Persuasive communication

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  • 1. Persuasive Communication
  • 2. Meaning of Persuasion • "...a symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice. (Perloff (2003)"
  • 3. Key Elements of Persuasion • Is symbolic, utilizing words, images, sounds, etc • Involves a deliberate attempt to influence others. • Self-persuasion is key. People are not coerced; they are instead free to choose. • Methods of transmitting persuasive messages can occur in a variety of ways, including verbally and nonverbally via television, radio, Internet or face- to-face communication.
  • 4. Goals of Persuasion • Adoption • Continuance • Discontinuance • Deterrence
  • 5. + =V B A Action Process of Persuasion
  • 6. Beliefs Vs Values Vs Attitude Beliefs are: • the assumptions we make about ourselves, about others in the world and about how we expect things to be. • about how we think things really are. • What we perceive to be true or false • deep set - our values stem from our beliefs Values are: • about how we have learnt to think things ought to be or people ought to behave, • in terms of qualities such as honesty, integrity and openness which when people are asked what are their values, tend to be the main values. Attitudes are: • the established ways of responding, negatively or positively, to people and situations based on the beliefs, values and assumptions we hold. • How we respond to situation and our behaviour reflects our attitude. • Changeable & learned • We can control our behaviour in a way that does not reflect our beliefs and values.
  • 7. Getting Ready for Persuasion • The PAIBOC Model • ‘Framing’ of message based on your PAIBOC plays a crucial role
  • 8. Specific Persuasive Techniques for specific audience Audience Type Techniques Strongly opposed audience The speaker can create a little uncertainty in the minds of the audience. This can be done through a provocative statement or a statistic that supports the speaker’s claim. The aim is to make the audience a little less sure of their stance. Moderately opposed audience The speaker may try to reduce resistance to his or her idea and shift the audience towards neutrality. This can be done by indirectly urging the audience to look at other’s point of view. Neutral audience An attempt can be made to change the attitude of the audience as they are not particularly committed to any cause. Moderately motivated audience The speaker can bring a moderately motivated audience to his or her side by reinforcing existing attitudes and making the audience commit to a course of action. Highly motivated audience The best approach is to ask the audience to act on the persuader’s claim. The persuader need not spend much time communicating with them.
  • 9. Persuasion Factors Aristotle’s Rhetoric: • Ethos: • Pathos: • Logos:
  • 10. Ethos Is an appeal: • Based on the character of the speaker. • Based on charisma and likeability as well as character. • Based on the authority of the speaker. • Based on the personal power of the speaker. • Relies upon the credibility and reputation of the speaker as perceived by the audience.
  • 11. Pathos Is an appeal: • Based on the emotions the speaker is able to evoke. • Based on arousing positive or negative emotions. • At times based on ‘ingratiation’. • At times based on ‘exchange’ • Works well when many people have to be convinced together.
  • 12. Logos Is an appeal: • Based on reasoning and rationale. • Based on factual evidences, data, visual proofs and likewise. • Based on either of the two kinds of reasoning: Inductive & Deductive. • Subordinates persuading bosses is generally based on logos persuasion as subordinates do not hold the other two powers on their bosses.
  • 13. A combination of the rhetoric
  • 14. Six Fundamental Principles of Persuasion Persuasion Principle Explanation Application Rhetoric Element Liking People like and get influenced by those who like them Uncover real similarities and offer genuine praise Ethos Reciprocity People repay in kind Give what you want to receive Pathos Social Proof People follow the lead of similar others Use peer power whenever available None Consistency People align with clear commitments Make people’s commitment active, public and voluntary Pathos Authority People defer to experts Expose your authority, do not assume it is self-evident Logos Scarcity People want more of what they can have less of. Highlight unique benefits and exclusive information Pathos According to Robert B. Cialdini, the six fundamental principles of persuasion are:
  • 15. The Act of Persuasion: Framing • “A frame orients a reader or listener to examine a message with certain disposition or inclination.” (Lyle Sussman, 1999). E.g. Tata Nano • Framing is moulding your proposal in such a manner that it fits in your target’s needs, fears, concerns, values and expectations and motivates them to take an action you want them to take. • “Sell benefits, not the features” beautifully captures the idea of farming.
  • 16. Ethical Persuasion Types of Slightly Unethical Persuasion but very often used approaches: • The bait & switch approach • The door-in-the face approach • The foot-in-the-door approach E.g.: Infomercial of Colleen Szot, Selling insurance to reluctant soldiers “Do unto others what you would like others to do unto you”
  • 17. Barriers to Persuasion • Credibility • Poor Relationships • A mismatch in beliefs and values