAL POLICY FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN (2001)• Government had declared 2001 as the year of Women’s Empowerment by adopting a National Policy to offer “Swashakti” to women.• Goal - The goal of this Policy is to bring about theadvancement, development and empowerment of women.• The objectives of this policy include – Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full development of women.
NATIONAL POLICY FOR THEEMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN (2001)– Enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom by women on equal basis with men in all spheres.– Equal access to participation and decision making, health care.– Strengthening legal system, elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and girl child– Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly women’s organisations.
LEGAL EMPOWERMENT• There are several laws specially for women & their constitutional safe guards- - The Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929 - The Factory Act 1948 - The Plantation Labor Act 1951 - The Mines Act 1951 - Hindu Marriage Act 1955 - Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act 1956 - The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 - The Maternity Benefit Act 1961 - MTP Act 1971 - The Equal Remuneration Act 1976
LEGAL EMPOWERMENT– The Indecent Representation of Women [Prohibition] Act 1986– Constitutional amendments for reservation of seats in the local bodies of Panchayat and Municipalities 1993– Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (PNDT) act 1994– Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005
GENDER BUDGETING is a budget that acknowledges thegender patterns in society and allocatesmoney to implement policies andprogrammes that will change thesepatterns in a way that moves towards amore gender equal society.
GENDER BUDGETING Aims of Gender Budgeting• Close gaps/improve links between policy pronouncements, resource allocation and outcomes on gender equality• Key tool for sensitisation of various stakeholders• Govts-tool for effective policy implementation• Committee for Gender mainstreaming: monitors beneficiary oriented schemes of Ministries
GENDER BUDGETING Categorisation• Category I: schemes explicitly mentioned as women specific schemes in budget allocation of concerned Ministries• Category II: schemes not completely focused on women but schemes with components on women (GOI calls it pro-women schemes)• Category III: Ministries, with no explicit listing of women specific schemes & no women components
SOME BRIGHT SPOTS• Women in Uttar Pradesh have joined hands and have formed an association called as Gulabi gang.• The gang is fighting against all the big people in power who think they can exploit the women as they are physically and emotionally weak.• Till the date they have aided a lot of women in the respective area. No matter what the problem is. Let it be domestic violence, rape, dowry you name it the gang is there to help.
SOME BRIGHT SPOTS• India’s President, Speaker of the Lok Sabha (Lower House of Parliament), Leader of the ruling Congress Party and Leader of the Opposition are all women.• India is also the very first country to send an all female police contingent to participate in a UN peace keeping mission.
The women power we have.. Health system AWW 1.2 million Women empowerment ASHA by community 0.75 million participation ANM 0.19 million
• I have only one request. I do not ask for money Although I have need of it, I do not ask for meat . . .• I have only one request, And all I ask is That you remove The road block From my path.
REFERENCES• District Rural Development Agency, http://www.haryanarural.gov.in/DRDA.• National Family Health Survey 2005-06 (NFHS-3)• Empowering Women: Promoting Gender Equaility: UNFPA• Women’s Empowerment Through Gender Budgeting - Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, November 2005.• Mission National Mission for Empowerment of Women- Ministry of Women & Child development - nmew.gov.in• UNIFEM - unifem.org
REFERENCES• Human Development Report 2010, Human Development Report Office, UNDP.• UN Women’s Strategic Plan 2012 – 2013.• National Policy for the Empowerment of Women 2001.• Report - Strategies for Empowerment of Women, Development of Children and Issues for Adolescents, National Commission on Population, GoI.• Haryana Women Development Corporation• United Nations Department of Public Information. www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/index.asp
REFERENCES• Department of Women and Child Development , govt. of Haryana, wcdhry.gov.in/SWAYAMSIDHA.• Women in India – Wikipedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_India• indiacurrentaffairs.org/reservation-for-women-in-legislative- houses-towards-women empowerment.• www.indiastand.com/articles/the-power-of-pink