TQM, Unit 4, VTU Syallabus


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TQM, Unit 4, VTU Syallabus

  1. 1. ContinuousImprovements By Prof. Raghavendran V
  2. 2. ProactiveImprovements By. Prof. Raghavendran V 2
  3. 3. There are some improvements that they wont use hard data but rely on subjective information. Application of these tools has proven useful in process improvement, cost reduction, policy making & deployment and New-Product Development.Proactive Improvements By. Prof. Raghavendran V 3
  4. 4. The tools are very simple, it is effective and it can be key to finding the root cause of a problem in specific terms and then ask why.You may have to ask why 2 or more times to obtain root cause of the problem.Proactive Improvements By. Prof. Raghavendran V 4
  5. 5.  There are 9 different techniques involved and also called as “Management tools Technique”. There are listed as follows:1. Forced Field Analysis2. Nominal Group Technique3. Affinity Diagram4. Interrelationship Digraph5. Tree Diagram6. Matrix Diagram7. Prioritization Matrices8. Process Decision Program Chart(PDPC)9. Activity Network DiagramManagement Tools & Techniques By. Prof. Raghavendran V 5
  6. 6.  This analysis is used to identify the force & factors that may influence the problem or goal. It helps an organization to better understand promoting & inhibiting forces so that the positives can be reinforced & the negatives can be reduced. The procedure is define the Objective, determine the criteria for evaluating effectiveness of actionForced Field Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V 6
  7. 7. For Illustration: Objective: Stop SmokingPromoting Forces to stop Inhibiting forces to cantsmoking stop SmokingPoor Health HabitSmelly Clothing AddictionCost TasteImpact on others AdvertisementSetting an Example Stress The Benefit are the determination of the positives and negatives, encouraging people to prioritize the competing forces and identify root causes.Forced Field Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V 7
  8. 8. This provides for issue/idea input from everyone on the team and for effective decisions.For Example: Indian cricket team decides which problem to work on. All players write down on the papers the problems they think is most important.Ranking is consider to evaluate the problem. The highest number is consider as most important problem.Nominal Group Technique By. Prof. Raghavendran V 8
  9. 9.  This diagram allows the team to creatively generate large number of issues/ideas and logically group them for problem understanding and possible breakthrough solutions. The procedure is to state the issues in a full sentences, brain storm.(large group must be divided into small groups with appropriate headings)Affinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 9
  10. 10. For Illustration for scrambled idea: Fatigue Pitch What are issues involved in losing the world cup for England Ambience of the Big crowdGrounds No form Not Fear of Terrorism players enough experienc e players SpinTracks No seriousness in playingAffinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 10
  11. 11. For Illustration for Ordered idea: What are issues involved in losing the world cup for EnglandAbout Technicalaspects Not enough Ambience of the Fatigue Pitch experience players crowd No seriousness in Big Grounds Fear of Terrorism playing Spin Tracks No form players About Public Factors About Players Affinity Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 11
  12. 12.  The Interrelationship Diagraph clarifies the inter relationship of many factors of a complex situation. It allows to team to classify the cause & effect relationships among the all the factors. The procedure is complicated & as follows1. The team should agree on the issue or problem statement.2. All the ideas or issues must be laid outInterrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V 12
  13. 13. 3. Start with first issue & evaluate with the other issue using cause-effect relationship.4. The second iteration is to compare second issue with other issue and followed by.5. The entire diagram should be reviewed where necessary. It is good idea to obtain information from others people Upstream or Downstream.6. The diagram is completed by tallying the incoming & outgoing arrows and placing this information below the box.Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V 13
  14. 14.  Benefits of Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) It allows a team to identify root causes from subjective data systematically. Cause and effect relationships Encourage members to think in multidirectional Develops team harmony and effectiveness.Interrelationship Diagraph(ID) By. Prof. Raghavendran V 14
  15. 15.  This tool is used to reduced any broad objective into increasing levels in detail in order to achieve objective. Procedure to choose action oriented objective statement. Secondly, brainstorming, choose the major headings Thirdly, generate the next level analyzing the major heading.Tree Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 15
  16. 16.  Here diagram allows individuals or teams to identify, analyze and rate the relationship among two or more variable. Data are presented in table form and can be objective or subjective, which can be given symbols with or without numerical values. There are different formats 2 or variablesL-shaped (2V), T or C or Y-shaped(3V) and X Shaped (4V).Matrix Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 16
  17. 17.  For Illustration:Tool/ Use Creativity Analysis Consensu Action sAffinity o oID o Tree  DiagramPrioritizat oion MatrixMatrix   Diagramo Always Frequently Occasionally By. Prof. Raghavendran V 17
  18. 18. These tools prioritize issues, tasks, characteristics, and based on weighted criteria using combination of tree and matrix diagram techniques. Prioritization matrices are designed to reduce the teams options rationally before detailed implementation planning occurs.Prioritization Matrices By. Prof. Raghavendran V 18
  19. 19.  Construct an L-shaped matrix combing the options Determine implementation criteria Nominal Group technique. Prioritize the criteria using NGT, each member weights the criteria so that total weights equal to 1.00 Rank order the options in terms of importance by each criterion Compute the option importance scoreConstruction of PrioritizationMatrices By. Prof. Raghavendran V 19
  20. 20.  Programs to achieve particular objectives do not always go according to plan, and unexpected developments may have serious consequences. The PDPC avoids surprises and identifies possible countermeasures.Process Decision Program Chart By. Prof. Raghavendran V 20
  21. 21. Plan successful conferences Facilities Registration  Presentations Audio/Visual Speakers Late Too Long Fails Have Have Backup Use AV Use Time Substitute Person Keeper By. Prof. Raghavendran V 21PDPC
  22. 22.  This tool goes by a number of different names and deviations, such as program evaluation and review technique, Critical Path Method, arrow diagram and activity on node. It allows team to schedule a project efficiently.Activity Network Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 22
  23. 23. 1) The team brainstorm/document all the tasks to complete project.2) The first task is always started from extreme left.3) Any tasks that can be done simultaneously.4) Repeat step 2 & 3 until all tasks are placed5) Number each task & draw connecting arrows. Determine the completion time and post it in the lower left box. Completion times recorded in hours/days/weeks6) Determine the critical path by completing the four remaining boxes in each task. These boxes are Earliest start time(ES), Earliest Finish(EF), Latest Start(LS) and latest Finish (LF). By. Prof. Raghavendran V 23
  24. 24. ReactiveImprovements By. Prof. Raghavendran V 24
  25. 25.  Reactive Improvements is also known as Statistical Process Control. This is one of the best technical tools for improving product and service quality. There are seven basic technique and they are:1. Pareto diagram Some what Statistical2. Process flow diagram3. Cause and effect diagram4. Check sheets5. Graphs- Histogram, Line graphs, Pie charts6. Scatter diagram7. Control Charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 25
  26. 26. Alfred Pareto conducted extensive studies of the distribution of wealth in Europe.Pareto diagram is a graph of that ranks data classification in descending order of their numerical value of their frequency of occurrence from left to right in accordance with the variables.Variables are problems, complaints, causes, type of non conformities.Pareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 26
  27. 27. Pareto Diagram Concepts: 50 45 40 35 30 Series 1 25 Series 2 20 Series 3 15 Series 4 10 5 0 Category of dataPareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 27
  28. 28.  Determine the method of classifying the data (Problem, cause, non conformity and so forth) Decide if rupees, frequency or both are to be used to rank the characteristics. Collect data for an appropriate time interval or use historical data. Summarize the data and rank order categories from largest to smallest. Construct the diagram and find the vital few.Construction of Pareto diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 28
  29. 29. Solve the problem:In an recent 1st internal assessment conducted for 7th mechanical students, the following result declared for 48 students0-14 marks: 31 Students15-20 marks: 13 Students21-25 marks: 04 Students.Categorize them using Pareto Diagram. By. Prof. Raghavendran V 29
  30. 30. 35 31302520 0-1415 13 15-20 65% 21-25105 4 27% 08%0 Students marksPareto Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 30
  31. 31.  It shows different activities of a process operation, for a product or services as it moves through the various processing operations. The diagram makes it easy to visualize the entire system, identify potential trouble spots and locate control activities.Process Flow Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 31
  32. 32.  For Illustration: let us consider vehicle parking operation in a bus terminus. Customer gets the tkt for Parking Receive tkt from the customer Customers parks the car Stamp the exit time on ticket Customers comes back to parking lot to leave Read difference time Customers drives the car to and collect the time exit Put the tkt in Storage Bin Cashier System Customer Drives the carProcess Flow Diagram End of the day complete Owner of the parking lot report By. Prof. Raghavendran V 32 gets the accounting report
  33. 33.  A C&E diagram is a picture composed of lines and symbols designed to represent meaningful relationship between effect and causes. It was developed by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa 1943 and it is referred as fishbone diagram because of it shape.Cause and Effect Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 33
  34. 34. Causes People Materials Work Methods Quality Characteristics EffectEnvironment Equipment Measurement Cause and Effect Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 34
  35. 35.  The main purpose of check sheets is to ensure that the data is collected carefully and accurately by operating personnel. Data should be collected in such a way that it can quickly and easily used and analyzed. For Illustration: Check sheet for paint nonconformitiesCheck Sheets By. Prof. Raghavendran V 35
  36. 36. Check SheetProduct: Bicycle 32 Number inspected: 2222Nonconformity Type Check Total Blister 21 Light Spray 38 Drips 22 Overspray 11 Runs 47 Others 5 Total 144 Number 113 Non ConformingCheck Sheets By. Prof. Raghavendran V 36
  37. 37.  Arguably the first „Statistical‟ technique. It describe the variation in the process. The histogram graphically estimates the process capability. For any histogram there will graphical and analytical techniques for summarization.Graphical technique is a plot or picture of a frequency distribution, which is a summarization of how the data points occur within each subdivision of observed values.Histogram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 37
  38. 38. Analytical technique, summarize data by computing measure of the central tendency (Average, Median, Mode)and measure of the dispersion ( Range and standard Deviation).Illustration for Ungrouped data:Number of daily accounting errors. 0 1 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 5 4 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 4 1 3 1 1 1Histogram 1 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 2 2 3 By. Prof. Raghavendran V 38
  39. 39.  Tally of number of daily accounting errors Number Tabulation Frequency Nonconforming 0 15 1 20 2 8 3 5 4 3 5 1 By. Prof. Raghavendran V 39
  40. 40.  Illustration for Grouped data: Cell Interval 40 35 34F Boundaryr 30e 24q 25 22 Series 1u 20e Series 2 15n Series 3c 10y 5 Mid Point 0 TemperatureHistogram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 40
  41. 41.  There are 6 different types of histogramAnd they are1. Symmetrical2. Skewed right3. Skewed left4. Peaked5. Flat6. BimodalHistogram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 41
  42. 42. This is simplest way to determine, if a C&E relationship exists between two variables.For Illustrations: in a relationship between automotive speed and mileage.As speed increases, mileage decreases.Automotive Speed is plotted on the axis and is the independent variable.Gas mileage is plotted on y axis and this is dependent variable.Scatter Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 42
  43. 43. Y-Values 45 40M 35i 30l 25ea 20 Y-Valuesg 15e 10/ 5l 0 Speed –Mi/hourtr 0 20 40 60 80 100 Scatter Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 43
  44. 44.  Other examples for relationship are: Cutting speed and tool life Temperature and Lipstick hardness Training and errors Breakdowns and equipment ageScatter Diagram By. Prof. Raghavendran V 44
  45. 45.  A control chart is a graphical representation of collected information and common tool used in industries in controlling the quality of products or quality characteristics. It is an aid for analyzing the quality in repetitive process. It is developed by Dr. W.A ShewhartControl Charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 45
  46. 46.  Control charts is classified into types and they are:1. Variable (Continuous Data)2. Discrete Data (Discontinuous Data)Variable: Data which can take any value depending on the accuracy of the measuring instrument is called continuous data.For Ex: Weight of Object can be 1.2 or 1.23 or 1.234 Kg Depends on the accuracy of the instrument.Control Charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 46
  47. 47. Discrete: Data which can take only definite is called discrete data. The values are whole number.It will be only whole number. For ex: Number of wickets took by bowler. By. Prof. Raghavendran V 47
  48. 48.  It is common phenomenon, in nature and also in the product produced in industry. There will be lot of variations on so many factors in a twin children. It is impossible to produce identical parts. Henceforth, tolerance limits came in picture. Variations are due to 2 causes:1. Variation due to chance causes2. Variation due to assignable causes.Variables By. Prof. Raghavendran V 48
  49. 49. 1. Variation due to chance causesThe variations due to sheer chance. This is not permanent factor for variation.For Ex: Voltage Variation, Vibrations on Machine tool.( It is difficult to avoid the variation)2. Variation due to assignable causesVariations caused by assigned job. These are easily traceable.For Ex: Difference among the M/c‟s, Men, materialsVariables By. Prof. Raghavendran V 49
  50. 50.  Based on data, we have:1. Control Charts for Continuous Data or Variable2. Control Charts for Discrete Data or AttributesVariable By. Prof. Raghavendran V 50
  51. 51.  The data collected for control charts for variable will be measured in two types and they are:Mean and Range charts also called R Charts Mean and Standard Deviation also called Charts.Mean is most common method of measure of central tendency.R and are most common method to measure of dispersion.Control Charts for ContinuousData or Variable By. Prof. Raghavendran V 51
  52. 52. Procedure for drawing Charts:1. Collect good number of samples of constant sample size „n‟ at random at different intervals of time.2. Measure all the quality characteristics of all which is to be controlled of all the pieces in the sample and of all the samples and record the same in tables.3. Find the mean of the all the samples.4. Find the mean of the mean .Mean and Range charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 52
  53. 53. 5. Find the range of the samples6. Find the mean of the range of all samples.7. Compute the trial control limits or 3 control limits or control for X and R as follows:Control limits for X chart: CLX= X± 3 X = X ± 3A2RMean and Range charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 53
  54. 54. Control for R Chart: UCLR=D4R LCLR=D3RWhere A2, D3, D4 are factors obtained from Table B, factors for controlling limits.8. Draw X and R ChartsMean and Range charts By. Prof. Raghavendran V 54