VTU MBA-TQM 12MBA42 Module 7


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VTU MBA-TQM 12MBA42 Module 7

  1. 1. Continuous Improvements By Prof. Raghavendran V
  2. 2. Proactive Improvements By. Prof. Raghavendran V 2
  3. 3. There are some improvements that they wont use hard data but rely on subjective information. Application of these tools has proven useful in process improvement, cost reduction, policy making & deployment and New-Product Development. Proactive Improvements By. Prof. Raghavendran V 3
  4. 4. The tools are very simple, it is effective and it can be key to finding the root cause of a problem in specific terms and then ask why. You may have to ask why 2 or more times to obtain root cause of the problem. Proactive Improvements By. Prof. Raghavendran V 4
  5. 5. There are 9 different techniques involved and also called as “Management tools Technique”. There are listed as follows: 1. Forced Field Analysis 2. Nominal Group Technique 3. Affinity Diagram 4. Interrelationship Digraph 5. Tree Diagram 6. Matrix Diagram 7. Prioritization Matrices 8. Process Decision Program Chart(PDPC) 9. Activity Network Diagram  Management Tools & Techniques By. Prof. Raghavendran V 5
  6. 6. This analysis is used to identify the force & factors that may influence the problem or goal.  It helps an organization to better understand promoting & inhibiting forces so that the positives can be reinforced & the negatives can be reduced.  The procedure is define the Objective, determine the criteria for evaluating effectiveness of action  Forced Field Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V 6
  7. 7. For Illustration: Objective: Stop Smoking  Promoting Forces to stop smoking Inhibiting forces to cant stop Smoking Poor Health Habit Smelly Clothing Addiction Cost Taste Impact on others Advertisement Setting an Example Stress The Benefit are the determination of the positives and negatives, encouraging people to prioritize the competing forces and identify root causes. Forced Field Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V 7
  8. 8. This provides for issue/idea input from everyone on the team and for effective decisions. For Example: Indian cricket team decides which problem to work on. All players write down on the papers the problems they think is most important. Ranking is consider to evaluate the problem. The highest number is consider as most important problem.  Nominal Group Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V 8
  9. 9. This diagram allows the team to creatively generate large number of issues/ideas and logically group them for problem understanding and possible breakthrough solutions.  The procedure is to state the issues in a full sentences, brain storm. (large group must be divided into small groups with appropriate headings)  Affinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 9
  10. 10. For Illustration for scrambled idea: Fatigue Pitch What are issues involved in losing the world cup for England Ambience of the crowd Big Grounds Not enough experience players No form players Fear of Terrorism Spin Tracks No seriousness in playing Affinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 10
  11. 11. For Illustration for Ordered idea: What are issues involved in losing the world cup for England About Technical aspects Fatigue Pitch Not enough experience players Big Grounds No seriousness in playing Spin Tracks No form players Ambience of the crowd Fear of Terrorism About Public Factors About Players Affinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 11
  12. 12. The Interrelationship Diagraph clarifies the inter relationship of many factors of a complex situation. It allows to team to classify the cause & effect relationships among the all the factors.  The procedure is complicated & as follows 1. The team should agree on the issue or problem statement. 2. All the ideas or issues must be laid out  Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V 12
  13. 13. 3. 4. 5. 6. Start with first issue & evaluate with the other issue using cause-effect relationship. The second iteration is to compare second issue with other issue and followed by. The entire diagram should be reviewed where necessary. It is good idea to obtain information from others people Upstream or Downstream. The diagram is completed by tallying the incoming & outgoing arrows and placing this information below the box. Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V 13
  14. 14. Benefits of Interrelationship Diagraph(ID)  It allows a team to identify root causes from subjective data systematically.  Cause and effect relationships  Encourage members to think in multidirectional  Develops team harmony and effectiveness.  Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V 14
  15. 15. This tool is used to reduced any broad objective into increasing levels in detail in order to achieve objective.  Procedure to choose action oriented objective statement.  Secondly, brainstorming, choose the major headings  Thirdly, generate the next level analyzing the major heading.  Tree Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 15
  16. 16. Here diagram allows individuals or teams to identify, analyze and rate the relationship among two or more variable.  Data are presented in table form and can be objective or subjective, which can be given symbols with or without numerical values.  There are different formats 2 or variables L-shaped (2V), T or C or Y-shaped(3V) and X Shaped (4V).  Matrix Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 16
  17. 17. By. Prof. Raghavendran V 17
  18. 18.  For Illustration: Tool/ Use Creativity Affinity Analysis o Consensus Action o ID o Tree Diagram   o Prioritization Matrix Matrix Diagram     o Always  Frequently Occasionally By. Prof. Raghavendran V 18
  19. 19. These tools prioritize issues, tasks, characteristics, and based on weighted criteria using combination of tree and matrix diagram techniques.  Prioritization matrices are designed to reduce the teams options rationally before detailed implementation planning occurs.  Prioritization Matrices By. Prof. Raghavendran V 19
  20. 20.      Construct an L-shaped matrix combing the options Determine implementation criteria Nominal Group technique. Prioritize the criteria using NGT, each member weights the criteria so that total weights equal to 1.00 Rank order the options in terms of importance by each criterion Compute the option importance score Construction of Prioritization Matrices By. Prof. Raghavendran V 20
  21. 21.  Programs to achieve particular objectives do not always go according to plan, and unexpected developments may have serious consequences. The PDPC avoids surprises and identifies possible countermeasures. Process Decision Program Chart By. Prof. Raghavendran V 21
  22. 22. Plan successful conferences Registration Speakers Late  Audio/Visual Fails Have Backup Have Substitute Facilities Presentations Too Long Use AV Person Use Time Keeper By. Prof. Raghavendran V PDPC 22
  23. 23. This tool goes by a number of different names and deviations, such as program evaluation and review technique, Critical Path Method, arrow diagram and activity on node.  It allows team to schedule a project efficiently.  Activity Network Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 23
  24. 24. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The team brainstorm/document all the tasks to complete project. The first task is always started from extreme left. Any tasks that can be done simultaneously. Repeat step 2 & 3 until all tasks are placed Number each task & draw connecting arrows. Determine the completion time and post it in the lower left box. Completion times recorded in hours/days/weeks Determine the critical path by completing the four remaining boxes in each task. These boxes are Earliest start time(ES), Earliest Finish(EF), Latest Start(LS) and latest Finish (LF). By. Prof. Raghavendran V 24
  25. 25. Reactive Improvements By. Prof. Raghavendran V 25
  26. 26. Reactive Improvements is also known as Statistical Process Control. This is one of the best technical tools for improving product and service quality. There are seven basic technique and they are: 1. Pareto diagram 2. Process flow diagram Some what Statistical 3. Cause and effect diagram 4. Check sheets 5. Graphs- Histogram, Line graphs, Pie charts 6. Scatter diagram 7. Control Charts  By. Prof. Raghavendran V 26
  27. 27. Alfred Pareto conducted extensive studies of the distribution of wealth in Europe. Pareto diagram is a graph of that ranks data classification in descending order of their numerical value of their frequency of occurrence from left to right in accordance with the variables. Variables are problems, complaints, causes, type of non conformities.  Pareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 27
  28. 28. Pareto Diagram Concepts: 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Category of data Pareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 28
  29. 29.      Determine the method of classifying the data (Problem, cause, non conformity and so forth) Decide if rupees, frequency or both are to be used to rank the characteristics. Collect data for an appropriate time interval or use historical data. Summarize the data and rank order categories from largest to smallest. Construct the diagram and find the vital few. Construction of Pareto diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 29
  30. 30. Solve the problem: In an recent 1st internal assessment conducted for 7th mechanical students, the following result declared for 48 students 0-14 marks: 31 Students 15-20 marks: 13 Students 21-25 marks: 04 Students. Categorize them using Pareto Diagram. By. Prof. Raghavendran V 30
  31. 31. 35 31 30 25 20 15 0-14 15-20 21-25 13 65% 10 4 5 27% 0 08% Students marks Pareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 31
  32. 32. It shows different activities of a process operation, for a product or services as it moves through the various processing operations.  The diagram makes it easy to visualize the entire system, identify potential trouble spots and locate control activities.  Process Flow Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 32
  33. 33.  For Illustration: let us consider vehicle parking operation in a bus terminus. Customer gets the tkt for Parking Receive tkt from the customer Customers parks the car Stamp the exit time on ticket Customers comes back to parking lot to leave Read difference time and collect the time Customers drives the car to exit Put the tkt in Storage Bin Cashier System Customer Drives the car Process Flow Diagram End of the day complete report Owner of the parking By. Prof. Raghavendran V lot gets the accounting report 33
  34. 34. A C&E diagram is a picture composed of lines and symbols designed to represent meaningful relationship between effect and causes.  It was developed by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa 1943 and it is referred as fishbone diagram because of it shape.  Cause and Effect Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 34
  35. 35. Causes People Materials Work Methods Quality Characteristics Effect Environment Equipment Measurement Cause and Effect Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 35
  36. 36. The main purpose of check sheets is to ensure that the data is collected carefully and accurately by operating personnel.  Data should be collected in such a way that it can quickly and easily used and analyzed.  For Illustration: Check sheet for paint nonconformities  Check Sheets By. Prof. Raghavendran V 36
  37. 37. Check Sheet Product: Bicycle 32 Nonconformity Type Check Number inspected: 2222 Total Blister 21 Light Spray 38 Drips 22 Overspray 11 Runs 47 Others 5 Total 144 Number 113 Non Conforming Check Sheets By. Prof. Raghavendran V 37
  38. 38. Arguably the first „Statistical‟ technique. It describe the variation in the process. The histogram graphically estimates the process capability.  For any histogram there will graphical and analytical techniques for summarization.    Graphical technique is a plot or picture of a frequency distribution, which is a summarization of how the data points occur within each subdivision of observed values. Histogram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 38
  39. 39. Analytical technique, summarize data by computing measure of the central tendency (Average, Median, Mode)and measure of the dispersion ( Range and standard Deviation). Illustration for Ungrouped data: Number of daily accounting errors. 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 5 4 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 Histogram 1 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 2 2 3 By. Prof. Raghavendran V 39
  40. 40.  Tally of number of daily accounting errors Number Nonconforming Tabulation Frequency 0 15 1 20 2 8 3 5 4 3 5 1 By. Prof. Raghavendran V 40
  41. 41.  Illustration for Grouped data: Cell Interval 40 F re q u e n c y 34 35 Boundary 30 25 24 22 Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 20 15 10 5 Mid Point 0 Temperature Histogram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 41
  42. 42. There are 6 different types of histogram And they are 1. Symmetrical 2. Skewed right 3. Skewed left 4. Peaked 5. Flat 6. Bimodal  Histogram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 42
  43. 43. This is simplest way to determine, if a C&E relationship exists between two variables. For Illustrations: in a relationship between automotive speed and mileage. As speed increases, mileage decreases. Automotive Speed is plotted on the axis and is the independent variable. Gas mileage is plotted on y axis and this is dependent variable.  Scatter Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 43
  44. 44. Y-Values M i l e a g e / l t r 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Y-Values Speed –Mi/hour 0 20 40 60 80 100 Scatter Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 44
  45. 45. Other examples for relationship are:  Cutting speed and tool life  Temperature and Lipstick hardness  Training and errors  Breakdowns and equipment age  Scatter Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 45
  46. 46. A control chart is a graphical representation of collected information and common tool used in industries in controlling the quality of products or quality characteristics.  It is an aid for analyzing the quality in repetitive process.  It is developed by Dr. W.A Shewhart  Control Charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 46
  47. 47.  Control charts is classified into types and 1. Variable (Continuous Data) 2. Discrete Data (Discontinuous Data) they are: Variable: Data which can take any value depending on the accuracy of the measuring instrument is called continuous data. For Ex: Weight of Object can be 1.2 or 1.23 or 1.234 Kg Depends on the accuracy of the instrument. Control Charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 47
  48. 48. Discrete: Data which can take only definite is called discrete data. The values are whole number. It will be only whole number. For ex: Number of wickets took by bowler. By. Prof. Raghavendran V 48
  49. 49. It is common phenomenon, in nature and also in the product produced in industry. There will be lot of variations on so many factors in a twin children.  It is impossible to produce identical parts. Henceforth, tolerance limits came in picture. Variations are due to 2 causes: 1. Variation due to chance causes 2. Variation due to assignable causes.  Variables By. Prof. Raghavendran V 49
  50. 50. Variation due to chance causes The variations due to sheer chance. This is not permanent factor for variation. For Ex: Voltage Variation, Vibrations on Machine tool.( It is difficult to avoid the variation) 2. Variation due to assignable causes Variations caused by assigned job. These are easily traceable. For Ex: Difference among the M/c‟s, Men, materials 1. Variables By. Prof. Raghavendran V 50
  51. 51.  Based on data, we have: Control Charts for Continuous Data or Variable 2. Control Charts for Discrete Data or Attributes 1. Variable By. Prof. Raghavendran V 51
  52. 52. The data collected for control charts for variable will be measured in two types and they are: Mean and Range charts also called R Charts  Mean and Standard Deviation also called Charts.  Mean is most common method of measure of central tendency. R and are most common method to measure of dispersion. Control Charts for Continuous Data or Variable By. Prof. Raghavendran V 52
  53. 53. Procedure for drawing Charts: 1. Collect good number of samples of constant sample size „n‟ at random at different intervals of time. 2. Measure all the quality characteristics of all which is to be controlled of all the pieces in the sample and of all the samples and record the same in tables. 3. Find the mean of the all the samples. 4. Find the mean of the mean . Mean and Range charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 53
  54. 54. Find the range of the samples 6. Find the mean of the range of all samples. 7. Compute the trial control limits or 3 control limits or control for X and R as follows: Control limits for X chart: CLX= X± 3 X = X ± A2R 5. Mean and Range charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 54
  55. 55. Control for R Chart: UCLR=D4R LCLR=D3R Where A2, D3, D4 are factors obtained from Table B, factors for controlling limits. 8. Draw X and R Charts Mean and Range charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 55
  57. 57. Poka-Yoke This is known as „MISTAKE-PROOFING‟ From Japanese: Yokeru (avoid) & Poka (inadvertent errors) Characteristics of Poka-Yoke    Eliminates the cause of an error at the source; Detects an error as it is being made; Detects an error soon after it has been made but before it reaches the next operation. Prof. Raghavendran V 57
  58. 58. Poka-Yoke There are two approaches to dealing with errors: 1. ERRORS ARE INEVITABLE!  People always make mistakes.  While we accept the mistakes as natural, we blame the people who make them.  With this attitude, we are likely to overlook defects as they occur in production.  They may be detected at final inspection, or worse still, by the customer. Prof. Raghavendran V 58
  59. 59. Poka-Yoke 2. ERRORS CAN BE ELIMINATED!  Any kind of mistake people make can be reduced or even eliminated.  People make fewer mistakes if they are supported by proper training and by a production system based on the principle that errors can be avoided. One method of detecting errors is inspection. Prof. Raghavendran V 59
  60. 60. Poka-Yoke There are two major types of inspection. 1. SAMPLING INSPECTION. In some factories, the attitude is:   “It may take all day to inspect all product”. “There may be a few defects, but sampling is the most practical way to check”. Prof. Raghavendran V 60
  61. 61. Poka-Yoke 2. 100% INSPECTION. In the best factories, the attitude is:    “We won‟t tolerate a single defect!” “We will organize production so that 100% of the product can be easily inspected”. “That makes the most sense”. Prof. Raghavendran V 61
  62. 62.     100% Inspection - Reflection Think about 100% inspection. Even one defective product is enough to destroy a customer‟s confidence in a company. To stay competitive a company must supply good product in thousands. The best way to achieve this is to organize production to inspect 100% of the products. Prof. Raghavendran V 62
  63. 63. Two Strategies for Zero Defects 1. DON’T MAKE IT!  Don’t make product you don’t need.  The more you make, the greater the opportunity for defects.  Follow ‘just-in-time’ principles by only making what is needed, when it is needed in the amount needed. 63
  64. 64. Two Strategies for Zero Defects 2. Build Safeguards  The user is an expert in finding defects.  Therefore build safeguards into the production process.  Quality can be built into products by implementation of Poka-Yoke. Prof. Raghavendran V 64
  65. 65. Poka-Yoke Devices  Human errors are usually inadvertent.  Poka-yoke devices help us avoid defects, even when inadvertent errors are made.  Poka-yoke helps build quality into processes. 65
  66. 66. It is invented by Dr. Mizuno, professor of Tokyo institute of technology. It is planning tool which can be applied to any organization to fulfill customer expectations. It focuses on customers expectations or need, often referred to as customer‟s voice. It is team based tool in which customer needs are the driving force for the product development process. Conflicting needs are identified early in QFD Process and can be resolved before production. Quality functional deployment By Prof. Raghavendran V 66
  67. 67. A systematic method for transferring customer wants/needs/expectations into product and process characteristics Quality Function Deployment
  68. 68. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT  Quality Function Deployment  Voice of the customer  House of Quality QFD: An approach that integrates the “voice of the customer” into the product and service development process.
  69. 69. QFD employed to translate customers expectations, in terms of specific requirements, into directions & actions, in terms of engineering or technical characteristics, that can be employed through:  Product Planning  Part Development  Process Planning  Production Planning  Services Quality Functional deployment By Prof. Raghavendran V 69
  70. 70.  There are two types of teams 1. One is existing team with fewer members 2. Other team composed of marketing, design, quality, finance and product. QFD Team By Prof. Raghavendran V 70
  71. 71.  Improves customer satisfaction ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Focus on requirement competitive information prioritizes resources Identifies items that can be acted upon Reduces implementation time ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Decrease midstream design changes Limits production problems Avoid future redundancies Identifies future application opportunities Benefits of qfd By Prof. Raghavendran V 71
  72. 72.  Promotes team work ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Based on consensus Creates communication at surfaces Identifies actions at interfaces Create global views of details Provides documentation ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Documents rationale for design Is easy to assimilate Adapts to changes Provides framework to sensitivity analysis Benefits of qfd By Prof. Raghavendran V 72
  73. 73. The primary planning tool used in QFD is the House Of Quality. HoQ translates voice of customers into design requirements that meet specific targets. Managers and Engineers consider the house of quality to be primary chart in quality planning  House of quality By Prof. Raghavendran V 73
  74. 74. The exterior walls of the house are the customer requirements. On the left side is a listing of the voice of customer. On right side are prioritized customer requirements. 2) The ceiling shows technical descriptors, consistency of the product is provided by engineering characteristics, design constraints and parameters. 1) House of quality’s part description: By Prof. Raghavendran V 74
  75. 75. The interior walls are relationship between customer requirements and technical descriptors. Customers expectations (requirements) are translated into engineering characteristics (technical descriptors). 4) The roof is the interrelationship between the technical descriptors. 5) The foundation or base is known as prioritized technical descriptors. 3) House of quality’s part description: By Prof. Raghavendran V 75
  76. 76. House of quality Relationship B/W technical descriptors Technical Descriptors customer needs Prioritized Customer Needs relationships between customer needs and engineering metrics Prioritized Technical descriptors
  77. 77. Module 7 Completed Prof. Raghavendran Venugopal By. Prof. Raghavendran V 77