Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Fortigate cookbook 506

3,394

Published on

Fortigate cookbook 506

Fortigate cookbook 506

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,394
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
60
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The FortiGate Cookbook ™ FortiOS 4.0 MR3 A P r a c t i c a l G u i d e t o G e t t i n g t h e B e s t f r o m Yo u r F o r t i G a t e Fortinet Publishing
  • 2. FortiGate Cookbook A Practical Guide to Getting the best from Your FortiGate FortiOS 4.0 MR3 1 June 2012 01-432-153797-20120601 Copyright© 2012 Fortinet, Inc. All rights reserved. Fortinet®, FortiGate®, and FortGuard®, are registered trademarks of Fortinet, Inc., and other Fortinet names herein may also be trademarks of Fortinet. All other product or company names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Performance metrics contained herein were attained in internal lab tests under ideal conditions, and performance may vary. Network variables, different network environments and other conditions may affect performance results. Nothing herein represents any binding commitment by Fortinet, and Fortinet disclaims all warranties, whether express or implied, except to the extent Fortinet enters a binding written contract, signed by Fortinet’s General Counsel, with a purchaser that expressly warrants that the identified product will perform according to the performance metrics herein. For absolute clarity, any such warranty will be limited to performance in the same ideal conditions as in Fortinet’s internal lab tests. Fortinet disclaims in full any guarantees. Fortinet reserves the right to change, modify, transfer, or otherwise revise this publication without notice, and the most current version of the publication shall be applicable. Visit these links for more information and documentation for your Fortinet products: Fortinet Knowledge Base - http://kb.fortinet.com Technical Documentation - http://docs.fortinet.com Training Services - http://campus.training.fortinet.com Technical Support - http://support.fortinet.com You can report errors or omissions in this or any Fortinet technical document to techdoc@fortinet.com.
  • 3. FortiOS Cookbook Contents Introduction 6 About FortiGate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Administrative interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Registering your Fortinet product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 For more information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The basics of installing and initial setup of a new FortiGate unit Connecting a private network to the Internet with a FortiGate unit in NAT/Route mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting a private network to the Internet in one step. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the address of an internal network in one step using the FortiGate setup wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inserting a FortiGate unit into a network without changing the network configuration (Transparent mode) . . . . . . . Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verifying the current firmware version and upgrading the FortiOS firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting up and troubleshooting FortiGuard services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting up an administrator account on the FortiGate unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advanced FortiGate installation and setup 13 14 18 22 24 27 31 34 37 41 44 Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Using a modem for a redundant Internet connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Distributing sessions between dual redundant Internet connections with usage-based ECMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Protecting a web server on a DMZ network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Using port pairing to simplify a Transparent mode installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Connecting networks without translating addresses (FortiGate unit in Route mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Setting up the explicit web proxy for users on a private network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Setting up web caching of Internet content for users on a private network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Employing high availability (HA) to improve network reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Upgrading the firmware installed on a FortiGate HA cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Connecting multiple networks to a FortiGate interface using virtual LANs (VLANs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Setting up an administrator account for monitoring firewall activity and basic maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Enhancing FortiGate Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Creating a local DNS server listing for internal web sites and servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Assigning IP addresses according to a MAC address using DHCP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Setting up the FortiGate unit to send SNMP traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 3
  • 4. Contents Creating, saving, and using packet capture filters (sniffing packets from the web-based manager) . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Debugging FortiGate configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Quick reference to common diagnose commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 WiFi Networking 146 Setting up secure WiFi access on your FortiWiFi unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting up secure WiFi on your FortiGate unit using a FortiAP unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improving WiFi security with WPA-Enterprise security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting up secure WiFi with RADIUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting up secure WiFi with a captive portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sharing the same subnet for WiFi and wired clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting up a WiFi network with an external DHCP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using security policies and firewall objects to control traffic 181 Limiting employees’ Internet access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restricting Internet access per IP address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Excluding selected users from UTM filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arranging security policies in the correct order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowing DNS queries to only one approved DNS server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ensuring sufficient and consistent bandwidth for VoIP traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using geographic addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Providing Internet access for your private network users (static source NAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Providing Internet access for a private network with multiple Internet addresses (dynamic source NAT) . . . . . . . . Dynamic source NAT without changing the source port (one-to-one source NAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic source NAT using the central NAT table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowing access to a web server on an internal network when you only have one Internet IP address . . . . . . . . . . Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you only have one Internet  IP address, using port translation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you have an IP address for the web server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuring port forwarding to open ports on a FortiGate unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic destination NAT for a range of IP addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UTM Profiles 185 189 193 196 201 204 208 216 220 222 225 228 231 234 237 240 243 247 250 Protecting your network from viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protecting your network against greyware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protecting your network against legacy viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the maximum file size that the AV scanner examines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocking files that are too large to scan for viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improving FortiGate performance with flow-based UTM scanning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limiting the types of web sites your users can visit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overriding FortiGuard web filtering for selected users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prevent offensive search results in Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finding the FortiGuard web filter category of a URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Listing the web sites your users have visited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using FortiGuard web filtering to block access to web proxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocking access to streaming media using web filtering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 147 150 155 158 162 166 170 174 252 255 256 258 260 261 263 265 267 268 270 272 273 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 5. Contents Blocking access to specific web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocking all web sites except those you specify using a whitelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check IP addresses as well as URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check images as well as URLs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applying ratings to HTTP redirects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visualizing the applications on your network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preventing the use of instant messaging clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocking access to social media web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocking peer-to-peer file sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using IPS to protect a web server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuring IPS to stop traffic if the scanner fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protecting against denial of service (DoS) attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtering incoming spam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use DLP to track personal information in HTTP traffic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocking outgoing email containing sensitive information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the FortiGate vulnerability scanner to check your network for vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SSL VPN Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access for remote users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SSL VPN split tunneling: Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access and access to head  office servers for remote users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verifying that SSL VPN users have the most recent AV software before they can log into the SSL VPN . . . . . . . . IPsec VPN Protecting communication between offices across the Internet using IPsec VPN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an Android device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the FortiGate FortiClient VPN Wizard to set up a VPN to a private network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication Creating a security policy to identify users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identify users and restrict access to websites by category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a security policy to identify users, restrict access to certain websites, and control use of  applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuring FSSO for single sign-on user access in a Windows AD environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authenticating with FortiAuthenticator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding FortiToken two-factor authentication to a user account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stopping the “Connection is untrusted” message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Logging and Reporting Understanding log messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a backup log solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alert email notification of SSL VPN login failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifying the default FortiOS UTM report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing the log configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 274 276 278 280 281 282 284 285 286 288 291 292 294 295 297 298 300 301 306 310 315 317 318 323 330 336 341 346 352 353 355 357 360 363 366 369 371 372 377 380 383 385 387 5
  • 6. FortiOS Cookbook Introduction The FortiGate Cookbook provides administrators who are new to FortiGate appliances with examples of how to implement many basic and advanced FortiGate configurations. FortiGate products offer administrators a wealth of features and functions for securing their networks, but to cover the entire scope of configuration possibilities would easily surpass the limits set forth for this book. Fortunately, much more information can be obtained in the FortiOS Handbook. The latest version is available from the Fortinet Technical Documentation website (http://docs.fortinet.com) and is also accessible as FortiGate online help. rk o .0 w 55 et 2 n 5. al 25 r n 5. te 5 in 0/2 te 1. va 8. ri 6 P .1 2 9 17 17 2. FortiGate Unit Gate t in NAT/Route mode Route 20 . w G 12 an 2. a 0 1 20 te .1 .1 wa 4 20 y .2 19 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 1 NA T in b and ternaetwee the l ne n pr Inte two ivat rne rk e t This cookbook contains a series of sections (or recipes) that describe how to solve problems. Each section begins with a description of the problem and is followed by a step-by-step solution. Most sections conclude with results that describe how to verify that the problem was successfully resolved. Many sections also contain troubleshooting information, best practices and additional details about the FortiGate features used to solve the problem. Scattered throughout this document you will also find dedicated troubleshooting sections and sections that describe FortiGate troubleshooting features such as the packet sniffer and diagnose debug command. This FortiGate Cookbook was written for FortiOS 4.0 MR3 patch 2 (FortiOS 4.3.2). The solutions in this document should also work with more recent FortiOS 4.0 MR3 firmware versions, possibly with minor adjustments. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 6
  • 7. Introduction About FortiGate A PDF copy of this document is available from the FortiGate Cookbook website (http://docs.fortinet.com/cookbook.html). You can send comments about this document and ideas for new recipes to techdoc@fortinet.com. New recipes may be published on the FortiGate Cookbook website and added to future versions of the cookbook. The FortiGate CookBook videos are visual and audio versions of recipes found in the FortiGate CookBook. All of the Cookbook videos are available from http://docs.fortinet.com/cookbook_video.html. We add new videos regularly. About the IP addresses used in the cookbook To avoid publication of public IP addresses that belong to Fortinet or any other organization, the IP addresses used in Fortinet technical documentation are fictional and follow the documentation guidelines specific to Fortinet. The addresses used are from the private IP address ranges defined in RFC 1918: Address Allocation for Private Internets, available at http://ietf.org/rfc/rfc1918.txt?number-1918. Most of the examples in this document use 192, 172, or 10 - the non-public addresses covered in RFC 1918. In most of the examples in this cookbook, the 172.20.120.0 network is equivalent to the Internet. About FortiGate A FortiGate appliance represents the latest response to the ever changing Internet security threat landscape. You already know quite well how Internet security covers a wide range of disciplines across a broad set of services, protocols and network topologies. The FortiGate appliance is designed specifically to cover a wide range of solutions for your networking requirements, from the smallest office to the largest Internet service provider. Comprising custom designed silicon and a dedicated operating system this combination of FortiGate, FortiASIC and FortiOS provides a wide range of solutions that scale from the smallest office to the largest internet service provider. APPLICATION CONTROL Internal network FortiGate Unit FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 7
  • 8. Administrative interfaces Introduction The FortiOS feature set is constantly evolving and today provides both IPv6 as well as IPv4 protection, high availability, a full suite of dynamic routing protocols, traffic shaping, IPsec and SSL VPN, user authentication, WAN optimization, and secure WiFi. UTM has been extended beyond virus scanning and web filtering to include intrusion protection, application control, endpoint security, and data leak prevention. Application control combined with a whole host of monitoring functions and network vulnerability scanning provides a complete and detailed picture of the traffic on your networks allowing you to detect and isolate threats before they happen and take action to control traffic as it passes through your network. The advanced capabilities of your FortiGate appliance require an equally advanced and global presence for ensuring as complete a defence as possible. Updated many times a day, the FortiGuard network provides a series of databases which are either installed directly or queried on demand to realize the goal of complete content protection. Whether you are scanning for hundreds of thousands of viruses, checking millions of URLs or looking for that next SPAM outbreak FortiGuard is the place to turn. To ease the introduction of your new FortiGate units they have been designed to operate in what we call NAT/Route mode or Transparent mode. In NAT/Route mode the FortiGate unit functions as a router connecting two or more different networks together. Using static and advanced dynamic routing, in NAT/Route mode the FortiGate unit routes packets between its attached networks. You can also use security policies and firewall objects to apply network address translation (NAT) to traffic as it passes back and forth between different networks. NAT hides addresses on private networks to improve security and also simplifies routing between networks. In Transparent mode the FortiGate unit is installed in a network transparently to layer 3, without changing the IP addressing of the network in any way. Its presence on the network restricted to a single management IP address. In transparent mode, traffic can pass through the FortiGate unit without any address translation or routing taking place. Administrative interfaces A full set of options is available to configure and manage FortiGate units including the web-based manager for visual management, the CLI for command-line-based management, and FortiExplorer which allows management over a USB connection. Web-based Manager Also called the Web Interface or Web UI, the FortiGate web-based manager is an advanced point and click, drag and drop interface that provides quick access to most FortiGate configuration settings and includes a configuration wizard and complementary visual monitoring and management tools. Using the web-based manager you can for example, add a security policy to monitor application activity on a network, view the results of this application monitoring policy, and then add additional policies or change the existing policy to block or limit the traffic produced by some applications. The web-based manager also provides a wide range of monitoring and reporting tools that provide detailed information about traffic and events on the FortiGate unit. All aspects of FortiGate operation can be monitored from the web-based manager. Specialized monitoring pages are available for most features. 8 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 9. Introduction Revision History You access the web-based manager using HTTP or a secure HTTPS connection from any web browser. By default you can access the web-based manager by connecting to the FortiGate interface usually attached to a protected network. Configuration changes made from the web-based manager take effect immediately, without resetting the unit or interrupting service. CLI As its name implies the command line interface (CLI) provides a text-based command line configuration interface to the FortiGate unit. You can configure all FortiGate configuration options from the CLI using config commands. The CLI also includes get commands for viewing the configuration and getting status information, execute commands for performing immediate operations including setting the date and time, backing up and restoring the configuration, testing network connections, and so on, and diagnose commands for advanced FortiGate monitoring and troubleshooting. You can connect to the CLI using an, RS-232 serial console connection, over a TCP/IP network using Telnet or SSH. Configuration changes made within the CLI also take effect immediately, without resetting the unit or interrupting service. FortiExplorer FortiExplorer provides a user-friendly and accessible tool that you can use to configure a FortiGate unit over a standard USB connection. Once you have installed FortiExplorer software on a PC running Windows or Mac OS X and established a USB connection between the PC and your FortiGate unit you can use FortiExplorer to register your FortiGate unit, check for and perform FortiOS firmware updates, use the FortiExplorer configuration wizard to quickly set up the FortiGate unit and connect to the web-based manager or CLI. Revision History Table 1: FortiGate Cookbook Revision History Version 01-432-153797-20120601 Changes New Recipes: • • “Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN” on page 346 • 01-432-153797-20120501 “Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit” on page 208 “Configuring FSSO for single sign-on user access in a Windows AD environment” on page 360 New Recipes: • • FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ “Protecting your network from viruses” on page 252 “Use DLP to track personal information in HTTP traffic” on page 295 9
  • 10. Registering your Fortinet product Introduction Table 1: FortiGate Cookbook Revision History Version Changes 01-432-153797-20120601 New Recipes: • “Setting up the explicit web proxy for users on a private network” on page 86 • “Setting up web caching of Internet content for users on a private network” on page 88 • “Enhancing FortiGate Security” on page 113 • “Setting up secure WiFi with RADIUS” on page 158 • “Excluding selected users from UTM filtering” on page 193 • “Using IPS to protect a web server” on page 288 • “Authenticating with FortiAuthenticator” on page 363 Entire document reformatted to a new page size. Many errors corrected, customer comments incorporated. Affected sections include: • • All of the chapter “SSL VPN” on page 300 • 01-432-153797-20111021 Many of the recipes in the chapter “Using security policies and firewall objects to control traffic” on page 181 All of the chapter “IPsec VPN” on page 317 Initial Version Registering your Fortinet product Before you begin configuring and customizing features, take a moment to register your Fortinet product at the Fortinet Technical Support web site, https://support.fortinet.com. Many Fortinet customer services, such as firmware updates, technical support, and FortiGuard Antivirus and other FortiGuard services, require product registration. For more information, see the Fortinet Knowledge Center article Registration Frequently Asked Questions. For more information Fortinet Knowledge Base The Fortinet Knowledge Base provides additional Fortinet technical documentation, such as troubleshooting and how-to-articles, examples, FAQs, technical notes, a glossary, and more. Visit the Fortinet Knowledge Base at http://kb.fortinet.com. 10 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 11. Introduction For more information Training Fortinet Training Services provides courses that orient you quickly to your new equipment, and certifications to verify your knowledge level. Fortinet provides a variety of training programs to serve the needs of our customers and partners world-wide. To learn about the training services that Fortinet provides, visit the Fortinet Training Services web site at http://campus.training.fortinet.com, or email training@fortinet.com. Documentation The Fortinet Technical Documentation web site, http://docs.fortinet.com, provides the most up-todate versions of Fortinet publications, as well as additional technical documentation such as technical notes. In addition to the Fortinet Technical Documentation web site, you can find Fortinet technical documentation on the Fortinet Tools and Documentation CD, and on the Fortinet Knowledge Base. Please send information about any errors or omissions in this or any Fortinet technical document to techdoc@fortinet.com. Customer service and technical support Fortinet Technical Support provides services designed to make sure that your Fortinet products install quickly, configure easily, and operate reliably in your network. To learn about the technical support services that Fortinet provides, visit the Fortinet Technical Support web site at https://support.fortinet.com. You can dramatically improve the time that it takes to resolve your technical support ticket by providing your configuration file, a network diagram, and other specific information. For a list of required information, see the Fortinet Knowledge Base article FortiGate Troubleshooting Guide Technical Support Requirements. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 11
  • 12. For more information 12 Introduction FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 13. FortiOS Cookbook The basics of installing and initial setup of a new FortiGate unit Most people purchase a FortiGate unit with the intention of creating a secure connection between a protected private network and the Internet. And in most cases they want the FortiGate unit to hide the IP addresses of the private network from the Internet. This chapter describes how to install a new FortiGate appliance with this configuration, called NAT/Route mode and describes how to troubleshoot NAT/Route mode installations. In addition this chapter describes a basic Transparent mode FortiGate installation in which a FortiGate unit provides security services to a network without requiring any changes to the network. This chapter also describes some basic procedures often required after installing a FortiGate unit, including checking the firmware version and upgrading the firmware, and troubleshooting FortiGuard services. This chapter includes the following basic installation and setup examples: • Connecting a private network to the Internet with a FortiGate unit in NAT/Route mode • Connecting a private network to the Internet in one step • Changing the address of an internal network in one step using the FortiGate setup wizard • Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations • Inserting a FortiGate unit into a network without changing the network configuration (Transparent mode) • Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations • Verifying the current firmware version and upgrading the FortiOS firmware • Setting up and troubleshooting FortiGuard services • Setting up an administrator account on the FortiGate unit FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 13
  • 14. Connecting a private network to the Internet with a FortiGate unit in NAT/Route mode Connecting a private network to the Internet with a FortiGate unit in NAT/Route mode Problem How to connect and configure a new FortiGate unit to securely connect a private network to the Internet. The FortiGate unit should also protect the private network from Internet threats but still allow anyone on the private network to freely connect to the Internet. 17 17 2. 20 . w G 12 an 2. a 0 1 20 te .1 .1 wa 4 20 y .2 19 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 e at iv pr k n or t ee tw ne tw ne er be nal Int AT er e N int d th an rk o .0 w 55 et 2 n 5. al 25 r n 5. te 5 in 0/2 te 1. va 8. ri 6 P .1 2 9 1 FortiGate Unit Gate t Route in NAT/Route mode Solution Most commonly, FortiGate units are installed as a gateway or router between a private network and the Internet. The FortiGate unit operates in what is called NAT/Route mode to hide the addresses of the private network from prying eyes on the Internet. 1 Connect the FortiGate wan1 interface to your ISP-supplied equipment. wan1 Internal Internal Network 14 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 15. Connecting a private network to the Internet with a FortiGate unit in NAT/Route mode 2 Connect the internal network to the FortiGate internal interface. 3 Power on the ISP's equipment, the FortiGate unit, and the PCs on the Internal network. 4 From a PC on the Internal network, connect to the FortiGate web-based manager. You can configure the PC to get its IP address using DHCP and then browse to https://192.168.1.99. You could also give the PC a static IP address on the 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. 5 Login using admin and no password. 6 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan1 interface and change the following settings: Addressing mode IP/Netmask 7 Manual 172.20.120.14/255.255.255.0 Edit the internal interface and change the following settings: Addressing mode IP/Netmask 8 Manual 192.168.1.99/255.255.255.0 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and select Create New to add the following default route. Destination IP/Mask 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 Device wan1 Gateway 172.20.120.2 A default route always has a Destination IP/Mask of 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0. Normally you would have only one default route. If the static route list already contains a default route, you can edit it or delete it and add a new one. 9 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. 15
  • 16. Connecting a private network to the Internet with a FortiGate unit in NAT/Route mode 10 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address All Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address All Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 11 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 12 Select OK to save the security policy. Some FortiGate models include this security policy in the default configuration. If you have one of these models, this step has already been done for you and as soon as your FortiGate unit is connected and the computers on your internal network are configured, they should be able to access the Internet. Results On the PC that you used to connect to the FortiGate internal interface, open a web browser and browse to any Internet website. You should also be able to connect to the Internet using FTP or any other protocol or connection method. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. 16 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 17. Connecting a private network to the Internet with a FortiGate unit in NAT/Route mode The source address of most sessions should be an address on the 192.168.1.0 network. The source NAT IP for most sessions should be 172.20.120.14 (or the IP address added to the wan1 interface). The policy ID should be 1, which is the ID of the default security policy that allows users in the internal network to connect to the Internet. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active session for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for policy 1 to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. If you can browse the web from the internal network, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 17
  • 18. Connecting a private network to the Internet in one step Connecting a private network to the Internet in one step Problem To use as few steps as possible to get a FortiGate unit up and running and providing internet connectivity for a private network. D W D AN H 1 C P ad H d C P S re ss er m ve r od e In 19 ter 2. na 16 l 8. 1. 99 ss se .0 re 5 d .25 ad 55 rk 2 o 5. w 5 et 2 n .0/ al .1 r n 68 te .1 In 92 1 te n va o ri it p ra P e u C th fig H n n D o co m r s I P f ro te u et lly p g a m k ic o r at C wo m et to n au FortiGate Unit e Unit in NAT/Route mode IP HC es D d h vi it ro w p n P tio IS ra u ig n co P Solution If your Internet service provider uses DHCP to automatically provide Internet connectivity, only one FortiGate configuration step is required to get a FortiGate unit up and running and allowing connections from a private network to the Internet. The solution involves connecting FortiGate unit to your ISP and your Internal network, configuring the computers on your internal network to get their IP configuration automatically (using DHCP), and then powering on the FortiGate unit and configuring it to get network settings from your ISP using DHCP. To use this one-step configuration solution, the default configuration of your FortiGate unit must include a DHCP server for the internal interface and a default security policy that allows all sessions from the internal network to the Internet. This default configuration is available on many SMB/SOHO FortiGate and FortiWifi models. 1 2 18 Connect the FortiGate wan1 interface to your ISP-supplied equipment. Connect the internal network to the FortiGate internal interface. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 19. Connecting a private network to the Internet in one step 3 Power on the ISP's equipment, the FortiGate unit, and the PCs in the Internal network. wan1 Internal Internal Network 4 If required, configure the PCs to get their IP network configuration automatically using DHCP. All of the PCs should acquire an IP address on the 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 network. 5 On one of the PCs, start a web browser and browse to https://192.168.1.99. 6 Log in to the FortiGate web-based manager by entering admin as the Name and leaving the password blank. 7 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan1 interface. 8 Set the Addressing Mode to DHCP and select Retrieve Default Gateway from server, and Override internal DNS. 9 Select OK to save the changes. If your ISP uses PPPoE or manual addressing you can configure the wan1 interface for these options instead of DHCP. Results On any of the PCs connected to the FortiGate internal interface, open a web browser and browse to any Internet website. You should also be able to connect to the Internet using FTP or any other protocol or connection method. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 19
  • 20. Connecting a private network to the Internet in one step Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. The source address of most sessions should be an address on the 192.168.1.0 network. The source NAT IP for most sessions should be the IP address acquired by the wan1 interface. The policy ID should be 1, which is the ID of the default security policy that allows users in the internal network to connect to the Internet. You can also see results by going to Policy > Policy > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active session for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down to get more info about the current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history and per-IP bandwidth usage. What if it didn’t work? Use the following steps: 1 Verify that the wan1 interface is getting IP configuration settings from the ISP. Log in to the web-based manager and go to System > Network > Interface > wan1. Confirm that the Addressing Mode is set to DHCP and information similar to the following appears showing that the wan1 interface has acquired an IP address, one or more DNS server IP addresses, and a default gateway from the ISP. If the IP address seems incorrect or is missing, select Renew to renew the lease and get new IP configuration information from the ISP. If you cannot get a valid IP address in this manner, the FortiGate unit cannot communicate with the ISP’s DNS server. 20 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 21. Connecting a private network to the Internet in one step Make sure the options to retrieve a default gateway and override the internal DNS are selected. If your ISP does not supply a DNS server through DHCP, you can go to System > Network > DNS and manually add one or more DNS server IP addresses for the FortiGate unit to use. These DNS server IP addresses are also used by the FortiGate DHCP server to provide the IP configuration for PCs on the internal network. If your ISP does not supply a default gateway through DHCP you can go to Router > Static > Static Route and manually add a default route that points from the wan1 interface to the ISP’s default gateway. 2 If the internal network is configured to get IP addresses from the FortiGate DHCP server, go to System > Network > DHCP Server and Edit the DHCP server for the internal interface. Verify that the DHCP server configuration uses the system DNS setting. Go to System > Monitor > DHCP Monitor to view information about the PCs that have been configured by the FortiGate unit DHCP server. There should be one entry here for each PC on the network that should have gotten its address using DHCP. Check the network configuration of the PCs on the internal network to make sure they are getting the correct IP configuration from the FortiGate DHCP server. If they are not, they may not be able to communicate with the FortiGate internal interface. Attempt to renew their DHCP lease, check other network configuration settings on the PC, and verify the physical connections are OK. The Use System DNS Setting DHCP server option causes the FortiGate DHCP server to supply the DNS IP addresses in the System > Network > DNS page of the web-based manager. If Override internal DNS is selected for a FortiGate interface that gets its configuration from a DHCP server, the DNS server IP addresses acquired from the ISP are supplied by the FortiGate DHCP server instead. If a PC on the internal network sends a DHCP request to the FortiGate unit before it has acquired DNS IP addresses from the ISP, then the FortiGate unit sends the DNS IP addresses DNS web-based manager page. To make sure the PCs receive the correct DNS server IP addresses, you can update the PCs DHCP leases. If this does not solve the problem, use the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find and fix the problem. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 21
  • 22. Changing the address of an internal network in one step using the FortiGate setup wizard Changing the address of an internal network in one step using the FortiGate setup wizard Problem od e m ve er re ss S P d C W D AN H 1 C P ad H D es g 0 an 5. ch 5 .2 ss 5 .0 re 5 5 d 5.2 5 .2 ad 25 5 5 rk / o .0 .2 w .1 to 55 et 8 /2 n .16 .0 al 2 0 r n 19 .5 8 te I n ro m . 1 6 f 2 9 1 In ch ter an na r 19 19 2. ge l IP 2. 16 d a 16 8. fro dd 8. 1.9 m re ss 50 9 .1 to 0 To use as few steps as possible to quickly change the subnet address of an internal network and all of the devices connected to it. FortiGate Unit in NAT/Route mode IP HC es D d h vi it ro w p n P tio IS ra u ig n co P Solution Use the FortiGate setup wizard to change the IP address of the FortiGate internal interface and change the network addresses that the FortiGate DHCP server provides for devices on the Internal network. Renew the DHCP leases of the devices on the internal network so that they acquire new IP addresses. You may need to change the address of an internal network if you have two different internal networks and you want to allow communication between them. The FortiGate setup wizard deletes all security policies and adds a single security policy configured by the wizard to allow Internet access from the Internal network. You might not want to use this solution if you have added custom security policies. However, this solution can be convenient if you have not added very many security policies. A more cumbersome solution would be to manually change the IP address of the FortiGate internal interface and then manually change the IP address of a PC on the internal network. Then you would need to re-log into the web-based manager and change the configuration of the DHCP server. This process involves a number of tedious steps; using the wizard simplifies the process to a few simple steps. 1 2 22 From a PC on the internal network, log in to the FortiGate web-based manager. Select the Wizard icon. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 23. Changing the address of an internal network in one step using the FortiGate setup wizard 3 Page through the wizard without making any changes until you get to the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings page. 4 Change the settings as follows: IP Address Netmask 5 192.168.50.10 255.255.255.0 Enable DHCP should be selected. Change the following settings: Start Address End Address 6 192.168.50.20 192.168.50.60 Continue to step through the wizard without making any other changes. Most wizard pages display the current configuration and allow you to change it. If you don’t make any changes, the wizard does not change that configuration element. One exception to this is the Internet Access Policy wizard page. The settings on this page are applied to the security policy configuration of the FortiGate unit. All existing security policies are removed and replaced with a single security policy using the settings selected on this wizard page. 7 Renew the DHCP lease for the devices on the internal network. You may have to restart them, or bring there interfaces down and back up to do this. Results All devices on the internal network (including the FortiGate internal interface) are now on the 192.168.50.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. From any device on the internal network, try connecting to the Internet. Log in to the FortiGate web-based manager by browsing to https://192.168.50.10. Go to System > Network > Interface and verify that the IP address of the internal interface has been changed to 192.168.50.10. Also verify that the configuration of other interfaces has not been changed. Go to System > Network > DHCP Server and Edit the DHCP server for the internal interface. The IP range should be changed to the range specified in the wizard, and the default gateway should be changed to the new internal interface IP address. Go to System > Monitor > DHCP Monitor and verify that devices on the internal network have acquired a new address from the FortiGate DHCP server. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and verify that the policy list includes one security policy that allows users on the internal network to access the Internet. Attempt to connect to the Internet from any device on the Internal network. If you can’t connect from a device on the internal network to the Internet, see “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 23
  • 24. Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations Problem You have set up a FortiGate NAT/Route configuration, and devices on the private network cannot connect to the Internet. e at iv pr k n or t ee tw ne tw ne er be nal Int AT er e N int d th an rk o .0 w 55 et 2 n 5. al 25 r n 5. te 5 in 0/2 te 1. va 8. ri 6 P .1 2 9 17 17 2. 20 . w G 12 an 2. a 0 1 20 te .1 .1 wa 4 20 y .2 19 2. in 16 te 8. r n 1. al 99 1 FortiGate Unit Gate t in NAT/Route mode Route Solution Use the following steps to find and fix the problem that is preventing users from connecting to the Internet. 1 Check the physical network connections between the PC and the FortiGate unit, as well as between the FortiGate unit and your ISP’s equipment. The Unit Operation dashboard widget indicates the connection status of FortiGate network interfaces (System > Dashboard > Status). 2 Check the ISP-supplied equipment to make sure it is operating correctly. 3 Verify that you can connect to the internal IP address of the FortiGate unit. For example, use a web browser to connect to the web-based manager from the FortiGate internal interface by browsing to its IP address (for example, https://192.168.1.99). From the PC, ping the internal interface IP address. For example: ping 192.168.1.99 If you cannot connect to the internal interface, verify the IP configuration of the PC and make sure cables are connected and all network equipment, such as switches, is powered on and operating. Go to the next step when you can connect to the internal interface. 4 24 Check the configuration of the FortiGate interface connected to the Internal network. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 25. Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations 5 Check the configuration of the FortiGate interface that connects to the Internet to make sure it includes the proper addressing mode. • If the addressing mode is manual, make sure the IP address and netmask is correct. • If the addressing mode is DHCP, see “What if it didn’t work?” on page 20. 6 To verify that you can communicate from the FortiGate unit to the Internet, access the FortiGate CLI and use the execute ping command to ping an address or domain name on the Internet. You can also use the execute traceroute command to troubleshoot connectivity to the Internet. 7 Verify the DNS configurations of the FortiGate unit and the PCs on the internal network. You can check for DNS errors by pinging or using traceroute to connect to a domain name. If the name cannot be resolved the FortiGate unit or PC cannot connect to a DNS server and you should confirm the DNS server IP addresses are present and correct. For example: ping www.fortinet.com ping: cannot resolve www.fre.com: Unknown host 8 Verify the security policy configuration. • Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and verify that an internal -> wan1 security policy has been added. Check the Count column to see if the policy has been processing traffic. Check the configuration of the policy to make sure it is similar to the following and that Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address is selected: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 9 internal ACCEPT Verify the static routing configuration. Go to Router > Static > Static Route and verify that the default route is correct. Go to Router > Monitor > Router Monitor and take a look at the routing monitor and verify that the default route appears in the list as a static route. Along with the default route, you should see at least two connected routes, one for each connected FortiGate interface. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 25
  • 26. Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations 10 Disable web filtering. If you have enabled web filtering in a security policy it may be blocking access to the web site that you are attempting to connect to. This can happen for a number of reasons. If disabling web filtering allows you to connect to the Internet with a web browser, then the web filter profile selected in the policy was blocking access to the site you were attempting to connect to. This could happen because the configuration of the default web filter profile is blocking access to your site. Its also possible that FortiGuard Web Filtering produced a rating error for the web site and the default web filter profile is configured to block access to sites when a rating error occurs. A rating error could occur for a number of reasons, including not being able to access FortiGuard web filter ratings. To fix this problem, you can go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile, and in the default profile, select Advanced Filter and enable the Allow Websites When a Rating Error Occurs option. Other things you can try: • • 26 Verify that you can connect to the wan1 IP address of the FortiGate unit. Once you have established that the internal network is operating, you could try pinging the FortiGate wan1 interface IP address (for example, ping 172.20.120.12). (The wan1 interface responds to pings if ping administrative access is selected for that interface (go to System > Network > Interface and edit the wan1 interface to enable ping administrative access)). If you cannot connect to the wan1 interface, the FortiGate unit is not allowing internal to wan1 sessions. Verify that you can connect to the gateway provided by your ISP. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 27. Inserting a FortiGate unit into a network without changing the network configuration (Transparent mode) Inserting a FortiGate unit into a network without changing the network configuration (Transparent mode) Problem How to connect and configure a new FortiGate unit to protect a private network without changing the configuration of the network. The network is connected to the Internet using a router that performs NAT. 10 Se c be allo urity twe w p seg en traffi olicie s me netw c nts or k .31 Int .10 er n 1.0 al n /25 etw 5.2 ork 55 .25 5.0 10 FortiGate Unit in rtiGate in Transparent mode Management IP 10.31.101.40 Ro ute .3 0 1.1 1.1 00 r This solution requires adding network security without replacing the router. The FortiGate unit should block access from the Internet to the private network but allow users on the private network to connect to the Internet. The FortiGate unit should also monitor application usage and find and remove viruses. Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/inst1.html Install a FortiGate unit in Transparent mode between the internal network and the router. Add a security policy to the FortiGate unit that allows users on the internal network to connect to the Internet and add virus scanning and application control to this security policy. No network changes are required, except to provide the FortiGate unit with a management IP address. Changing to Transparent mode removes most configuration changes made in NAT/Route mode. If you want to keep your current NAT/Mode configuration you should backup your FortiGate NAT/Route mode configuration from the System Information dashboard widget. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 27
  • 28. Inserting a FortiGate unit into a network without changing the network configuration (Transparent mode) 1 Connect a PC to the FortiGate internal interface. 2 Power on the FortiGate unit and PC. 3 Connect to the FortiGate web-based manager. You can configure the PC to get its IP address using DHCP and then browse to https://192.168.1.99. You could also give the PC a static IP address on the 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. Log in using admin and no password. 4 Go to System > Dashboard > Status > System Information and beside Operation Mode select Change and configure the following: Operation Mode Transparent Management IP/Netmask 10.31.101.40/255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 10.31.101.100 5 Select OK to switch to Transparent mode. 6 Log in to the web-based manager by browsing to https://10.31.101.40. You will need to change the IP address of the PC to an address on the 10.31.101.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. 7 Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. 8 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address All Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address All Schedule always Service ANY Action 9 internal ACCEPT Select UTM. Select Enable Antivirus and select Enable Application Control. 10 Select OK to save the security policy. 11 Power off the FortiGate unit. 28 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 29. Inserting a FortiGate unit into a network without changing the network configuration (Transparent mode) 12 Connect the FortiGate unit between the network and the router. Router wan1 internal Internal Network Connect the wan1 interface to the router internal interface. Connect the internal network to the FortiGate-60C internal interface switch. If the Internal network consists of only five devices, they can all be connected to the internal interface switch. 13 Power on the FortiGate unit. Results From a PC on the internal network, open a web browser and browse to any Internet website. You should also be able to connect to the Internet using FTP or any other protocol or connection method. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 29
  • 30. Inserting a FortiGate unit into a network without changing the network configuration (Transparent mode) The source address of most sessions should be an address on the 10.31.10.0 network. The Src NAT IP and Src NAT port columns are blank because no NAT it taking place. The policy ID should usually be 1, which is usually the ID of first security policy that you added. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor, to view a graph of active session for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for policy 1 to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. If a FortiGate unit operating in Transparent mode is installed between a DHCP server and PCs that get their address by DHCP, you must add a security policy to allow the DHCP server’s response to get back through the FortiGate unit from the DHCP server to the DHCP client. The internal to wan1 policy allows the DHCP request to get from the client to the server, but the response from the server is a new session, not a typical response to the originating request, so the FortiGate unit will not accept this new session unless you add a wan1 to internal policy with the service set to DHCP. If you can browse the Internet from the internal network, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations” on page 31 to find the problem. 30 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 31. Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations Problem You set up a basic FortiGate Transparent mode configuration, and traffic will not pass through the FortiGate unit. .3 1. 10 1. 10 0 .31 Int .10 er n 1.0 al n /25 etw 5.2 ork 55 .25 5.0 10 10 Se c be allo urity twe w p seg en traffi olicie s me netw c nts or k FortiGate Unit in rtiGate in Transparent mode Management IP 10.31.101.40 Ro ute r Solution Use the following steps to find and fix the problem that is preventing users from connecting through the FortiGate unit. 1 Check the physical network connections between the network and the FortiGate unit, and between the FortiGate unit and the Internet. The Unit Operation dashboard widget indicates the connection status of FortiGate network interfaces. 2 Check the router and ISP-supplied equipment to make sure it is operating correctly. 3 Verify that you can connect to the internal interface by connecting to the management IP address of the FortiGate unit from the Internal network. From the internal network, attempt to ping the management IP address. If you cannot connect to the internal interface, verify the IP configuration of the PC and make sure the cables are connected and all switches and other devices on the network are powered on and operating. Go to the next step when you can connect to the internal interface. 4 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ To verify that you can communicate from the FortiGate unit to the Internet, access the FortiGate CLI and use the execute ping command to ping an address on the Internet. You can also use the execute traceroute command to troubleshoot connectivity to the Internet. 31
  • 32. Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations 5 Verify the DNS configurations of the FortiGate unit and the PCs on the internal network. You can check for DNS errors by pinging or using traceroute to connect to a domain name. If the name cannot be resolved the FortiGate unit or PC cannot connect to a DNS server and you should confirm the DNS server IP addresses are present and correct. For example: ping www.fortinet.com ping: cannot resolve www.fre.com: Unknown host 6 Verify the security policy configuration. • Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and verify that an internal -> wan1 security policy has been added. Check the Count column to see if the policy has been processing traffic. Check the configuration of the policy to make sure it is similar to the following: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 7 internal ACCEPT Verify the static routing configuration. Go to System > Network > Routing Table and verify that the default route is correct. 8 Disable web filtering. If you have enabled web filtering in a security policy it may be blocking access to the web site that you are attempting to connect to. If disabling web filtering allows you to connect to the Internet with a web browser, then the web filter profile selected in the policy was blocking access to the site you were attempting to connect to. This could happen because the configuration of the default web filter profile is blocking access to your site. Its also possible that FortiGuard Web Filtering produced a rating error for the web site and the default web filter profile is configured to block access to sites when a rating error occurs. A rating error could occur for a number of reasons, including not being able to access FortiGuard web filter ratings. To fix this problem, you can go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile, and in the default profile, select Advanced Filter and enable the Allow Websites When a Rating Error Occurs option. 9 32 Verify that you can connect to the gateway provided by your ISP. Try pinging the default gateway IP address from a PC on the internal network. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 33. Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations 10 Confirm that the FortiGate unit can connect to the FortiGuard network. Once registered, the FortiGate unit obtains antivirus and application control and other updates from the FortiGuard network. Once the FortiGate unit is on your network, you should confirm that it can reach the FortiGuard network. The FortiGate unit must be able to connect to the network from its management IP address. If the following tests provide incorrect results, the FortiGate unit cannot connect to the Internet from its management IP address. Check the FortiGate unit’s default route to make sure it is correct. Check your Internet firewall to make sure it allows connections from the FortiGate management IP address to the Internet. First, check the License Information dashboard widget to make sure the status of all FortiGuard services matches the services that you have purchased. The FortiGate unit connects to the FortiGuard network to obtain this information. Go to System > Config > FortiGuard. Open web filtering and email options and select Test Availability. After a minute the web-based manager should indicate that the connection was successful. 11 Check the FortiGate bridge table. The bridge table is a list of MAC addresses of devices on the same network as the FortiGate unit and the FortiGate interfaces from which each MAC address was found. The FortiGate unit uses this table to determine where to forward a packet. If a the MAC address of a specific device is getting added to in the bridge table, then packets to that MAC address will be blocked. This may appear as traffic going to a MAC address, but no reply traffic coming back. In this situation, check the bridge table to ensure the correct MAC addresses have been added to the bridge table. Use the following CLI command to check the bridge table associated with the root VDOM. diagnose netlink brctl name host root.b show bridge control interface root.b host. fdb: size=2048, used=25, num=25, depth=1 Bridge root.b host table port no device devname mac addr ttl 3 4 wan1 00:09:0f:cb:c2:77 88 3 4 wan1 00:26:2d:24:b7:d3 0 3 4 wan1 00:13:72:38:72:21 98 4 3 internal 00:1a:a0:2f:bc:c6 1 6 dmz 00:09:0f:dc:90:69 0 3 4 wan1 c4:2c:03:0d:3a:38 81 3 4 wan1 00:09:0f:15:05:46 89 3 4 wan1 c4:2c:03:1d:1b:10 0 2 5 wan2 00:09:0f:dc:90:68 0 attributes 6 Local Static Local Static If your device’s MAC address is not listed, the FortiGate unit cannot find the device on the network. This could indicate that the device is not connected or not operating. Check the device’s network connections and make sure it is operating correctly. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 33
  • 34. Verifying the current firmware version and upgrading the FortiOS firmware Verifying the current firmware version and upgrading the FortiOS firmware Problem Fortinet has released a new version of FortiOS. You want to know what firmware version is currently running on your FortiGate unit and how to upgrade to the latest version. Solution View the current firmware version from the web-based manager and CLI. Download a new version of FortiOS from the Fortinet Customer Support web site and install it from the web-based manager. Firmware images for all FortiGate units are available on the Fortinet Customer Support web site. You must register your FortiGate unit to access firmware images. Register the FortiGate unit by visiting http://support.fortinet.com and select Product Registration. Always review the Release Notes before installing a new firmware version. They provide the recommended upgrade path for the firmware release as well as additional information not available in other documentation. Only perform a firmware upgrade during a maintenance window. 1 Log in to the web-based manager and view the dashboard System Information widget to see the Firmware Version currently installed on your FortiGate unit. From the FortiGate CLI you can also enter the following command. The first output line indicates FortiOS firmware version installed on your FortiGate unit: get system status Version: Fortigate-60C v4.0,build0458,110627 (MR3 Patch 1) Virus-DB: 11.00773(2010-05-04 13:32) Extended DB: 0.00000(2010-03-16 10:31) IPS-DB: 3.00000(2011-05-18 15:09) FortiClient application signature package: 1.421(2011-09-08 10:19) Serial-Number: FGT60C3G10002814 BIOS version: 04000010 Log hard disk: Need format Internal Switch mode: switch Hostname: FGT60C3G10002814 Operation Mode: NAT Current virtual domain: root Max number of virtual domains: 10 Virtual domains status: 1 in NAT mode, 0 in TP mode Virtual domain configuration: disable FIPS-CC mode: disable 34 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 35. Verifying the current firmware version and upgrading the FortiOS firmware Current HA mode: standalone Distribution: International Branch point: 458 Release Version Information: MR3 Patch 1 System time: Wed Sep 14 13:07:27 2011 2 To download a newer firmware version, browse to http://support.fortinet.com and select a Download Firmware Images link. 3 Log in using your Fortinet account user name and password. 4 Go to Download Firmware Images > FortiGate. 5 Select FortiGate firmware images and browse to the FortiOS firmware version that you want to install (for example, browse to FortiGate/v4.00/4.0MR3/MR3_Patch_1). 6 Locate and download the firmware for your FortiGate unit. 7 Download and read the Release Notes for this firmware version. Always review the Release Notes before installing a new firmware version in case you cannot update to the new firmware release from the one currently running. 8 Backup your configuration from the System Information dashboard widget. Always remember to back up your configuration before doing any firmware upgrades. 9 Go to System > Dashboard > Status. 10 Under System Information > Firmware Version, select Update. 11 Find the firmware image file that you downloaded and select OK to upload and install the firmware build on the FortiGate unit. Results The FortiGate unit uploads the firmware image file, upgrades to the new firmware version, restarts, and displays the FortiGate login. This process takes a few minutes. From the FortiGate web-based manager, go to System > Dashboard > Status. In the System Information widget, the Firmware Version will show the updated version of FortiOS (or from the CLI enter get system status). What if it doesn’t work? There is a possibility that the firmware upgrade from the web-based manager does not load properly. If this occurs, you may find that the FortiGate will not boot, or continuously reboots. It is best to perform a fresh install of the firmware from a reboot using the CLI. This procedure installs a firmware image and resets the FortiGate unit to default settings. For this procedure, you must connect to the CLI using the FortiGate console port and a RJ-45 to DB-9, or null modem cable. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 35
  • 36. Verifying the current firmware version and upgrading the FortiOS firmware Installing FortiGate firmware from a TFTP server This procedure requires a TFTP server that you can connect to from the FortiGate unit. The TFTP server should be on the same subnet as the management interface. 1 Connect to the CLI using the RJ-45 to DB-9 or null modem cable. 2 Make sure the TFTP server is running and copy the firmware image file to the TFTP server. 3 Enter the following command to restart the FortiGate unit. execute reboot 4 When prompted by the FortiGate unit to reboot, type y. 5 As the FortiGate unit starts, a series of system startup messages appears. When the following messages appears: Press any key to display configuration menu.......... Immediately press any key to interrupt the system startup. You have only 3 seconds to press any key. If you do not press a key soon enough, the FortiGate unit reboots and you must log in and repeat the execute reboot command. If you successfully interrupt the startup process, the messages similar to the following appear (depending on the FortiGate BIOS version): [G]: [F]: [B[: [C]: [Q]: [H]: Get firmware image from TFTP server. Format boot device. Boot with backup firmware and set as default Configuration and information Quit menu and continue to boot with default firmware. Display this list of options. Enter G, F, Q, or H: 6 Type G to get to the new firmware image form the TFTP server. 7 When prompted, enter the TFTP server IP address, and local FortiGate IP address. The IP address can be any IP address that is valid for the network the interface is connected to. Make sure you do not enter the IP address of another device on this network. 8 Enter the firmware image filename and press Enter. The TFTP server uploads the firmware image file. 9 When prompted how to save the default firmware, type D to load it as the default. The FortiGate unit installs the new firmware image and restarts. When loading the firmware using this method, the existing configuration is reset to defaults. You will need to reconfigure the IP addresses and load the configuration file from the System Information widget on the Dashboard. 36 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 37. Setting up and troubleshooting FortiGuard services Setting up and troubleshooting FortiGuard services Problem You want to confirm that your FortiGate unit is receiving FortiGuard services. You also want to be able to troubleshoot issues that arise if antivirus or IPS updates or web filtering or email filtering lookups are not available. FortiGuard Network Solution If you have purchased FortiGuard services and registered your FortiGate unit it should automatically connect to the FortiGuard Distribution Network (FDN) and display license information about your FortiGuard services. Verify whether the FortiGate unit is communicating with the FDN by checking the License Information dashboard widget. The FortiGate unit automatically connects with the FortiGuard network to verify the FortiGuard Services status for the FortiGate unit. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 37
  • 38. Setting up and troubleshooting FortiGuard services Any subscribed services should have a green check mark beside them, indicating that connections are successful. A grey X indicates that the FortiGate unit cannot connect to the FortiGuard network, or that the FortiGate unit is not registered. A red X indicates that the FortiGate unit was able to connect but that a subscription has expired, or has not been activated. Use the following steps to troubleshoot FortiGuard services. 1 Verify that you have registered your FortiGate unit, purchased FortiGuard services, and that the services have not expired. You can verify the support status for your FortiGate unit at the Fortinet Support website (https://support.fortinet.com/). 2 Verify the status of the FortiGuard services on the FortiGate unit. You can view the status of FortiGuard services from the License Information dashboard widget or from the System > Config > FortiGuard page. The status information displayed here should match the information on the support site. If the information doesn’t match there may be a problem with communication between the FortiGate unit and the FortiGuard network. You can also view the FortiGuard connection status by going to System > Config > FortiGuard. 3 Verify that the FortiGate unit can communicate with the Internet. The FortiGate unit should be able to communicate with the FortiGuard network if it can communicate with the Internet. 4 38 Go to Router > Monitor > Routing Monitor (NAT/Route mode) or System > Network > Routing Table and verify that a default route is available and configured correctly. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 39. Setting up and troubleshooting FortiGuard services 5 Go to System > Network > DNS and make sure the primary and secondary DNS servers are correct, as provided by your ISP. The FortiGate unit connects to the FortiGuard network using a domain name, not a numerical IP address. If the FortiGate interface connected to the Internet gets its IP address using DHCP, you should make sure Override internal DNS is selected so that the FortiGate unit gets its DNS server IP addresses from the ISP using DHCP. 6 Verify that the FortiGate unit can connect to the DNS servers using the execute ping command to ping them. 7 You can also attempt a traceroute from FortiGate CLI to an external network using a domain name for a location, for example, enter the command: execute traceroute www.fortiguard.com 8 9 If the command cannot find the numeric IP address of www.fortiguard.com, then the FortiGate unit cannot connect to the configured DNS servers. Make sure that at least one security policy includes antivirus. If no security policies include antivirus, the antivirus database may not be updated. Verify that the FortiGate unit can communicate with the FortiGuard network. At System > Config > FortiGuard > Antivirus and IPS Options, you can select Update now to force an immediate update of the antivirus and IPS databases. After a few minutes, you can verify if the updates were successful. 10 Test the availability of web filtering and email filtering lookups from System > Config > FortiGuard > Web Filtering and Email Filtering options by selecting the Test Availability button. If the test is not successful, try changing the port that is used for web filtering and email filtering lookups. The FortiGate unit uses port 53 or 8888 to communicate with the FortiGuard network and some ISPs may block one of these ports. 11 Determine if there is anything upstream that might be blocking FortiGuard traffic, either on the network or on the ISP’s network. Many firewalls block all ports by default, and often ISPs block low-numbered ports (such as 53). FortiGuard uses port 53 by default, so if it is being blocked, you need to either open the port or change the port used by the FortiGate unit. 12 Change the FortiGuard source port. It is possible ports that are used to contact the FortiGuard network are being changed before reaching FortiGuard, or on the return trip, before reaching your FortiGate unit. A possible solution for this is to use a fixed-port at the NAT firewall to ensure the port number remains the same. FortiGate units contact the FortiGuard Network by sending UDP packets with typical source ports of 1027 or 1031, and destination ports of 53 or 8888. The FDN reply packets would then have a destination port of 1027 or 1031. If your ISP blocks UDP packets in this port range, the FortiGate unit cannot receive the FDN reply packets. You can select a different source port range for the FortiGate unit to use. If your ISP blocks the lower range of UDP ports (around 1024), you can configure your FortiGate unit to use higher-numbered ports such as 2048-20000, using the following CLI command: config system global set ip-src-port-range 2048-20000 end FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 39
  • 40. Setting up and troubleshooting FortiGuard services Trial and error may be required to select the best source port range. You can also contact your ISP to determine the best range to use. 13 Display the FortiGuard server list The get webfilter status CLI command shows the list of FortiGuard servers that the FortiGate unit can connect to. The command should show more than one server. get webfilter status Locale : english License : Contract Expiration : Thu Oct 9 02:00:00 2012 Hostname : service.fortiguard.net -=- Server List (Wed Sep 14 14:39:46 2011) -=IP 69.20.236.179 174.137.33.92 208.91.112.196 69.20.236.180 209.222.147.36 66.117.56.42 66.117.56.37 69.20.236.182 69.195.205.101 80.85.69.37 80.85.69.41 80.85.69.40 62.209.40.72 208.91.112.194 116.58.208.39 Weight 30 0 0 30 30 30 30 30 30 80 80 80 90 118 160 RTT Flags 3 91 62 4 22 24 24 4 32 85 85 88 109 128 DI 276 TZ -5 -8 -8 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 0 0 0 1 -8 8 Packets 30491 8794 146 11620 8799 8792 8793 11332 8810 8800 8804 8808 8791 12713 8805 Curr Lost Total Lost 0 9 0 7 0 2 0 9 0 11 0 9 0 10 0 7 0 27 0 17 0 21 0 25 0 8 0 3912 0 22 Hostname is the name of the FortiGuard server the FortiGate unit will attempt to contact. The Server List includes the IP addresses of alternate servers if the first entry cannot be reached. In this example, the IP addresses are not public addresses. The following flags in get webfilter status indicate the server status: • D - the server was found through the DNS lookup of the hostname. If the hostname returns more than one IP address, all of them will be flagged with D and will be used first for INIT requests before falling back to the other servers. • I - the server to which the last INIT request was sent. • F - the server has not responded to requests and is considered to have failed. • T - the server is currently being timed. 40 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 41. Setting up an administrator account on the FortiGate unit Setting up an administrator account on the FortiGate unit Problem You want to add a new FortiGate administrator login that has super administrator access to all FortiGate features. You also want to be able to identify individual administrators instead of allowing multiple uses of the admin administrator account. e fil ro o r s _p at in tr m nis ad mi ad In te rn al N et w or k t ni U r e ve at er iG S rt P Fo HC D Solution Create a new administrator with the super_admin profile, to enable full access to all FortiGate features. 1 Go to System > Admin > Administrators and select Create New to add the following administrator: Administrator Type password Confirm Password password Admin Profile FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Regular Password 2 Terry_White super_admin Select OK to save the administrator. 41
  • 42. Setting up an administrator account on the FortiGate unit Administrator names and passwords are case-sensitive. You cannot include the < > ( ) # ” characters in an administrator name or password. Spaces are allowed, but not as the first or last character. Spaces in a name or password can be confusing and require the use of quotes to enter the name in the CLI. The admin profile dictates what parts of the FortiGate configuration the administrator can see and configure from web-based manager and CLI. You can add multiple profiles and assign users and administrators different profiles, depending on what they are tasked to do with the FortiGate unit. Results Log in to the FortiGate using the user name of Terry_White and the password of password. As this administrator, you can view all web-based manager pages and change all FortiGate configuration settings. From the FortiGate web-based manager,go to Log&Report > Event Log to verify that the login activity occurred. Select the log entry to view detailed information, which indicates the admin user connected. The Message field indicates that Terry White logged in successfully from 192.168.1.1. 42 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 43. Setting up an administrator account on the FortiGate unit Go to System > Dashboard > Status, and view the System Information widget. The Current Administrator field indicates the number of administrators logged in. Selecting Details shows Terry White logged in as an administrator. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 43
  • 44. FortiOS Cookbook Advanced FortiGate installation and setup FortiGate units can be deployed in many ways to meet a wide range of advanced requirements. This chapter samples some of advanced configurations that include advanced NAT and Transparent mode configurations, high availability, VLANs and Virtual Domains (VDOMs). This chapter also includes two sections that describe how to use the FortiGate packet sniffer and one that describes using the diagnose debug tools. This chapter includes the following advanced installation and setup examples: • Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections • Using a modem for a redundant Internet connection • Distributing sessions between dual redundant Internet connections with usage-based ECMP • Protecting a web server on a DMZ network • Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) • Using port pairing to simplify a Transparent mode installation • Connecting networks without translating addresses (FortiGate unit in Route mode) • Setting up the explicit web proxy for users on a private network • Setting up web caching of Internet content for users on a private network • Employing high availability (HA) to improve network reliability • Upgrading the firmware installed on a FortiGate HA cluster • Connecting multiple networks to a FortiGate interface using virtual LANs (VLANs) • Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit • Setting up an administrator account for monitoring firewall activity and basic maintenance • Enhancing FortiGate Security • Creating a local DNS server listing for internal web sites and servers • Assigning IP addresses according to a MAC address using DHCP • Setting up the FortiGate unit to send SNMP traps • Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) • Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) • Creating, saving, and using packet capture filters (sniffing packets from the web-based manager) • Debugging FortiGate configurations • Quick reference to common diagnose commands FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 44
  • 45. Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections Problem W 17 AN G 2. 1 17 ate 20 2. w .12 20 ay 0 .1 .1 4 20 .2 Primary ISP W D AN H 2 C P .0 k 5 or 25 w 5. et 5 N .2 al 55 rn /2 te .0 In 8.1 16 2. 19 In 19 ter 2. na 16 l 8. 1. 9 9 Create a backup Internet connection with your FortiGate unit, so that if the primary internet connection fails, some or all traffic automatically switches to the backup Internet connection and when the primary Internet connection is restored, traffic automatically switches back to it. Backup ISP Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/inst2.html This solution describes how to improve the reliability of a network’s connection to the Internet by using two Internet connections to two different ISPs. In this solution, the primary ISP is connected to wan1 with a static IP and the backup ISP is connected to wan2 using DHCP. To allow the internal network to use wan1 to connect to the Internet add internal to wan1 security policies. Add duplicate internal to wan2 security policies to use wan2 to connect to the Internet. You can choose to reduce the amount of traffic when the wan2 interface is operating by adding fewer security polices for connections to the wan2 interface. You could also use techniques such as traffic shaping to limit the amount of traffic processed by the wan2 interface. You could also add security policies that include FortiGuard web filtering or other web filtering techniques to block popular but less important websites. Application control could also be used to limit the applications that can be used when traffic is using the wan2 interface. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 45
  • 46. Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections Configuring the primary Internet connection to use wan1 1 Connect the FortiGate wan1 interface to your primary ISP-supplied equipment. Connect the internal network to the internal interface. Internal Network internal wan1 Primary ISP 2 From a PC on the Internal network, log in to the FortiGate web-based manager using admin and no password. 3 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan1 interface and change the following settings: Addressing mode IP/Netmask 4 Manual 172.20.120.14/255.255.255.0 Edit the internal interface and change the following settings: Addressing mode IP/Netmask 5 Manual 192.168.1.99/255.255.255.0 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and select Create New to add the following default route. Destination IP/Mask Device wan1 Gateway 46 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 172.20.120.2 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 47. Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections 6 Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. 7 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet through the wan1 interface. Some FortiGate models include this security policy in the default configuration. If you have one of these models, this step has already been done for you. Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address All Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address All Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 8 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 9 Select OK to save the security policy. Adding the backup Internet connection using wan2 1 Connect the wan2 interface to your backup ISP-supplied equipment. 2 Log in to the web-based manager. 3 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan2 interface. 4 Set the Addressing Mode to DHCP and select Retrieve Default Gateway from server. Clear the checkbox for Override internal DNS. 5 Select OK to save the changes. If everything is connected correctly, the wan2 interface should acquire an IP address from the ISP’s DHCP server. This can take a few minutes, you can select the Status link to refresh the display. Eventually, an Obtained IP/Netmask should appear. If the ISP’s DHCP server supplies DNS server IP addresses and a default gateway, they should also appear. Make sure Retrieve Default Gateway from server is selected so that a default route is added to the routing table. Normally in a dual Internet configuration, you would not select Override internal DNS because you would not want the FortiGate unit to use the backup ISP’s DNS servers. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 47
  • 48. Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections Internal Network internal wan2 wan1 Primary ISP Backup ISP 6 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet through the wan2 interface. Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address All Destination Interface/Zone wan2 Destination Address All Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 7 8 48 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. Select OK to save the security policy. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 49. Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections Set the default route to wan1 to be the primary default route and add a ping server for wan1 and a ping server for wan2 As a result of this configuration, the FortiGate unit will have two default routes, one that directs traffic to wan1 and one that directs traffic to wan2. The default route to wan2 is obtained from the backup ISP’s DHCP server. The ping servers verify the ability of the wan1 and wan2 interfaces to connect to the Internet. Because the wan2 default route is acquired from the ISP using DHCP, the distance of the wan2 default route must be changed by editing the wan2 interface. 1 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and Edit the wan1 default route, select Advanced and set the Distance to 10. The distance may already be set to 10 so you may not actually have to change it. 2 Go to System > Network > Interface list. Edit the wan2 interface and set the distance to 20 (or any number higher than 10). 3 To confirm which default route is now actually being used by the FortiGate unit, go to Router > Monitor > Routing Monitor to view the current FortiGate routing table. Routes that are not active do not appear on the routing monitor. In this example, only the one static route should appear: the wan1 default route. Its distance should be 10. Connected routes for the connected interfaces should also appear. If you edit the wan2 interface and set the distance to a lower value (say 5), the wan1 default route is removed from the router monitor and is replaced with the wan2 default route (because the wan2 route has the lower distance). You can also have both default routes appear in the router monitor by setting their distances to the same value (say 10). When both routes have the same distance, this is known as equal cost multi path (ECMP) routing and both default routes are used. Sessions are load balanced between them. For an example, see “Distributing sessions between dual redundant Internet connections with usage-based ECMP” on page 58. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 49
  • 50. Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections 4 Go to Router > Static > Settings and select Create New and add the wan1 ping server: Interface Ping Server 172.20.120.2 Detect Protocol ICMP Ping Ping Interval (seconds) 5 Failover Threshold 5 wan1 5 Select Create New and add the wan2 ping server. The wan2 ping server is optional for this configuration. However adding the wan2 ping server means the FortiGate unit will record even log messages when the wan2 ping server can’t reach its destination. Interface wan2 Ping Server 10.41.101.100 Detect Protocol ICMP Ping Ping Interval (seconds) 5 Failover Threshold 5 Results If the wan1 ping server can connect to its ping server IP address the routing monitor appears as shown above with a default route to the wan1 interface. All traffic to the Internet uses the wan1 interface and the internal to wan1 security policy. You can verify this by viewing the routing monitor and by going to Policy > Policy > Policy and viewing the Count column for the internal to wan1 and internal to wan2 policies while connecting to the Internet. The internal to wan1 policy count should increase, while the internal to wan2 count should not. If you change the network so that the wan1 ping server cannot connect to its ping server IP address, (for example, by physically disconnecting the cable from the wan1 interface), the default route should change to the wan2 interface (called default route failover): An event log message similar to the following should also be recorded. 2011-08-24 10:16:39 log_id=0100020001 type=event subtype=system pri=critical vd=root interface="wan1" status=down msg="Ping peer: (172.20.120.14->172.20.120.2 ping-down)" 50 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 51. Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections With the wan2 link active, attempt to connect to the Internet from the Internal network. If you can connect, this confirms that the dual Internet connection configuration is correct. View the security policy count column for the internal to wan2 policy. The count should be increasing, indicating that this policy is accepting traffic. When you restore the wan1 interface’s connection, the ping server should detect that network traffic is restored and the routing table should revert to including the wan1 default route. All new sessions will use the internal to wan1 security policy. Sessions that were established using the internal to wan2 security policy will continue to use this policy and the wan2 interface until they are terminated. However, all new sessions will use the internal to wan1 security policy. Outgoing sessions and their responses that are in progress during a failover will have to be restarted after the failover, since responses to traffic sent out on one interface will not come back on another. During a failover, incoming sessions received by a firewall VIP security policy from the wan1 interface before the failover may be sent out the wan2 interface after the failover. Outbound sessions initiated by the server and sent out the VIP security policy will have their source IP address modified according to the interface that sends the session to the Internet. If the wan1 link fails, outgoing VIP sessions automatically fail over to wan2. The source address of these sessions depends on the address defined in the firewall VIP. If you can browse the web from the internal network, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. Changing this redundant Internet configuration to use ECMP The basic redundant Internet connection scenario described in this section should be successful for many networks. However, to potentially improve default route failover performance and to reduce the number of fail overs for incoming connections when the primary ISP fails and re-connects you could implement Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) routing. You could implement a basic ECMP configuration of this redundant Internet connection scenario by setting the distances for both default routes to the same value and setting the priority of the default route to the primary ISP to a lower value than the priority of the default route to the backup ISP. The route with the lowest priority value is considered the best route. Use the following steps to modify the configuration. Because the wan2 default route is acquired from the ISP using DHCP, the priority of the wan2 default route must be changed by editing the wan2 interface from the CLI. 1 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and Edit the wan1 default route. 2 Select Advanced and set the Distance to 10 and the Priority to 5 3 Enter the following CLI command to edit the distance and priority of the wan2 default route. config system interface edit wan2 set distance 10 set priority 20 end FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 51
  • 52. Connecting a FortiGate unit to two ISPs for redundant Internet connections Since the wan1 default route has the lowest priority it is considered the best route and all traffic heading from the private network for the Internet uses the wan1 interface. When two different distances are used on the wan1 and wan2 default routes, traffic originating from the Internet can only be responded to by the interface with the default route with the lowest distance metric (wan1). If a user from the Internet has established a connection to the Internal network through the wan1 interface, the user would lose their connection if the wan1 connection to the Internet fails. After a brief interruption the user would automatically re-connect through the wan2 interface. When the wan1 Internet connection comes back, the user’s connection would be interrupted a second time because it would have to switch back to the wan1 interface since the wan2 interface would no longer be able to process traffic. When ECMP is implemented, both interfaces are able to respond to traffic initiated from the Internet as the routing is based on the session tables. The user would still lose their connection when the wan1 Internet connection fails, but after connecting through the wan2 interface the user’s connection would be able to continue on the wan2 interface after the wan1 connection was restored resulting in only a single interruption. A number of ECMP scenarios are available. For another, see “Distributing sessions between dual redundant Internet connections with usage-based ECMP” on page 58. 52 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 53. Using a modem for a redundant Internet connection Using a modem for a redundant Internet connection Problem 9 rk 5 o .2 w 5 et 5 N 5.2 al 5 r n /2 te .0 In 8.1 6 .1 2 5 W 17 AN G 2. 1 17 ate 20 2. w .12 20 ay 0 .1 .1 4 20 .2 1 In 19 ter 2. na 16 l 8. 1. 99 Create a backup Internet connection using a modem so that if the primary internet connection fails, some or all traffic automatically switches to the backup Internet connection which is a dialup connection using the modem interface. When the primary Internet connection is restored, traffic automatically switches back to it. M od em .0 Primary ISP Backup ISP Solution This solution describes how to improve the reliability of a network’s connection to the Internet by using two Internet connections. The primary internet connection is to the wan1 interface and the backup internet connection is a dial-up connection using a modem and the FortiGate modem interface. The modem interface is configured to be redundant for the wan1 interface and a ping server is added for the wan1 interface. When the ping server determines that the wan1 interface cannot connect to the Internet, the FortiGate unit dials the modem and the modem becomes the active Internet connection. You can choose to reduce the amount of traffic when the modem interface is operating, by adding fewer security polices for connections to the modem interface. You could also use techniques such as traffic shaping to limit the amount of traffic processed by the modem interface. You could also add security policies that include FortiGuard web filtering or other web filtering techniques to block popular, but less important websites. Application control could also be used to limit the applications that can be used when traffic is using the modem interface. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 53
  • 54. Using a modem for a redundant Internet connection Configuring the primary Internet connection to use wan1 1 Connect the FortiGate wan1 interface to your primary ISP-supplied equipment. Connect the internal network to the internal interface. Internal Network internal wan1 Primary ISP 2 From a PC on the Internal network, log in to the FortiGate web-based manager using admin and no password. 3 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan1 interface and change the following settings: Addressing mode IP/Netmask 4 Manual 172.20.120.14/255.255.255.0 Edit the internal interface and change the following settings: Addressing mode IP/Netmask 5 Manual 192.168.1.99/255.255.255.0 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and select Create New to add the following default route. Destination IP/Mask Device wan1 Gateway 54 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 172.20.120.2 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 55. Using a modem for a redundant Internet connection 6 Go to Router > Static > Settings, select Create New, and add the following ping server: Interface wan1 Ping Server 172.20.120.2 Detect Protocol ICMP Ping Ping Interval (seconds) 5 Failover Threshold 5 7 Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. 8 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet through the wan1 interface. Some FortiGate models include this security policy in the default configuration. If you have one of these models, this step has already been done for you. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 9 internal ACCEPT Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 10 Select OK to save the security policy. Configuring the modem interface as the backup Internet connection 1 Connect the modem interface to a phone line. You can also connect a USB modem to the USB port, or insert an express card modem into the express card slot of the FortiGate unit. You may have to restart the FortiGate unit after connecting an external modem. 2 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Log in to the web-based manager. 55
  • 56. Using a modem for a redundant Internet connection Internal Network internal wan1 modem Primary ISP Backup ISP 3 Go to System > Network > Modem and Edit the modem settings, then select Enable Modem, and select Apply. 4 Configure the following modem settings: Primary Modem Mode Redundant Redundant for wan1 Dial Mode Dial on demand Idle Timeout 5 minutes Redial Limit 5 Internal Modem (or External modem if you are using one) None Configure the External Modem or Internal Modem settings. Phone Number User Name 56 ISP_user Password 6 555 555 1212 Passw0rd Select Apply to save the changes. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 57. Using a modem for a redundant Internet connection 7 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet through the modem interface. Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone modem Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 8 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 9 Select OK to save the security policy. With this configuration, if the wan1 interface becomes disconnected, the modem will automatically dial up and attempt to connect to an ISP. If the connection is successful, the modem interface will be configured via PPPoE from the ISP and a default route pointing to the modem interface will be added to the routing table. All traffic destined for the Internet will then use the modem interface as long as it is accepted by an internal to modem security policy. Results You can test default route failover by blocking access from the wan1 interface to the ping server target (for example, by physically disconnecting the wan1 interface cable). The modem should dial in, and when connected, the routing monitor should show the modem default route replacing the wan1 default route. You can also try connecting to the Internet and verifying that the connection works and that traffic is accepted by an internal to modem security policy. You can then restore the wan1 connection, see the wan1 default route being added back to the routing monitor, and verify connectivity. With the modem dialed in, if you can browse the web from the internal network, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 57
  • 58. Distributing sessions between dual redundant Internet connections with usage-based ECMP Distributing sessions between dual redundant Internet connections with usage-based ECMP Problem 9 rk 5 o .2 w 5 et 5 N 5.2 al 5 r n /2 te .0 In 8.1 6 .1 2 5 W 17 AN 2. 1 G 17 ate 20 2. w .12 20 ay 0 .1 .1 4 20 .2 1 In 19 ter 2. na 16 l 8. 1. 99 Your organization uses two different ISPs for reliability and you want to make efficient use of these two Internet connections by distributing sessions to both, without allowing either one to become overloaded. 17 17 2. 30 W .1 A 2. Ga 20 N2 30 te .1 .1 wa 0 20 y .2 .0 Primary ISP Backup ISP Solution Use spillover (also known as usage-based) Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) routing route. When one Internet connection reaches a defined traffic level, sessions spill over to the other connection. 1 Go to Router > Static > Static Route, select Create New to add default routes for the wan1 and wan2 interfaces For the wan1 interface: Destination IP/Mask Device wan1 Gateway 58 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 172.20.120.2 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 59. Distributing sessions between dual redundant Internet connections with usage-based ECMP Select Advanced and set the Distance to 10. For the wan2 interface: Destination IP/Mask 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 Device wan2 Gateway 172.30.120.2 Select Advanced and set the Distance to 10. For ECMP to work, both default routes must have the same Distance and Priority. 2 Go to Router > Static > Settings and select Spillover as the ECMP Load Balance Method. 3 Under Dead Gateway Detection, select Create New to add dead gateway detection for the wan1 and wan2 interfaces. For the wan1 interface: Interface wan1 Ping Server 172.20.120.2 Detect Protocol ICMP Ping Ping Interval 5 Failover Threshold 5 For the wan2 interface: Interface Ping Server ICMP Ping Ping Interval 5 Failover Threshold FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 172.30.120.2 Detect Protocol 4 wan2 5 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan1 interface and set the Spillover Threshold to 10000 kbits/s. 59
  • 60. Distributing sessions between dual redundant Internet connections with usage-based ECMP 5 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan2 interface and set the Spillover Threshold to 20000 kbits/s. You must add spillover thresholds to both interfaces, since the default spillover threshold of 0 means no bandwidth limiting. If one of the interfaces had a spillover threshold of 0, it would process all sessions. Results Most sessions from the internal network to the Internet should use the wan1 interface. When traffic on the wan1 interface reaches the spillover threshold, new sessions should begin using the wan2 interface. When usage on the wan1 interface reduces below the spillover threshold new sessions should will again use the wan1 interface. Usage-based ECMP routing is not actually load balancing, since routes are not distributed evenly among the interfaces. A spillover threshold of 10000 kbits (10 Mbps) means that when the wan1 interface usage reaches 10 Mbps new sessions are spilled over to the wan2 interface. So during low traffic times, wan1 would be processing all sessions. The spillover threshold does not strictly limit the bandwidth processed by the interface because new sessions with destination IP addresses that are already in the routing cache will use the cached routes. This means, that even if wan1 is exceeding its bandwidth limit, new sessions can continue to be sent out on wan1 if their destination addresses are already in the routing cache. You can adjust the spillover thresholds to change how sessions are distributed between the ISPs as you become familiar with your traffic patterns. You can use the Traffic History dashboard widget to view bandwidth usage for the wan1 and wan2 interfaces. You can see whether an interface is exceeding its Spillover Threshold by using this CLI command: diagnose netlink dstmac list The output is like this: dev=wan2 mac=00:00:00:00:00:00 rx_tcp_mss=0 tx_tcp_mss=0 overspill-threshold=0 bytes=0 over_bps=0 sampler_rate=0 dev=wan1 mac=00:00:00:00:00:00 rx_tcp_mss=0 tx_tcp_mss=0 overspill-threshold=0 bytes=0 over_bps=0 sampler_rate=0 In the output, over_bps=1 means that the interface is exceeding its threshold, over_bps=0 means that the interface has not exceeded its threshold. 60 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 61. Protecting a web server on a DMZ network Protecting a web server on a DMZ network Problem You need to keep a web server secure and available from the Internet and from an internal private network. Private internal network 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 User Address range 192.168.1.100 to 192.168.1.150 DMZ network 10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0 17 2 D .2 17 efa 0.1 w 2. ul 20 an1 20 t r .1 .1 ou 4 20 te .2 0 .1 z .10 dm .10 10 in 19 ter 2. na 16 l 8. 1. 9 9 Web Server DMZ network address 10.10.10.123 Web Server Internet address 172.20.120.123 Solution This solution protects and provides access to the web server by: • Installing the web server on a DMZ (demilitarized zone) network separate from your internal network that exposes the web server to the Internet and the internal network. • Connecting the DMZ network to a FortiGate interface (the DMZ interface or any other available interface). • Creating a destination NAT (DNAT) security policy that includes UTM protection and that allows users on the Internet to access the web server. • Creating a route mode security policy that allows users on the internal network to access the web server. When you connect multiple networks to your FortiGate unit, you might want to add interface aliases that describe the function of the interface or the network connected to it. Aliases are easy to add: go to System > Network > Interface, edit an interface and then add descriptive text to the Alias field. The alias appears with the interface name in most places on the web-based manager. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 61
  • 62. Protecting a web server on a DMZ network Connecting the networks to the FortiGate unit and configuring IP settings 1 Connect the DMZ network to the FortiGate DMZ interface the internal network to the internal interface and the Internet to the wan1 interface (or any available interfaces). DMZ DMZ Network internal Internal Network 2 Go to System > Network > Interface. 3 Edit the dmz interface: Alias Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask 4 DMZ server network 10.10.10.10/255.255.255.0 Edit the internal interface: Alias Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask 5 Private internal network 192.168.1.99/255.255.255.0 Edit the wan1 interface: Alias Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask 62 Internet 172.20.120.14/255.255.255.0 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 63. Protecting a web server on a DMZ network 6 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and Edit the default route as follows. Destination IP/Mask 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 Device wan1(Internet) Gateway 172.20.120.2 7 Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. 8 Configure the web server’s IP network settings. IP address 10.10.10.123 Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 10.10.10.10 DNS Servers IP addresses of available DNS servers. If the web server does not have the correct default gateway, its response packets will not reach the DMZ interface, so the web server will appear to not be responding. Create a DNAT security policy to allow sessions from the Internet to the web server Configure DNAT (port forwarding) by creating a firewall virtual IP (VIP) that maps the Internet address of the web server (172.20.120.123) to the actual IP address of the web server on the DMZ network (10.10.10.123). Then, add this VIP to a security policy that allows users on the Internet to browse to the Internet address of the web server (in this example, 172.20.120.123) to connect through the FortiGate unit to the web server on the DMZ network. 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > Virtual IP and select Create New to add a new virtual IP with the following settings: Name External Interface wan1(Internet) Type Static NAT External IP Address/Range 172.20.120.123 Mapped IP Address/Range FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Web-server-DNAT 10.10.10.123 63
  • 64. Protecting a web server on a DMZ network 2 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy to allow users on the Internet to connect to the web server on the DMZ network. Source Interface/Zone wan1(Internet) Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone dmz(DMZ server network) Destination Address Web-server-DNAT Schedule always 3 Beside Service, select Multiple and add HTTP and HTTPS to the Members list. 4 Set Action to ACCEPT. 5 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus, Enable Application Control, and Enable IPS. 6 Select OK to save the security policy. Create a route mode security policy to allow users on the internal network to connect to the web server on the DMZ network By using a route mode policy, users on the internal network can connect to the web server using its real DMZ IP address (by browsing to http://10.10.10.123 or https://10.10.10.123). Since users on the internal network know the real address of the web server, you do not have to enable NAT in the security policy that allows this access. 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add a firewall address for the user address range on the internal network. Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.100 -192.168.1.150 (can also be entered as 192.168.1.[100-150]) Interface 2 Internal-user-addresses Internal(Private internal network) Select Create New to add a firewall address for the web server on the DMZ network. Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.10.10.123/255.255.255.255 Interface 64 DMZ-web-server-address dmz(DMZ server network) FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 65. Protecting a web server on a DMZ network 3 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows users on the internal network to connect to the DMZ network. Source Interface/Zone Internal(Private internal network) Source Address Internal-user-addresses Destination Interface/Zone dmz(DMZ server network) Destination Address DMZ-web-server-address Schedule Always 4 Beside Service, select Multiple and add HTTP and HTTPS to the Members list. 5 Set Action to ACCEPT. 6 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus, Enable Application Control, and Enable IPS. 7 Select OK to save the security policy. For this policy, you could have selected Enable NAT to enable source NAT. However, doing this would mean that all packets from the internal network connecting to the web server would have the same source address (the IP address of the DMZ interface). If you do not select Enable NAT you can record web server usage according to the actual source address of sessions from the internal network. Add a security policy to allow users on the internal network to connect to the Internet 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy. Source Interface/Zone Internal(Private internal network) Source Address Internal-user-addresses Destination Interface/Zone wan1(Internet) Destination Address all Schedule Always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 2 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus and Enable Application Control. 3 Select OK to save the security policy. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 65
  • 66. Protecting a web server on a DMZ network Results Test the configuration by connecting to the web server from the internal network and from the Internet. If any of the following tests fail, re-check your FortiGate configuration. Also, make sure the web server has the correct default route. This is especially important for connections from the internal network because the security policies do not perform source NAT, so the web server needs the correct default route to be able to send return packets correctly. You can also try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24. Testing the connection from the internal network to the web server From the internal network, browse to the web server’s actual IP address (http://10.10.10.123 or https://10.10.10.123). The connection should be successful. This communication uses the internal to dmz policy. Go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view sessions accepted by the internal to dmz policy (in the example, policy 3). Sessions for other policies may also be visible. Drill down to view details about the sessions accepted by the policy. They should all be HTTP (port 80) or HTTPS (port 443) sessions. The source address should be an address on the internal network and the destination address should be the real address of the web server (10.10.10.123). The NAT columns should be blank because no address translation is taking place. You can also view similar session information using the FortiGate packet sniffer. The following sniffer output shows HTTP traffic (port 80) between a PC with IP address 192.168.1.110 and the web server (IP address 10.10.10.123). You can see the HTTP sessions between the PC and the internal interface and between the dmz interface and the web server. Note that the source and destination addresses and ports are not translated: diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 10 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 5.360359 internal in 192.168.1.110.4359 -> 10.10.10.123.80: syn 2514178891 66 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 67. Protecting a web server on a DMZ network 5.361982 5.362165 5.362463 5.366684 5.370189 5.370411 5.370606 5.375160 5.375417 internal out 10.10.10.123.80 -> 192.168.1.110.4359: syn 656842736 ack 2514178892 internal in 192.168.1.110.4359 -> 10.10.10.123.80: ack 656842737 internal in 192.168.1.110.4359 -> 10.10.10.123.80: psh 2514178892 ack 656842737 internal out 10.10.10.123.80 -> 192.168.1.110.4359: ack 2514179678 dmz out 192.168.1.110.4359 -> 10.10.10.123.80: syn 1168283220 dmz in 10.10.10.123.80 -> 192.168.1.110.4359: syn 1433097504 ack 1168283221 dmz out 192.168.1.110.4359 -> 10.10.10.123.80: ack 1433097505 dmz out 192.168.1.110.4359 -> 10.10.10.123.80: psh 1168283221 ack 1433097505 dmz in 10.10.10.123.80 -> 192.168.1.110.4359: ack 1168284007 The following FortiGate sniffer output shows HTTPS traffic (port 443) between IP address 192.168.1.110 and the web server (IP address 10.10.10.123). You can see the HTTPS sessions between the PC and the internal interface and between the dmz interface and the web server. Note that the source and destination addresses and ports are not translated: diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 443' 4 10 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 443] 5.124564 internal in 192.168.1.110.4366 -> 10.10.10.123.443: syn 3141078769 5.128308 dmz out 192.168.1.110.4366 -> 10.10.10.123.443: syn 3141078769 5.128538 dmz in 10.10.10.123.443 -> 192.168.1.110.4366: syn 2403170564 ack 3141078770 5.130991 internal out 10.10.10.123.443 -> 192.168.1.110.4366: syn 2403170564 ack 3141078770 5.131151 internal in 192.168.1.110.4366 -> 10.10.10.123.443: ack 2403170565 5.131414 dmz out 192.168.1.110.4366 -> 10.10.10.123.443: ack 2403170565 5.131702 internal in 192.168.1.110.4366 -> 10.10.10.123.443: psh 3141078770 ack 2403170565 5.138192 dmz out 192.168.1.110.4366 -> 10.10.10.123.443: psh 3141078770 ack 2403170565 5.138361 dmz in 10.10.10.123.443 -> 192.168.1.110.4366: ack 3141078914 5.138632 internal out 10.10.10.123.443 -> 192.168.1.110.4366: ack 3141078914 You could also use the following sniffer command to get similar results: diagnose sniffer packet any 'host 192.168.1.110 or 10.10.10.123' 4 10 Testing the connection from the Internet to the web server From any location on the Internet, (or any location on the 172.20.120.0 network), browse to the web server’s Internet IP address (http://172.20.120.123 or https://172.20.120.123). The connection should be successful. This communication uses the wan1 to dmz policy. Go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view the sessions accepted by security policies. The policy monitor should show sessions accepted by the internal to dmz policy. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 67
  • 68. Protecting a web server on a DMZ network Drill down to view details about the sessions accepted by the policy. They should all be HTTP (port 80) or HTTPS (port 443) sessions. The source address should be an address on the Internet (or the 172.20.120.0 network) and the destination address should be the Internet address of the web server (172.20.120.123). The wan1 to DMZ policy performs DNAT on incoming packets, translating the destination IP address of the packets from 172.20.120.123 to 10.10.10.123. The destination NAT IP address is shown in the Src NAT IP column when destination NAT is taking place. The destination ports are not translated so the Src NAT Port column and Dst Port column both show port 80. You can also view similar information using the packet sniffer. The following sniffer output shows HTTP traffic (destination port 80) from 172.20.120.12 to 172.20.120.123. All packets received by the wan1 interface have a source address of 172.20.120.12 and a destination address of 172.20.120.123. All packets exiting from the dmz interface have a source address of 172.20.120.12 and a destination address of 10.10.10.123: diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 10 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 5.384633 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.59485 -> 172.20.120.123.80: syn 3310195461 5.390855 wan1 out 172.20.120.123.80 -> 172.20.120.12.59485: syn 1257313456 ack 3310195462 5.392429 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.59485 -> 172.20.120.123.80: ack 1257313457 5.392970 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.59485 -> 172.20.120.123.80: psh 3310195462 ack 1257313457 5.402474 wan1 out 172.20.120.123.80 -> 172.20.120.12.59485: ack 3310196396 5.404772 dmz out 172.20.120.12.59485 -> 10.10.10.123.80: syn 3794602648 5.405014 dmz in 10.10.10.123.80 -> 172.20.120.12.59485: syn 4209798675 ack 3794602649 5.405236 dmz out 172.20.120.12.59485 -> 10.10.10.123.80: ack 4209798676 5.406434 dmz out 172.20.120.12.59485 -> 10.10.10.123.80: psh 3794602649 ack 4209798676 5.406689 dmz in 10.10.10.123.80 -> 172.20.120.12.59485: ack 3794603583 The following sniffer output shows HTTPS traffic (destination port 443) from 172.20.120.12 172.20.120.123. You can see the HTTPS sessions between the PC and the wan1 interface and between the dmz interface and the web server. Note that the source and destination addresses and ports are not translated: diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 443' 4 10 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 443] 4.557201 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.59666 -> 172.20.120.123.443: syn 2276259104 4.561331 dmz out 172.20.120.12.59666 -> 10.10.10.123.443: syn 2276259104 4.561577 dmz in 10.10.10.123.443 -> 172.20.120.12.59666: syn 3539944843 ack 2276259105 4.562214 wan1 out 172.20.120.123.443 -> 172.20.120.12.59666: syn 3539944843 ack 2276259105 4.562974 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.59666 -> 172.20.120.123.443: ack 3539944844 4.563323 dmz out 172.20.120.12.59666 -> 10.10.10.123.443: ack 3539944844 4.563540 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.59666 -> 172.20.120.123.443: psh 2276259105 ack 3539944844 4.570165 dmz out 172.20.120.12.59666 -> 10.10.10.123.443: psh 2276259105 ack 3539944844 4.570270 dmz in 10.10.10.123.443 -> 172.20.120.12.59666: ack 2276259473 4.570566 wan1 out 172.20.120.123.443 -> 172.20.120.12.59666: ack 2276259473 You could also use the following sniffer command to get similar results: diagnose sniffer packet any 'host 172.20.120.12 or 172.20.120.123' 4 10 68 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 69. Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) Problem S er t in ec u be all rity ow p tw e t oli se en raf cie gm ne fic s en tw ts ork You need to keep an email server free from viruses without changing the server and without changing the network. For example, you cannot install virus scanning software on the email server or change the email server’s IP address or change the addressing of the network. M 1 an w an 10 ag .3 em 1. e 10 nt 1. IP 40 l na Protected Email Server 10.31.101.200 F tiG t Unit FortiGate U in Transparent mode 10 1. 10 1. .3 10 .0 5 5 rk 2 o 5. e w 5 ng et .2 a ] N 5 R 0 r 25 s -3 se 0/ es [1 U 1. dr 1. 0 d 0 .1 A .1 1 r 1 .3 e .3 0 Us 10 0 1 Router Solution Insert a FortiGate unit in Transparent mode between the email server and the network. Configure the FortiGate unit to allow sessions from the network to the email server and apply antivirus protection to these sessions to keep viruses from reaching the email server. Users on the Internal network connect to the email server to get their mail using IMAP, IMAPS, POP3, POP3S, or HTTPS (for webmail) and to send outgoing email using SMTP or SMTPS. The email server sends outgoing email by connecting to the Internet using SMTP or SMTPS and receives incoming email from the Internet using SMTP or SMTPS. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 69
  • 70. Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) Switching to Transparent mode and configuring IP settings 1 Connect a PC to the FortiGate internal interface. 2 Power on the FortiGate unit and PC. 3 Connect to the FortiGate web-based manager. You can configure the PC to get its IP address using DHCP and then browse to https://192.168.1.99. You could also give the PC a static IP address on the 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. Login using admin and no password. 4 Go to System > Dashboard > Status > System Information and beside Operation Mode select Change and configure the following: Operation Mode Transparent Management IP/Netmask 10.31.101.40/255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 10.31.101.100 5 Select OK to switch to Transparent mode. 6 Log in to the web-based manager by browsing to https://10.31.101.40. You will need to change the IP address of the PC to an address on the 10.31.101.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. 7 8 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan1 interface. For Administrative Access select HTTPS and SSH and select OK. Once the FortiGate unit is connected to the network, you will be managing it by connecting to the wan1 interface. 9 Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. Configure the security policies 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add the following firewall addresses: For the email server: Address Name Type Subnet/IP Range Subnet/IP Range 10.31.101.200/255.255.255.255 Interface 70 Email_Server_Address internal FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 71. Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) For the user network: Address Name Type Subnet/IP Range Subnet/IP Range 10.31.101.[1-30] Interface 2 Email_User_Network wan1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows the user network to access the email server using IMAP, IMAPS, POP3, POP3S, SMTP, SMTPS, and HTTPS: Source Interface/Zone wan1 Source Address Email_User_Network Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Email_Server_Address Schedule Always 3 Beside Service, select Multiple and add IMAP, IMAPS, POP3, POP3S, SMTP, SMTPS, and HTTPS to the Members list. 4 Set Action to ACCEPT. 5 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus. 6 Select OK to save the security policy. 7 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows the email server to send outgoing email to the Internet using SMTP and SMTPS: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address Email_Server_Address Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule Always 8 Beside Service, select Multiple and add SMTP, and SMTPS to the Members list. 9 Set Action to ACCEPT. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 71
  • 72. Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) 10 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus. 11 Select OK to save the security policy. 12 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows the email server to receive incoming email from the Internet using SMTP and SMTPS: Source Interface/Zone wan1 Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Email_Server_Address Schedule Always 13 Beside Service, select Multiple and add SMTP, and SMTPS to the Members list. 14 Set Action to ACCEPT. 15 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus. 16 Select OK to save the security policy. 17 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows the email server to connect to any DNS server: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address Email_Server_Address Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule Always Service DNS Action ACCEPT 18 Select OK to save the security policy. 72 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 73. Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) 19 Connect the FortiGate unit between the email server and the user network. Connect the wan1 interface to a switch connected to the user network. Connect the internal interface to email server. Email Server internal wan1 User Network Results The functionality of the email server should not be changed after the FortiGate unit is inserted. To confirm this, you should access the email server from the user network using all the email protocols that users on the network normally use. As you test email services, on the web-based manager, you can go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view the FortiGate security policy activity. The Policy Monitor displays bar graphs that show the sessions for each policy. The bar graphs are labelled with the policy ID. If no other security policies have been added to the FortiGate unit, and if you followed the steps in the order listed, the FortiGate will have 4 security policies. • FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Policy 1 allows users to connect to the email server using any email protocol and HTTPS. 73
  • 74. Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) • Policy 2 allows the email server to connect to the Internet to send outgoing email. • Policy 3 allows the email server to receive incoming email from the Internet. • Policy 4 allows the email server to send DNS queries. When you connect from the user network to the email server using one of the email protocols (POP3, IMAP, or HTTPS) the sessions are accepted by policy 1 and the policy monitor could look similar to this: The policy monitor shows sessions accepted by policy 1. You can display information about the sessions by selecting the bar graph. For example, you can display the source and destination addresses and services used by sessions accepted by policy 1 as well as a listing of all active sessions. When you send an outgoing email to the server using SMTP, the policy monitor could look similar to this: 74 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 75. Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) The policy monitor shows sessions accepted by three policies. Drilling down into the policy 1 graph shows SMTP sessions and possibly POP3 and HTTPS sessions between an address on the user network and the email server. Drilling down into the policy 2 graph shows SMTP sessions between the email server and an Internet address caused by the email server sending outgoing email. Drilling down into the policy 4 graph shows DNS sessions between the email server and a DNS server. You can test virus scanning by attaching a virus test file to an email message. You can get the EICAR test file from http://www.eicar.org. You can verify the virus scanning results by going to UTM Profiles > Monitor > AV Monitor. The following shows the EICAR test file detected three times. You can drill down to display the FortiGuard Center page for the virus that was detected. The Log and Archive Statistics dashboard widget also displays information about viruses caught including details about the date an time on which the virus was detected, the source and destination address of the session in which the virus was caught, and the service. Finally, when the file is removed from the email its replaced with a message similar to the following: Dangerous Attachment has been Removed. The file "eicar.com" has been removed because of a virus. It was infected with the "EICAR_TEST_FILE" virus. File quarantined as: ""."http://www.fortinet.com/ve?vid=2172" You can customize this message by going to System > Config > Replacement Message > Mail > Virus Message. The default message specifies that the file is quarantined. If you have not configured quarantine, you can remove this part of the message. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 75
  • 76. Protecting an email server with a FortiGate unit without changing the network (Transparent Mode) If you can send and receive email, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations” on page 31 to find the problem. 76 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 77. Using port pairing to simplify a Transparent mode installation Using port pairing to simplify a Transparent mode installation Problem You want to simplify configuring a FortiGate unit operating in transparent mode. an1 o w ir al t rt pa er n po Int inte wa n1 Protected Web Server 10.31.101.210 IP nt 0 me .4 ge 1.101 na Ma 10.3 rna l F tiG t FortiGate Unit in Transparent mode 1 .0 5 5 rk 2 o 5. e w 5 g et .2 n ] n 5 a 0 r 25 s R -3 se 0/ s [1 U 1 . re 1 . 0 d 0 .1 A .1 1 er 1 .3 s .3 0 U 10 1 1 0.3 .10 1.1 00 Router Solution You can enable port pairing in Transparent mode to so that all traffic accepted by one FortiGate interface can only exit out of one other FortiGate interface. Restricting traffic in this way simplifies your FortiGate configuration because security policies between these interfaces are pre-configured. All you have to do is make the physical configurations and then add a port pair. Then, when you create a new security policy for sessions accepted by one of the interfaces in the pair, the second interface is automatically added to the security policy. Switching to Transparent mode and configuring IP settings 1 Connect a PC to the FortiGate internal interface. 2 Power on the FortiGate unit and PC. 3 Connect to the FortiGate web-based manager. You can configure the PC to get its IP address using DHCP and then browse to https://192.168.1.99. You could also give the PC a static IP address on the 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. 4 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Login using admin and no password. 77
  • 78. Using port pairing to simplify a Transparent mode installation 5 Go to System > Dashboard > Status > System Information and beside Operation Mode select Change and configure the following: Operation Mode Transparent Management IP/Netmask 10.31.101.40/255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 10.31.101.100 6 Select OK to switch to Transparent mode. 7 Log in to the web-based manager by browsing to https://10.31.101.40. You will need to change the IP address of the PC to an address on the 10.31.101.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. 8 Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. Creating the internal and wan1 port pair and adding firewall addresses and security policies for it 1 Go to System > Network > Interface and select Create New > Port Pair to configure the following port pair: Name Selected Members internal-wan1-port-pair internal wan1 You can only add interfaces to a port pair if no other configuration objects have been added for the interfaces. For example, you can not add an interface to a port pair if you have added security policies or firewall addresses for it. 2 Select OK to add the port pair. 3 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and add select Create New to add the following firewall addresses For the web server: Address Name Type Subnet/IP Range Subnet/IP Range 10.31.101.210/255.255.255.255 Interface 78 Web-Server-Address any FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 79. Using port pairing to simplify a Transparent mode installation For the user network: Address Name Type Subnet/IP Range Subnet/IP Range 10.31.101.[1-30] Interface 4 Web-Server-User-Network any Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows the user network to access the email server using HTTP and HTTPS: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address Web-Server-User-Network Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address Web-Server-Address Schedule Always 5 Beside Service, select Multiple and add HTTP and HTTPS to the Members list. 6 Set Action to ACCEPT. 7 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus and Enable Application Control. 8 Select OK to save the security policy. 9 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows connections from the web server to the user network and the Internet using any service: Source Interface/Zone wan1 Source Address Web-Server-Address Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address all Schedule Always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 10 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus and Enable Application Control. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 79
  • 80. Using port pairing to simplify a Transparent mode installation 11 Select OK to save the security policy. 12 Connect the web server to the FortiGate wan1 interface and the user network to the FortiGate internal interface. Web Server wan1 internal User Network Results Connect to the web server from the internal network. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and verify that the count for the internal to wan1 policy has increased indicating that this policy is accepting traffic from the user network to the web server. Go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to drill down for more information about the sessions accepted by the internal to wan1 policy. If you can connect to the web server, and if the web server can connect to the Internet, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting Transparent mode installations” on page 31 to find the problem. 80 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 81. Connecting networks without translating addresses (FortiGate unit in Route mode) Connecting networks without translating addresses (FortiGate unit in Route mode) Problem d 10. mz 10. 1 0.1 0 DMZ network 10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0 17 2 D .2 17 efa 0.1 w 2. ul 20 an1 20 t r .1 .1 ou 4 20 te .2 rk o .0 w 55 et 2 N 5. al 25 r n 5. te 5 in 0/2 te .1. va 8 ri 6 P .1 2 9 1 in 19 ter 2. na 16 l 8. 1. 9 9 You want to control and apply UTM features to traffic between two subnets but you want full visibility between the networks (no address translation between the subnets). Solution Install the FortiGate unit in NAT/Route mode between the subnets and create route mode security policies that allow sessions between the networks without performing address translation. Connecting the networks to the FortiGate unit and configuring IP settings 1 Connect the DMZ network to the FortiGate DMZ interface the internal network to the internal interface and the Internet to the wan1 interface (or any available interfaces). 2 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit and configure the dmz, internal, and wan1 interfaces: For the dmz interface: Name Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ dmz 10.10.10.10/255.255.255.0 81
  • 82. Connecting networks without translating addresses (FortiGate unit in Route mode) For the internal interface: Name internal Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask 192.168.1.99/255.255.255.0 For the wan1 interface: Name wan1 Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask 172.20.120.14/255.255.255.0 wan1 DMZ DMZ Network 3 internal Internal Network Go to Router > Static > Static Route and Edit the default route as follows. Destination IP/Mask Device 82 wan1(Internet) Gateway 4 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 172.20.120.2 Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 83. Connecting networks without translating addresses (FortiGate unit in Route mode) 5 Configure the following IP network settings for the devices on the internal network. IP address Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 192.168.1.99 DNS Servers 6 192.168.1.x IP addresses of available DNS servers. Configure the IP following IP network settings for the devices on the DMZ network. IP address 10.10.10.x Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 10.10.10.10 DNS Servers IP addresses of available DNS servers. If the devices on both networks do not have the correct default route, their response packets will not be returned to the source network. Create route mode security policies to allow connections between the internal and DMZ networks 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add a firewall address for the internal network. Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.1 -192.168.1.255 (can also be entered as 192.168.1.[1-255]) Interface FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Internal-network Internal 83
  • 84. Connecting networks without translating addresses (FortiGate unit in Route mode) 2 Select Create New to a firewall address for the DMZ network. Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.10.10.1 -10.10.10.255 (can also be entered as 10.10.10.[1-255]) Interface 3 DMZ-network dmz Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows users on the internal network to connect to the DMZ network. Source Interface/Zone Internal Source Address Internal-network Destination Interface/Zone dmz Destination Address DMZ-network Schedule Always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 4 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus and Enable Application Control. 5 Select OK to save the security policy. 6 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows users on the DMZ network to connect to the internal network. Source Interface/Zone Source Address DMZ-network Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Internal-network Schedule Always Service ANY Action 84 dmz ACCEPT FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 85. Connecting networks without translating addresses (FortiGate unit in Route mode) 7 Select UTM and select Enable AntiVirus and Enable Application Control. 8 Select OK to save the security policy. To make these NAT policies, you could have selected Enable NAT to enable source NAT. However, doing this would mean that all packets from the one network connecting to the other network would have the same source address as the FortiGate unit interface connected to that network. Results Test the configuration by connecting from one network to the other, for example by pinging an address on the internal network from the DMZ network. You can use the FortiGate sniffer to show the ping packets going from one network to the other and the replies coming back without any NAT. The following example shows a device at 10.10.10.20 pinging 192.168.1.120. diagnose sniffer packet any 'icmp' 4 8 interfaces=[any] filters=[icmp] 6.916578 dmz in 10.10.10.20 -> 192.168.1.120: icmp: echo request 6.916794 internal out 10.10.10.20 -> 192.168.1.120: icmp: echo request 6.917459 internal in 192.168.1.120 -> 10.10.10.20: icmp: echo reply 6.917595 dmz out 192.168.1.120 -> 10.10.10.20: icmp: echo reply 7.918637 dmz in 10.10.10.20 -> 192.168.1.120: icmp: echo request 7.918723 internal out 10.10.10.20 -> 192.168.1.120: icmp: echo request 7.919303 internal in 192.168.1.120 -> 10.10.10.20: icmp: echo reply 7.919391 dmz out 192.168.1.120 -> 10.13.10.20: icmp: echo reply If any of the connections fail, re-check your FortiGate configuration and make sure the devices on each network have the correct default route. You can also try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 85
  • 86. Setting up the explicit web proxy for users on a private network Setting up the explicit web proxy for users on a private network Problem You want users on your private network to connect to an explicit web proxy using port 8080 instead of directly to the Internet using port 80. 9 .9 al .1 rn 8 te 16 in 2. 19 it lic xy xp pro eb w E al rn te In rk e o at tw riv Ne P Solution Use the following steps to enable the explicit web proxy on the FortiGate internal interface and configure it to accept HTTP traffic on port 8080. Enable the explicit web proxy 1 Go to System > Network > Explicit Proxy and select Enable Explicit Web Proxy to turn on the explicit web proxy for HTTP and HTTPS traffic. 2 Select Apply. 3 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the internal interface. 4 Select Enable Explicit Web Proxy. Enabling the explicit web proxy on an interface connected to the Internet is a security risk because anyone on the Internet who finds the proxy could use it to hide their source address. If you enable the proxy on such an interface make sure authentication is required to use the proxy. 86 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 87. Setting up the explicit web proxy for users on a private network Adding a web proxy security policy to allow the web proxy to accept traffic 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add an explicit web proxy security policy. Source Interface/Zone Source Address Internal_subnet Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service webproxy Action 2 web-proxy ACCEPT You can select other security policy options as required. For example, you can apply UTM protection to web proxy sessions and log allowed web proxy traffic. 3 Select OK to save the security policy. Configuring web browsers on the private network Configure web browsers on the private network to connect to the network using a proxy server. The IP address of the HTTP proxy server is 192.168.1.99 (the IP address of the FortiGate internal interface) and the port is 8080 (the default explicit web proxy port). Results Web browsers configured to use the proxy server are able to connect to the Internet. If no other security policies allow HTTP traffic from the private network connect to the Internet then users must use the explicit proxy to connect to the Internet. You can add authentication to the explicit web proxy security policy to require users to authenticate before connecting to the Internet. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 87
  • 88. Setting up web caching of Internet content for users on a private network Setting up web caching of Internet content for users on a private network Problem You want to reduce your organization’s WAN and Internet traffic by caching web traffic for users on your private network. l a rn te In rk e o at tw riv Ne P e at e iG ch rt a Fo b C e W Solution In this configuration, all of the users on the private network access the Internet though a single security policy on the FortiGate unit that accepts all sessions connecting to the Internet. Web caching is just added to this security policy. The example also describes how to configure the security policy to cache HTTP traffic on port 80 and 8080 by added a protocol options profile that looks for HTTP traffic on TCP ports 80 and 8080. Add web caching to a security policy 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and Edit the security policy that allows all users on the private network to access the Internet. 2 Select Enable web cache and select OK to save the security policy. Caching HTTP traffic on port 80 and 8080 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Protocol Options and Edit the default profile. 2 Change the HTTP settings of the protocol options profile to look for HTTP traffic on ports 80 and 8080: Port 3 88 80, 8080 Select OK to save the protocol options profile. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 89. Setting up web caching of Internet content for users on a private network 4 Edit the security policy that you added web caching to. 5 Select UTM and set Protocol Options to the default protocol options profile and select OK to save the security policy. Results The FortiGate web cache intercepts all HTTP traffic accepted by the security policy and attempts to serve cached content instead of downloading content from the Internet. You can go to WAN Opt. & Cache > Monitor > Cache Monitor to view the Web Cache Monitor showing caching results for the last 10 minutes, Hour, Day, or Month. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 89
  • 90. Employing high availability (HA) to improve network reliability Employing high availability (HA) to improve network reliability Problem You want to improve the reliability of your Internet gateway by implementing a high availability (HA) solution. E x R te ou rn te al r w an 1 in te rn w al an 2 d m S w itc z h w an 2 d m w z an 1 S w rk o .0 w 55 et 2 N 5. al 25 r n 5. te 5 in 0/2 te .1. va 8 ri 6 P .1 2 9 1 itc h in te rn al FortiGate Cluster Solution Configure two FortiGate units to form a FortiGate HA cluster. Configure basic settings on the cluster to allow users on the internal network to access the Internet. The FortiGate units to be clustered must have the same hardware configuration, including the following: • The same hard disk configuration. • The same AMC or FMC cards installed in the same slots. • The same interface/hub/switch mode if the FortiGate units contain a switch interface. • The same soft switch configuration. Also you should make sure that: • Both FortiGate units have the same firmware build. • Both FortiGate units are set to the same operating mode (NAT or Transparent). • 90 No FortiGate interfaces are configured for DHCP or PPPoE addressing. • Both FortiGate units are set to the same VDOM mode. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 91. Employing high availability (HA) to improve network reliability Setting up HA 1 Power on a FortiGate unit and log into the web-based manager. 2 On the System Information Dashboard widget, beside Host Name select Change. 3 Enter a New Name and select OK. Changing the host name makes it easier to identify individual cluster units when the cluster is operating. 4 Go to System > Config > HA and change the following settings to enable HA mode: Mode Device Priority 128 Group Name My-Cluster Password 5 Active-Passive HAPassw0RD Set dmz and wan2 to be the Heartbeat Interfaces and set the Priority of both to 50. FortiGate units cannot form a cluster if a FortiGate interface is configured to get its IP address using DHCP or PPPoE. If the FortiGate unit reverts back standalone mode after you select OK, check the FortiGate interfaces and if required change the addressing mode of all of the interfaces to Manual. The best practice is to configure and connect two or more heartbeat interfaces. If heartbeat communication is interrupted, the cluster will form a so-called split-brain configuration where both cluster units operate like standalone FortiGate units, but with the same network configuration, resulting in a service interruption. Redundant heartbeat links avoids this problem. 6 Select OK to save the HA configuration. The FortiGate unit negotiates to establish an HA cluster. When you select OK you may temporarily lose connectivity with the FortiGate unit because HA changes the MAC addresses of the FortiGate interfaces. To be able to reconnect sooner, you can update the ARP table of your PC by deleting the ARP table entry for the FortiGate unit (or just deleting all ARP table entries). You may be able to delete the ARP table of your PC from a command prompt using a command similar to arp -d. 7 Power off the FortiGate unit. 8 Repeat these steps with the second FortiGate unit to configure it for HA operation. You can optionally configure one of the FortiGate units with a higher Device Priority so that this unit always becomes the primary unit. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 91
  • 92. Employing high availability (HA) to improve network reliability 9 Connect FortiGate units to each other to form a cluster and connect the cluster to the network. • Connect the wan1 interfaces of each cluster unit to a switch connected to the Internet. • Connect the internal interfaces of each cluster unit to a switch connected to the internal network. • Connect the dmz interfaces of the cluster units together using a crossover or regular Ethernet cable. • Connect the wan2 interfaces of the cluster units together using a crossover or regular Ethernet cable. 10 Power on the FortiGate units. As they start, they negotiate to choose the primary unit and to form a cluster. This negotiation occurs with no user intervention and normally just takes a few seconds. The FortiGate units must be connected together by at least one heartbeat interface for to negotiation to take place. Configure basic settings for the cluster You can now configure the cluster if it is a single FortiGate unit. HA synchronizes the configuration to all cluster units. This includes configuring addressing, operation mode (NAT or Transparent) enabling or disabling multiple VDOM mode, add security policies and so on. 1 From a PC on the Internal network, connect to the FortiGate web-based manager. You can configure the PC to get its IP address using DHCP and then browse to https://192.168.1.99. You could also give the PC a static IP address on the 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 subnet. Login using admin and no password. 2 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the wan1 interface and change the following settings: Addressing mode IP/Netmask 3 Manual 172.20.120.14/255.255.255.0 Edit the internal interface and change the following settings: Addressing mode IP/Netmask 92 Manual 192.168.1.99/255.255.255.0 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 93. Employing high availability (HA) to improve network reliability 4 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and select Create New to add the following default route. Destination IP/Mask 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 Device wan1 Gateway 172.20.120.2 5 Go to System > Network > DNS and add Primary and Secondary DNS servers. 6 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet. Some FortiGate models include this security policy in the default configuration. If you have one of these models, this step has already been done for you and as soon as your FortiGate unit is connected, and the computers on your internal network are configured, they should be able to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address All Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address All Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 7 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 8 Select OK to save the security policy. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 93
  • 94. Employing high availability (HA) to improve network reliability Results Just like a standard FortiGate NAT/Route mode configuration, users on the Internal network should be able to connect to the Internet. Check the System Information Widget on the dashboard to confirm the HA status. When a cluster first starts up, do the following to make sure that it is configured and operating correctly. 1 Set ping to continuously ping the cluster, and then start a large download, or, in some other way, establish ongoing traffic through the cluster. 2 While traffic is going through the cluster, disconnect the power from one of the cluster units. Traffic should continue with minimal interruption. 3 Start up the cluster unit that you powered off. The unit should re-join the cluster with little or no affect on traffic. 4 Disconnect a cable for one of the HA heartbeat interfaces. The cluster should keep functioning, using the other HA heartbeat interface. 5 6 Verify that the Unit Operation graphic shows that the correct cluster unit interfaces are connected. 7 Go to System > Config > HA and verify that all of the cluster units are displayed on the cluster members list. 8 From the cluster members list, edit the primary unit (master), and verify the cluster configuration is as expected. 9 94 Log in to the web-based manager and from the Dashboard, verify that the System Information widget displays both cluster units. Go to System > Config > HA > View HA Statistics and view information about the cluster and the traffic it is processing. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 95. Upgrading the firmware installed on a FortiGate HA cluster Upgrading the firmware installed on a FortiGate HA cluster Problem Fortinet has released a new version of FortiOS. You want to know what firmware version is currently running on your FortiGate HA cluster and how to upgrade to the latest version. Solution You can upgrade the FortiOS firmware running on an HA cluster in the same manner as upgrading the firmware running on a standalone FortiGate unit. During a normal firmware upgrade, the cluster upgrades the primary unit and all subordinate units to run the new firmware image. The firmware upgrade takes place without interrupting communication through the cluster. Upgrading cluster firmware to a new major release (for example upgrading from 3.0 MRx to 4.0 MRx) is supported for clusters. Make sure you are taking an upgrade path described in the Release Notes. Even so you should back up your configuration. Only perform a firmware upgrade during a maintenance window. View the current firmware version from the web-based manager and CLI. Download a new version of FortiOS from the Fortinet Customer Support web site and install it from the web-based manager. Firmware images for all FortiGate units are available on the Fortinet Customer Support web site. You must register your FortiGate unit to access firmware images. Register the FortiGate unit by visiting http://support.fortinet.com and select Product Registration. 1 Log in to the web-based manager and view the dashboard System Information widget to see the Firmware Version currently installed on your FortiGate unit. From the FortiGate CLI, you can also enter the following command. The first output line indicates FortiOS firmware version installed on your FortiGate unit: get system status Version: Fortigate-5001B v4.0,build0458,110627 (MR3 Patch 1) Virus-DB: 11.00679(2010-04-09 13:44) Extended DB: 1.00234(2010-04-09 16:38) Extreme DB: 1.00234(2010-04-09 16:37) FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 95
  • 96. Upgrading the firmware installed on a FortiGate HA cluster IPS-DB: 3.00000(2011-05-18 15:09) FortiClient application signature package: 1.421(2011-09-14 20:27) Serial-Number: FG-5KB3E10700037 BIOS version: 04000004 Log hard disk: Available Hostname: FG-5KB3E10700037 Operation Mode: NAT Current virtual domain: root Max number of virtual domains: 10 Virtual domains status: 1 in NAT mode, 0 in TP mode Virtual domain configuration: disable FIPS-CC mode: disable Current HA mode: a-p, master Distribution: International Branch point: 458 Release Version Information: MR3 Patch 1 FortiOS x86-64: Yes System time: Wed Sep 14 20:53:41 2011 2 To download a newer firmware version, browse to http://support.fortinet.com and select a Download Firmware Images link. 3 Log in using your Fortinet account user name and password. 4 Go to Download Firmware Images > FortiGate. 5 Select FortiGate firmware images and browse to the FortiOS firmware version that you want to install (for example, browse to FortiGate/v4.00/4.0MR3/MR3_Patch_1). 6 Locate and download the firmware for the FortiGate units in your HA cluster. 7 Download and read the Release Notes for this firmware version. Always review the Release Notes before installing a new firmware version in case you cannot update to the new firmware release from the one that you are currently running. 8 Backup your configuration from the System Information dashboard widget. Always remember to back up your configuration before doing any firmware upgrades. 9 Go to System > Dashboard > Status. 10 Under System Information > Firmware Version, select Update. 11 Find the firmware image file that you downloaded and select OK to upload and install the firmware build on the FortiGate unit. Results To upgrade the firmware without interrupting communication through the cluster, the cluster goes through a series of steps that involve first upgrading the firmware running on the subordinate units, then making one of the subordinate units the primary unit, and finally upgrading the firmware on the former primary unit. These steps are transparent to the user and the network, but depending upon your HA configuration may result in the cluster selecting a new primary unit. 96 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 97. Upgrading the firmware installed on a FortiGate HA cluster From the FortiGate web-based manager go to System > Dashboard > Status. In the System Information widget, the Firmware Version will show the updated version of FortiOS (or from the CLI enter get system status). There is a possibility that the firmware upgrade from the web-based manager does not load properly. If this occurs, you may find that some of the FortiGate units in the cluster will not boot, or continuously reboot. It is best to perform a fresh install of the firmware from a reboot using the CLI. This procedure installs a firmware image and resets each FortiGate unit to default settings. Once the new firmware versions is installed you can restore the configuration of the FortiGate units in the cluster and the cluster should reform. For more information, see “Installing FortiGate firmware from a TFTP server” on page 36. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 97
  • 98. Connecting multiple networks to a FortiGate interface using virtual LANs (VLANs) Connecting multiple networks to a FortiGate interface using virtual LANs (VLANs) Problem Connecting three internal networks to the FortiGate internal interface using VLANs to keep the three networks separate. E ng in 19 ee r V 2.1 ing LA 6 n N 8.2 et ID 0 wo . 10 0 rk rk o w .0 et 0 N 8.3 30 es 6 D al .1 I S 92 AN 1 L V w an 1 in te rn al VLAN Switch rk o w et 0 N 0. g 2 0 n . 2 ti 68 D ke .1 I ar 92 N M 1 LA V FortiGate Unit FortiGate Unit t in NAT/Route mode Solution This solution uses VLANs to connect three networks to the FortiGate internal interface in the following way: • Packets from each network pass through a VLAN switch before reaching the FortiGate unit. The VLAN switch adds different VLAN tags to packets from each network. • To handle VLANs on the FortiGate unit, add VLAN interfaces to the internal interface for each network • Add a DHCP server to each VLAN interface. • Create security policies to allow each network to access the Internet. This solution assumes you have configured a VLAN switch to tag packets from the three networks. 98 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 99. Connecting multiple networks to a FortiGate interface using virtual LANs (VLANs) Add VLAN interfaces 1 Go to System > Network > Interface and select Create New to add a VLAN interface for the engineering network: Name Type VLAN Interface internal VLAN ID 10 Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask 2 Engineering-net 192.168.10.1 Select Create New to add a VLAN interface for the marketing network: Name Type VLAN Interface internal VLAN ID 20 Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask 3 Marketing-net 192.168.20.1 Select Create New to add a VLAN interface for the sales network: Name Type VLAN Interface internal VLAN ID 30 Addressing mode Manual IP/Netmask FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Sales-net 192.168.30.1 99
  • 100. Connecting multiple networks to a FortiGate interface using virtual LANs (VLANs) Add DHCP servers to each VLAN interface 1 Go to System > Network > DHCP Server and select Create New to add a DHCP server for the marketing network: Interface Name Mode Server Type Regular IP 192.168.10.100 - 192.168.10.200 Network Mask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 192.168.10.1 DNS Service 2 Marketing-net Use System DNS Setting Select Create New to add a DHCP server for the engineering network: Interface Name Mode Server Type Regular IP 192.168.20.100 - 192.168.20.200 Network Mask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 192.168.20.1 DNS Service 3 Engineering-net Use System DNS Setting Select Create New to add a DHCP server for the sales network: Interface Name Mode Server Type Regular IP 192.168.30.100 - 192.168.30.200 Network Mask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 192.168.30.1 DNS Service 100 Sales-net Use System DNS Setting FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 101. Connecting multiple networks to a FortiGate interface using virtual LANs (VLANs) 4 Configure the devices on the networks to get their addresses using DHCP. 5 For devices with manual IP configurations, make sure their default routes point to the correct FortiGate VLAN interface. Add security policies to allow each network to access the Internet 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy that allows users on the engineering network to connect to the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule Always Service ANY Action 2 Engineering-net ACCEPT Select Create New to add a security policy that allows users on the marketing network to connect to the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule Always Service ANY Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Marketing-net ACCEPT 101
  • 102. Connecting multiple networks to a FortiGate interface using virtual LANs (VLANs) 3 Select Create New to add a security policy that allows users on the sales network to connect to the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Sales-net Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule Always Service ANY Action ACCEPT Results Users from any of the networks should be able to connect to the Internet. Go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view information about sessions through the FortiGate unit. If users on the networks cannot connect to the Internet, re-check your FortiGate configuration. You can also try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24. 102 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 103. Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit Problem Providing Internet connectivity and security for two private networks with a single FortiGate unit. rt3 po .20 20 .1 20 2. 17 VD 17 OM rt1 po .10 20 -B .1 20 2. Gateway Router 172.20.120.2 VD . rt4 68 po 2.1 19 OM -A .1 20 .1 10 . rt2 68 po 2.1 19 FortiGate Unit with two Virtual Domains Company A 192.168.10.0 Company B 192.168.20.0 Solution Use Virtual domains (VDOMs) to divide the FortiGate unit into two or more virtual instances of FortiOS that function similar to two independent FortiGate units. Each VDOM has its own physical interfaces, routing configuration, and security policies. This example simulates an ISP that provides Company A and Company B with Internet services. Each company would have its own Internet IP address and internal network. This configuration requires: • Two VDOMs: VDOM-A and VDOM-B each operating in NAT/Route mode with two interfaces, one for a connection to the Internet and one for a connection to the internal network. • The routing configuration of the example is simplified to only require a default static route from each VDOM to an Internet gateway router. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 103
  • 104. Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit Create VDOM-A and VDOM-B Enable multiple VDOM mode, create the VDOMS, configure interfaces and add them to their VDOMs. 1 Connect to the FortiGate web-based manager and from the Dashboard System Information widget select Enable beside Virtual Domain. 2 Go to System > VDOM > VDOM and select Create New to create two VDOMs with the following configuration: For company A: Name VDOM-A Enable Select Operation Mode NAT For company B: Name Enable Select Operation Mode 3 VDOM-B NAT Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit port1 and add it to VDOM-A. Name port1 Virtual Domain VDOM-A Addressing Mode Manual IP/Netmask 172.20.120.10/255.255.255.0 Edit port2 and add it to VDOM-A: Name Virtual Domain VDOM-A Addressing Mode Manual IP/Netmask 192.168.10.1/255.255.255.0 Administrative Access 104 port2 HTTPS, PING, SSH FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 105. Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit Edit port3 and add it to VDOM-B: Name port3 Virtual Domain VDOM-B Addressing Mode Manual IP/Netmask 172.20.120.20/255.255.255.0 Edit port4 and add it to VDOM-B: Name Virtual Domain VDOM-B Addressing Mode Manual IP/Netmask 192.168.20.1/255.255.255.0 Administrative Access 4 port4 HTTPS, PING, SSH Go to System > Admin > Administrators and select Create New to add an administrator for VDOM-A. Administrator Type Regular Password passw0rda Confirm Password passw0rda Admin Profile prof_admin Virtual Domain 5 a-admin VDOM-A Go to System > Admin > Administrators and select Create New to add an administrator for VDOM-B. Administrator Type Regular Password passw0rdb Confirm Password passw0rdb Admin Profile prof_admin Virtual Domain FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ b-admin VDOM-B 105
  • 106. Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit Create a basic configuration for VDOM-A Add a default route, a DHCP server, and security policy to allow company-A users to get their IP configuration from the FortiGate unit, and connect to the Internet. 1 Beside Current VDOM select VDOM-A. 2 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and select Create New to add the default route for VDOM_A. Destination IP/Mask Device port1 Gateway 3 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 172.20.120.2 Go to System > Network > DHCP Server and select Create New to add a DHCP server. Interface Name port2 Mode Server Type Regular IP 192.168.10.100-192.168.10.200 Network Mask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 192.168.10.1 4 5 Select OK to save the port2 DHCP server. 6 Connect a PC to the port2 interface and configure it to get an IP address automatically using DHCP. 7 106 Configure the DNS Service as required for the network. Log in to VDOM-A by browsing to https://192.168.10.1 and entering a-admin as the Name and passw0rda as the Password. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 107. Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit 8 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to create a security policy that allows users on the company A internal network to connect to the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 9 port2 ACCEPT Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 10 Select OK to save the security policy. 11 Test the configuration by connecting to the Internet from the PC. You should be able to connect to the Internet, if not check the configuration or use the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. 12 Configure the computers on the company A network to get their IP configuration automatically using DHCP. Create a basic configuration for VDOM-B Add a default route, a DHCP server, and security policy to allow company-B users to get their IP configuration from the FortiGate unit, and connect to the Internet. 1 Log in to the FortiGate unit as the admin administrator (or any administrator with the super_admin profile). 2 Beside Current VDOM select VDOM-B. 3 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and select Create New to add the default route for VDOM_A. Destination IP/Mask Device port3 Gateway FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 172.20.120.2 107
  • 108. Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit 4 Go to System > Network > DHCP Server and select Create New to add a DHCP server. Interface Name port4 Mode Server Type Regular IP 192.168.20.100-192.168.20.200 Network Mask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 192.168.20.1 5 Configure the DNS Service as required for the network. 6 Select OK to save the port4 DHCP server. 7 Connect a PC to the port4 interface and configure it to get an IP address automatically using DHCP. 8 Log in to VDOM-B by browsing to https://192.168.20.1 and entering b-admin as the Name and passw0rdb as the Password. 9 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to create a security policy that allows users on the company B internal network to connect to the Internet. Source Interface/Zone port4 Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port3 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 10 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 11 Select OK to save the security policy. 12 Test the configuration by connecting to the Internet from the PC. You should be able to connect to the Internet, if not check the configuration or use the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. 108 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 109. Using Virtual Domains to host more than one FortiOS instance on a single FortiGate unit 13 Configure the computers on the company B network to get their IP configuration automatically using DHCP. Results Connect to the Internet from the company A and company B networks. From either VDOM, go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor and confirm that the policies that you added are allowing traffic through the individual VDOMs. You can use the packet sniffer to verify that traffic is staying in a VDOM. For example, enter the following command from the FortiGate CLI and then ping from one of the internal networks to an address on the Internet. diagnose sniffer packet any 'icmp' 4 10 interfaces=[any] filters=[icmp] 10.728968 port4 in 192.168.20.100 -> 66.171.121.34: icmp: echo request 10.729158 port3 out 172.20.120.20 -> 66.171.121.34: icmp: echo request 10.821152 port3 in 66.171.121.34 -> 172.20.120.20: icmp: echo reply 10.821288 port4 out 66.171.121.34 -> 192.168.20.100: icmp: echo reply 11.729230 port4 in 192.168.20.100 -> 66.171.121.34: icmp: echo request 11.729431 port3 out 172.20.120.20 -> 66.171.121.34: icmp: echo request 11.821349 port3 in 66.171.121.34 -> 172.20.120.20: icmp: echo reply 11.821481 port4 out 66.171.121.34 -> 192.168.20.100: icmp: echo reply The command output shows sessions only uses the port4 and port3 interfaces, both of which are in VDOM-B. If you log in as an administrator with the super_admin profile, you can sniff any interface. If you log in as a-admin or b-admin (an administrator for a single VDOM), you can only sniff interfaces in the administrator’s VDOM. To access the packet sniffer, you must log in to a VDOM, you cannot access the packet sniffer from the global configuration. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 109
  • 110. Setting up an administrator account for monitoring firewall activity and basic maintenance Setting up an administrator account for monitoring firewall activity and basic maintenance Problem You want to add a login for an administrator to be responsible for system maintenance, firmware updates and general monitoring and logging of the FortiGate unit for reporting purposes, but don’t want them to have full configuration access. a ad dmin min _p istr rofi ato le rs Int er n al N etw ork m ad aint_ min m istr onit ato or r F DH ortiG CP ate Se Un rve it r Solution Create a new admin profile that only allows the administrator to view and maintain configuration options, and viewing and configuring log information and reports. Create an administrative user, Terry White, with the monitoring profile. 1 Go to System > Admin > Admin Profile and select Create New. 2 Enter the Profile Name of maint_monitor and set the following settings to Read-Write: • FortiGuard Update • Maintenance • Log & Report 110 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 111. Setting up an administrator account for monitoring firewall activity and basic maintenance 3 Go to System > Admin > Administrators and select Create New to add the following administrator: Administrator Terry_White Type Regular Password password Confirm Password password Admin Profile maint_monitor The admin profile dictates what of the FortiGate configuration the administrator can see and configure from web-based manager and CLI. You can add multiple profiles and assign users and administrators different profiles depending on what they are tasked to do with the FortiGate unit. Results Log in to the FortiGate using the user name of Terry_White and the password of password. When logged in, the web-based manager menus and sub-menus related to the access control you configured appear. The OK or Apply buttons will not appear in settings that may be editable on a Read-Write page. To confirm that Terry White has logged in successfully, from the FortiGate web-based manager go to Log&Report > Event Log to see the login message in the Action column. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 111
  • 112. Setting up an administrator account for monitoring firewall activity and basic maintenance Select the log entry to view the detailed information, which indicates the admin user connected. The Message row indicates that Terry White connected successfully from 192.168.1.1. The Profile Name row also indicates the admin profile in use. Go to System > Dashboard > Status, and look at the System Information widget. In the Current Administrator row, it will indicate the number of administrators logged in . Selecting Details shows the information of Terry White logged in as an administrator. 112 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 113. Enhancing FortiGate Security Enhancing FortiGate Security Problem Firewall policies are in place, UTM profiles configured, and users and admin passwords are set. You want to know what else can be done to further tighten security on the FortiGate unit to better protect your network from hackers. Solution There are a number of measure that you can take to provide maximum security for your FortiGate unit. Some may seem obvious, but are easily overlooked in the grand scheme of setting up a network device such as a FortiGate unit. Some general secure operation best practices The following are all good practices but may not be necessary or practical on all networks. • • • • • • • • FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Configure and test the configuration of a new FortiGate unit in a controlled environment and not a product network. Tighten security and find and fix security flaws before deploying the system. Do not perform the first testing of new policies on a live system. Limit access to security policy changes as much as possible and audit security policies regularly to make sure the configuration hasn’t been compromised. Enforce strong password policies users and for administrators (length, complexity, rotation). Implement a regular configuration backup plan and make sure it happens. Only connect network interfaces that are required. A network that does not access resources through the FortiGate unit should not be connected to it. Only enable services that are required. It can be easier to set the service in a security policy to ANY, than to specify individual services, but the ANY service may allow traffic that you don’t want. 113
  • 114. Enhancing FortiGate Security • • • • • Use NTP to set the system time so that system time is always correct. Correct system time is necessary for analyzing log messages. Record as many log messages as you can without affecting FortiGate performance. More log messages means more visibility into what’s happening with the system. Synchronize log messages with an external log server (syslog or FortiAnalyzer) to have a backup of log messages for analysis if the FortiGate unit is compromised. Incorporate log message reviews into regular administration procedures (especially admin authentication logs). Disable weak encryption and unencrypted services. For example, all administrator access should be over HTTPS and SSH not HTTP and Telnet. For IPsec VPN configurations use 3DES or higher levels of AES encryption and higher levels of SHA authentication. Install the FortiGate unit in a physically secure location A good place to start is with physical security. Install the FortiGate unit in a secure location, such as a locked room or a room with restricted access. This way unauthorized users can’t get physical access to the device. If unauthorized users have physical access they can disrupt your entire network by disconnecting your FortiGate unit (either by accident or on purpose). They could also connect a console cable and attempt to log into the CLI. Also, when a FortiGate unit reboots, a person with physical access to interrupt the boot process and install different firmware. Add new administrator accounts Rather than allowing all administrators to access the FortiGate unit with the admin administrator account you should create administrator accounts for each person that requires administrative access. That way you can track who has made configuration changes and performed other administrative activities. Keep the number of administrative accounts to a minimum to keep better control on who can access the device. To add administrators go to System > Admin > Administrators and select Create New. If you want administrators to have access to all FortiGate configuration options, their accounts should have the prof_admin admin profile. Administrators with this profile can do anything except add new administrator accounts. 114 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 115. Enhancing FortiGate Security At least one account should always have the super_admin profile as this profile is required to add and remove administrators. To improve security only a very few administrators (usually one) should be able to add new administrators. If you want some administrator accounts to have limited access to the FortiGate configuration you can create custom admin profiles that only allow access to selected parts of the configuration. To add custom admin profiles, go to System > Admin > Admin Profile and select Create New. For example, if you want to add an admin profile that does not allow changing security policies, when you configure the admin profile set Firewall Configuration to None or Ready Only. Change the admin account name and limit access to this account The default super_admin administrator account, admin, is a well known administrator name so if this account is available it could be easier for attackers to access the FortiGate unit because they know they can log in with this name, only having to determine the password. You can improve security by changing this name to one more difficult for an attacker to guess. To do this, create a new administrator account with the super_admin admin profile and log in as that administrator. Then go to System > Admin > Administrators and Edit the admin administrator and change the Administrator name. Once the account has been renamed you could delete the super_admin account that you just added. Consider also only using the super-admin account for adding or changing administrators. The less this account is used to less likely that it could be compromised. You could also store the account name and password for this account in a secure location in case for some reason the account name or password is forgotten. Limit the interfaces that administrators can log into Allow administrative access to as few interfaces as possible to have more control on the networks that administrators can log in from. In general you should also avoid allowing administrative access to a WiFi interface or interfaces connected to public networks. If you need to allow administrative access for one of these interfaces, you can use trusted hosts to improve security. Use trusted hosts to limit where administrators can log into the FortiGate unit from Setting trusted hosts for an administrator limits what computer/location an administrator can log into the FortiGate unit from. When you identify a trusted host, the FortiGate unit will only accept the administrator’s login from the configured IP address of the trusted host. Any attempt to log in with the same credentials from any other IP address will be dropped. To ensure the administrator has access from different locations, you can enter up to ten trusted host IP addresses. For higher security, use an IP address with a net mask of 255.255.255.255, and enter an IP address (non-zero) in each of the three default trusted host fields. The trusted hosts apply to HTTP and HTTPS access to the web-based manager, ping, snmp access and the CLI when accessed through Telnet or SSH. CLI access through the console port is not affected. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 115
  • 116. Enhancing FortiGate Security Trusted hosts are configured for each administrator: 1 Go to System > Admin > Administrators and Edit an administrator. 2 Select Restrict this Admin Login from Trusted Hosts Only. 3 Enter the Trusted Host IP addresses. Ensure all entries contain actual IP addresses, not the default 0.0.0.0, even if it is a non-address such as 1.1.1.1. Change the administrative access port You can define the port numbers that administrative connections can occur on. To define an administrative port, go to System > Admin > Settings, and enter a port number for HTTPS. If you make a change to the default port number for HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, or SSH, ensure that each port number is unique. If you change the HTTP or HTTPS administrative access port number, the number must be included in the URL that the administrator uses to connect to the web-based manager in the format of http[s]://<ip_address>:<port>. For example, if you are connecting to the web-based manager using HTTPS on port 2112, the url would be https://192.168.1.99:2112. Maintain short login timeouts To avoid the possibility of an administrator walking away from the management computer and leaving it exposed to unauthorized personnel, you can add an idle time-out. That is, if the web-based manager is not used for a specified amount of time, the FortiGate unit will automatically log the administrator out. To continue their work, they must log in again. The time-out can be set as high as 480 minutes, or eight hours, although this is not recommend. To set the idle time out: 1 Go to System > Admin > Settings. 2 Enter the amount of time for the Idle Timeout. A best practice is to keep the default of 5 min. When logging into the console using SSH, the default time of inactivity to successfully log into the FortiGate unit is 120 seconds (2 minutes). You can configure the time to be shorter by using the CLI to change the length of time the command prompt remains idle before the FortiGate unit will log the administrator out. The range can be between 10 and 3600 seconds. To set the logout time enter the following commands: config system global set admin-ssh-grace-time <number_of_seconds> end 116 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 117. Enhancing FortiGate Security Administrator password lockout An administrator has a maximum of three attempts to log into their account before they are locked out for a set amount of time. The number of attempts can be changed. As well, the default wait time before the administrator can try to enter a password again is 60 seconds. You can also change this to further sway would-be hackers. Both settings are configured only in the CLI: For example, to set the lockout threshold to one attempt and a five minute (300 second) duration before the administrator can try again to log in enter the command: config system global set admin-lockout-threshold 1 set admin-lockout-duration 300 end Opening port TCP 113 Although seemingly contrary to conventional wisdom of closing ports from hackers, this port, which is used for ident requests, should be opened. Port 113 initially was used as an authentication port, and later defined as an identification port (see RFC 1413). Some servers may still use this port to help in identifying users or other servers and establish a connection. Because port 113 receives a lot of unsolicited traffic, many routers, including on the FortiGate unit, close this port. Unsolicited requests to this port are stopped by the FortiGate unit, which sends a response saying that the port is closed. In doing so, it also lets the requesting server know there is a device at the given address, and thus announcing its presence. By enabling traffic on port 113, requests will travel to this port, and will most likely, be ignored and never responded to. To open the port on the wan1 interface, use the following CLI command: config system interface edit wan1 set inden_accept enable end You could also further use port forwarding to send the traffic to a non-existent IP address and thus never have a response packet sent. Obfuscate HTTP headers The FortiGate unit can obfuscate the HTTP header information being sent to external web servers to better cloak the source. To obfuscate HTTP headers, use the following CLI command: config system global set http-obfucate {none | header-only | modified | no-error} end Where: none — do not hide the FortiGate web server identity. header-only — hides the HTTP server banner. modified — provides modified error responses. no-error — suppresses error responses. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 117
  • 118. Creating a local DNS server listing for internal web sites and servers Creating a local DNS server listing for internal web sites and servers Problem Keeping DNS traffic for company server lookups off of the Internet and on the internal network. Internal server name: info.company.com IP: 192.168.1.2 Internal DNS Queries Int er n FortiGate DNS Database al N etw ork Fo rtiG ate Un it Solution On a FortiGate unit, enable DNS databases, create an internal DNS database with the IPs/names/URLs of internal sites, and enable the DNS server on the FortiGate internal interface. Configure the internal network to use the FortiGate internal interface as the authoritative DNS server. This way, when internal users request a URL, the FortiGate unit will look to its internal DNS. To lookup external names, the FortiGate unit forwards DNS requests to external DNS servers. The DNS server setting on the devices on the internal network must use the FortiGate internal interface as their DNS server. 1 118 Go to System > Admin > Settings, select DNS Database and select Apply. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 119. Creating a local DNS server listing for internal web sites and servers 2 Go to System > Network > DNS Server and select Create New to add a new DNS Database: Type Master View Shadow DNS Zone Internal Domain Name company.com 3 Select OK to save this DNS database. 4 To add DNS Entries, select Create New and enter the name and IP address of an internal site: Type Address (A) Hostname info IP Address 192.168.1.2 5 Select OK to save this DNS database. 6 Go to System > Network > DNS Server and select Create New under DNS Service on Interface to configure the mode for queries to the DNS database received at the Internal interface. Interface Mode 7 Internal Recursive Select OK to save the DNS service mode for the internal interface. Results To verify that the DNS database is being used, go to System > Network > DNS and temporarily remove the primary and secondary DNS server settings. That is, leave them empty, and browse to the http://info.company.com web site. The web site will appear, while surfing to any other site will not work. This shows that the FortiGate unit is using its internal DNS database to resolve the configured web site. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 119
  • 120. Assigning IP addresses according to a MAC address using DHCP Assigning IP addresses according to a MAC address using DHCP Problem Ensure that certain users or PCs always have the same IP address when the FortiGate unit assigns addresses using DHCP. This feature can be used to ensure that certain users can always connect to the network, or to track Internet usage by IP address even if IP addresses are assigned automatically by the FortiGate DHCP server. D E RV SE Reserved IP: 10.10.10.18 MAC: 00:13:72:38:6a:39 RE Int er n al N etw ork F DH ortiG CP ate Se Un rve it r Solution If you have an existing DHCP server enabled on the FortiGate unit, enable IP reservation within the DHCP service settings and then add the MAC addresses of PCs that you want to always get the same IP address. 1 Go to System > Network > DHCP Server and Edit the DHCP server. 2 Select IP Reservation and select Create New and add a MAC IP address pair: IP MAC Address 120 10.10.10.18 00:13:72:38:6a:39 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 121. Assigning IP addresses according to a MAC address using DHCP The IP must be within the range defined by the DHCP server. If the PC is already connected and has acquired an IP address from the DHCP server, you can set get its MAC address and IP address by selecting Add from DHCP Client List. When the list appears, select the PC from the list and select Add To Reserved. Results The PC will always acquire the reserved IP address from the FortiGate DHCP server. Verify that the PC has acquired the correct IP address by viewing its IP configuration or status. For example, from a command prompt, you may be able to enter the command ipconfig/all. From the FortiGate web-based manager, go to System > Monitor > DHCP Monitor to view the list of PCs that are using the DHCP server to acquire IP addresses. The PC with the reserved address will appear with an R next to the address. If you do not see the PC in the DHCP Monitor or if the “R” icon is not visible, you may need to either restart the PC, or renew its IP configuration. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 121
  • 122. Setting up the FortiGate unit to send SNMP traps Setting up the FortiGate unit to send SNMP traps Problem You want to receive SNMP traps (or event notifications) when a FortiGate unit experiences system events, like high CPU usage, low log disk space, or UTM events such as a virus being detected, IPS detecting an attack and so on. SNMP Manager IP: 192.168.1.10 SNMP Traps Int er n al N etw ? FortiGate SNMP Agent SN ork Fo rtiG ate Un it Solution Enable SNMP to collect SNMP v1/2c traps for the status of the FortiGate unit. 1 Go to System > Config > SNMP and select Enable to enable the FortiGate SNMP agent. 2 Configure the agent as follows: Description Company FortiGate unit Location Head Office, server room Contact admin@company.com 3 4 Select Create New for SNMP v1/c2c. 5 122 Select Apply to save the configuration and start the FortiGate SNMP agent. Enter the Community Name of Example Company. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 123. Setting up the FortiGate unit to send SNMP traps 6 Add the IP address of a Host that can receive SNMP traps by selecting Add under Hosts. 7 Set the IP Address/Netmask to 192.168.1.10/255.255.255.0 and the Interface to internal. You can also set the IP address/Netmask to 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 and the Interface to ANY so that any SNMP manager at any network connected to the FortiGate unit can use this SNMP community and receive traps from the FortiGate unit. How do I get FortiGate MIBs? There are two MIB files for FortiGate units - the Fortinet MIB, and the FortiGate MIB. The Fortinet MIB contains traps, fields and information that is common to all Fortinet products. The FortiGate MIB contains traps, fields and information that is specific to FortiGate units. The two FortiGate MIB files are available on the Fortinet Customer Support web site. The Fortinet MIB contains information for Fortinet products in general. the Fortinet FortiGate MIB includes the system information for FortiGate unit and version of FortiOS. Both files are required for proper SNMP data collection. 1 Login to the Customer Support web site at https://support.fortinet.com. 2 Go to Download > Firmware Images. 3 Log in using your Fortinet account. 4 Select FortiGate > v4.00 > Core MIB. 5 Select and download the FORTINET-CORE-MIB.mib file. 6 Move up one directory level. 7 Select the firmware version, revision and patch (if applicable). 8 Select the MIB directory. 9 Select and download the FORTINET-FORTIGATE-MIB.mib file. Local-in policies for further access control You can also use local-in policies to provide further access control for all management traffic, including SNMP traffic. For example, you could use the following local-in policies to allow SNMP access to the internal interface from the address range 172.20.120.100 - 172.20.120.110 but block all other management access to the Interface. First, add a firewall address: config firewall address edit local-address-range set associated-interface internal set type iprange set start-ip 172.20.120.100 set end-ip 172.20.120.110 end Then add a local-in policy that allows connections from the allowed address range for SNMP management access: config firewall local-in-policy edit 0 set intf internal FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 123
  • 124. Setting up the FortiGate unit to send SNMP traps set set set set set end srcaddr local-address-range dstaddr all action accept service SNMP schedule always Since local-in policy lists don’t include implicit deny-all policies, this policy alone will not restrict access. To successfully restrict access you must add the following deny-all policy below the previous policy in the internal interface local-in policy list: config firewall local-in-policy edit 0 set intf internal set srcaddr all set dstaddr all set action deny set service ANY set schedule always end Results Configure the SNMP manager at 192.168.1.10 to receive traps from the FortiGate unit. The do something to trigger a trap, for example, change the IP address of a FortiGate interface. Verify that the SNMP manager receives the trap. You can also send a trap by enabling antivirus in a security policy and try downloading an eicar test file from http://eicar.org. This will trigger a Virus detected event, sending a trap. You can also view the UTM log by going to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > UTM Log. 124 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 125. Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) Problem I hear packet sniffing is used for troubleshooting network problems, but I don’t know how. Solution When troubleshooting networks, it helps to look inside the header of the packets. This helps to determine if the packets, route, and destination are all what you expect. Packet sniffing can also be called a network tap, packet capture, or logic analyzing. When to use packet sniffing Packet sniffing tells you what is happening on the network at a low level. This can be very useful for troubleshooting problems, such as: • finding missing traffic • seeing if sessions are setting up properly • locating ARP problems such as broadcast storm sources and causes • confirming which address a computer is using on the network if they have multiple addresses or are on multiple networks • confirming routing is working as you expect • wireless client connection problems • intermittent missing PING packets • a particular type of packet is having problems, such as UDP, which is commonly used for streaming video FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 125
  • 126. Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) What sniffing packets can tell you If you are running a constant traffic application such as ping, packet sniffing can tell you if the traffic is reaching the destination, how the port enters and exits the FortiGate unit, if the ARP resolution is correct, and if the traffic is returning to the source as expected. You can also use packet switching to verify that NAT or other configuration is translating addresses or routing traffic the way that you want it to. Before you start sniffing packets, you need to have a good idea of what you are looking for. Sniffing is used to confirm or deny your ideas about what is happening on the network. If you try sniffing without a plan to narrow your search, you could end up with too much data to effectively analyze. On the other hand, you need to sniff enough packets to really understand all of the patterns and behavior that you are looking for. You can find more examples of packet sniffing throughout this document. How to sniff packets The sniffer command is CLI-only. and the syntax is: diag sniffer packet {<interface> | any} {‘filter_str’| none } {1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6} <pkt_count> Interface and filter arguments are required. To stop the sniffer, press Ctrl+C. { <interface> | any } The name of the FortiGate unit interface to sniff, such as “port1” or “internal” or “VLAN18”. Alternatively use “any” to sniff all interfaces. Only packets that include the text in the filter will be displayed. The filter can include logical statements such as and or or. { ‘filter_str’ | none } none indicates no filtering, and all packets will be displayed as the other arguments indicate. The filter must be inside single quotes (‘). The level of verbosity (default 1). 1 - header of packets 2 - header and data from IP of packets {1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6} 3 - header and data from Ethernet of packets 4 - header packets with interface name 5 - header and data from IP of packets with interface name 6 - header and data from Ethernet packets with interface name. The number of packets the sniffer displays before stopping. < pkt_count > 126 If you do not put a number here, the sniffer will run forever until you stop it by pressing Ctrl+C. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 127. Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) Sniffer output description for TCP packets A simple example: # diag sniffer packet internal none 4 3 This command looks for all packets on the internal interface and returns the packet headers with interface names attached for first three packets. Three packets was selected for this example so the output would not overwhelm you. During normal troubleshooting, you will want to capture a larger number of packets to get a better picture of the network. Also note that if you run this command you will not see the same three packets listed here, but they will have similar information displayed. internal in 192.168.0.1.22 -> 192.168.0.30.1144: psh 2859918764 ack 1949135261 internal in 192.168.0.1.22 -> 192.168.0.30.1144: psh 2859918816 ack 1949135261 internal out 192.168.0.30.1144 -> 192.168.0.1.22: ack 2859918884 From the look of these packets they are part of a TCP SSH exchange. Let’s look at the first packet sniffed: internal in 192.168.0.1.22 -> 192.168.0.30.1144: psh 2859918764 ack 1949135261 The sniffer displayed the following info about the first packet: • internal the FortiGate interface where the packet was found. • in the direction of the packet at the interface for inbound. • 192.168.0.1.22 the IP address with port number of the packet source (a source IP of 192.168.0.1 with the source port number 22, which is generally associated with SSH). • 192.168.0.30.1144 the IP address with port number of the packet destination (a destination IP of 192.168.0.30 with the destination port number 1144). • psh one of the nine flags from TCP headers (ns, cwr, ece, urg, ack, psh, rst, syn, fin). psh stands for push function, which asks to push the buffered data to the receiving application. • 2859918764 the TCP sequence number. The sequence number, which starts with 285, is incrementing by small amounts over the three sniffed packets. • ack the acknowledgement flag is set. • 1949135261 the acknowledgement number. If ACK is set, this is the next sequence number the receiver is expecting, in effect acknowledging all prior bytes. You will notice from this description that, after the IP and port information, all the information is TCP specific. This information will change, depending on the type of packet (tcp, arp, udp, ip, gre, etc.). Regardless of how in-depth you need the information to give you, you need to be familiar with the packet header structure for your type of packets. The TCP flag and sequence information is displayed because verbosity level 4 was selected. This information can be useful to ensure that all the traffic for a session is reaching its destination, and that the session was properly established. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 127
  • 128. Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) Sniffing icmp (ping) packets This example sets up a computer to ping the internal interface of the FortiGate unit non-stop and sniff for icmp packets on the internal interface. Ensure that ping administrative access is enabled on the internal interface; otherwise, you will not be able to see the output shown below. From any computer run a continuous ping to IP address 172.20.120.136 and on the FortiGate CLI enter the following command: # diag sniffer packet internal 'icmp' 4 5 interfaces=[any] filters=[icmp] 16.776272 internal in 172.20.120.17 -> 172.20.120.136: icmp: echo request 16.776462 internal out 172.20.120.136 -> 172.20.120.17: icmp: echo reply 17.777280 internal in 172.20.120.17 -> 172.20.120.136: icmp: echo request 17.777360 internal out 172.20.120.136 -> 172.20.120.17: icmp: echo reply 18.778176 internal in 172.20.120.17 -> 172.20.120.136: icmp: echo request This output captured the 16th, 17th, and 18th ping echo requests that were sent out from 172.20.120.17, and the 16th and 17th replies from the FortiGate unit. You can tell this from the number at the start of each line — the 16, 17, or 18, which indicates the packet number and sequence. It is useful to check this number to see if you are dropping packets. The echo or echo reply tells you which direction the packet is travelling without the IP address. Note that there is no other information displayed because icmp packets carry very little information. If you have icmp packets from other sources showing up in your sniffing, you can add a basic filter to select only packets to or from 172.20.120.17. To do this, the sniffer command would become: diag sniffer packet any ‘icmp and host 172.20.120.17’ 4 5. Filtering is described in more detail in “Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture)” on page 130. Verbosity level on a random UDP packet So far, the verbosity level has only determined if interface information is shown or not. However, it can also be used to display the content or payload of the packets. This is useful if you have packets with headers inside packets, or other specific plain text information you can read from the packets. This example shows how to sniff one udp packet on any network of the FortiGate unit at verbosity level 6 to show the packet contents and interface. # diag sniffer packet any 'udp' 6 1 interfaces=[any] filters=[udp] 1.865746 wan1 out 172.20.120.136.60718 -> 0x0000 0000 0000 0000 0009 0f30 ca51 0800 0x0010 003f cee2 0000 4011 771f ac14 7888 0x0020 0808 ed2e 0035 002b c997 db37 0100 0x0030 0000 0000 0000 0361 7273 056f 7363 0x0040 0361 6f6c 0363 6f6d 0000 0100 01 128 8.8.8.8.53: udp 35 4500.........0.Q..E. 0808.?....@.w...x... 0001.....5.+...7.... 6172.......ars.exmpl .aol.com..... FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 129. Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) This packet is going out on the wan1 interface, using port 60718. Its destination is 8.8.8.8 using port 53. All six lines of output are for a single packet, and this is a small packet. TCP packets are much larger. The IP address 8.8.8.8 is Google’s public DNS address. UDP port 53 is used for DNS lookups, and FortiGuard communications. In this case, it seems safe to say its a DNS lookup. If we look at the payload for the packet, we can see the address ars.exmpl.aol.com, which appears to be a domain name to be resolved. Examining DNAT HTTP packets Here is a practical example to show how this all comes together. Sniffing can show you what NAT is taking place instead of you guessing. Test destination NAT by browsing to http://172.20.120.14 from the Internet. The session passes through the FortiGate unit to the web server which sends a response. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 4 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 6.150356 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.51439 -> 172.20.120.14.80: syn 15893888 6.150637 internal out 172.20.120.12.51439 -> 192.168.1.110.80: syn 15893888 6.150803 internal in 192.168.1.110.80 -> 172.20.120.12.51439: syn 553485227 ack 15893889 6.150974 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.80 -> 172.20.120.12.51439: syn 553485227 ack 15893889 The first output line shows a packet from a client device with IP address 172.20.120.12 was received by the wan1 interface with destination address 172.20.120.14 and destination port 80. The second output line shows that when the packet exits the internal interface the destination address is changed to 192.168.1.110 and the destination port is still 80. The third output line shows the response from the web server. The fourth output line shows the response from the web server being returned to the client device. The source address has been changed back to 172.20.120.14. In this example, the source port is not changed. Best Practices Here are some tips that will improve your troubleshooting when using the sniffer. • • • • • • FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Always log output to a file that you can search, sort, and process later. You can also send the output log to Fortinet support to assist them in solving your issue. Visualize the path you expect the packets in question are using. It will help you write your sniffer command more accurately and reduce your troubleshooting. If you are not getting the results you expect, broaden your search parameters. Its possible things are behaving differently than you expect. You need to know the details about the packet type you are sniffing to maximize the benefits. Otherwise there will be useful information you do not understand in the sniffing results. Keep your connection method in mind when sniffing packets. If you are web browsing to the FortiGate unit, web protocol packets may be affected. If you are using Telnet to connect, those packets will affect the sniffing results. If you are sniffing VLAN packets, any configured filter will stop VLAN tags from being displayed. 129
  • 130. Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) Problem How do I use filters for sniffing? They are really confusing. Solution You can perform some basic packet sniffing and network troubleshooting without using packet sniffing filters. However, with filters, you can fine tune your troubleshooting to the point of being able to find a specific ping packet on a busy network. When packet sniffing, the filter field is very flexible. By using the filter option, you can: • match the source hostname or IP address • match the type of packet (arp, ip, gre, esp, udp, tcp, icmp) • match the port number • logically AND or OR parts of the filter with each other • specify a certain byte in a packet The default format of the filter syntax is: [[src|dst] host <host_name_or_IP1>] [[arp|ip|gre|esp|udp|tcp|icmp] [port_no]] [and | or] [..] Let’s look at each of the different parts to the filter. Keep in mind that in addition to these formats, you can also search for individual words using the filter. The following are examples. IP matching with filters Let’s look at the hostname and IP matching — [[src|dst] host <host_name_or_IP1>]. It allows you to specify either the source or destination host. For example if you want to sniff packets coming from IP address 192.168.1.27 you would set the filter to ’src host 192.168.1.27’. If you want to sniff packets going to a computer called my_laptop, the filter would be ’dst host my_laptop’. This host name is resolved using DNS. 130 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 131. Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) In each case, when the sniffer finds packets from that computer, the packets will match the filter and be displayed. You can enter two or more different computers using this format and join them with logical ANDs or ORs. For example, you could specify one source and two destinations. In the following example, let’s assume a computer on the network is pinging the FortiGate unit. We will only be looking for ping packets with a source of 172.20.120.136 which is the FortiGate unit. diag sniffer packet any 'icmp and src host 172.20.120.136' interfaces=[any] filters=[icmp and src host 172.20.120.136] 0.319302 172.20.120.136 -> 172.20.120.17: icmp: echo reply 1.348780 172.20.120.136 -> 172.20.120.17: icmp: echo reply 2.355177 172.20.120.136 -> 172.20.120.17: icmp: echo reply 3.356008 172.20.120.136 -> 172.20.120.17: icmp: echo reply 4 packets received by filter 0 packets dropped by kernel The result displays four packets, all ping (icmp) packets, originating from the FortiGate unit and going to 172.20.120.17. This time there was no verbosity level indicated or number of packets. A default verbosity level 1 is used, and the sniffing continues until you press Ctrl-C to stop it. Note that the last two lines tell you how many packets were sniffed and if the FortiGate kernel dropped any packets during this time. When the sniffing has ended, if you see anything but zero packets dropped, you may have a problem. Packets dropped indicates the FortiGate unit was not able to sniff and display all the packets that were coming in. If you were looking for all the packets in a sequence, there may well be packets missing. For this reason, you should consider possible reasons for those dropped packets, attempt to fix the problem so all packets are captured, and run the sniffer again. Keep in mind that the sniffer can take up to 25% of the CPU resources on smaller FortiGate units. Sniffing a port and specifying multiple hosts using AND and OR operators When a TCP session is created, the destination port is set to a known port number — for example, port 80 is commonly used for HTTP sessions. But the source port is randomly assigned. The unknown source port can make troubleshooting difficult. However, the FortiGate packet sniffer can match the known port if it is the source or destination port — you do not need to know which port. Let’s check HTTP packets going between IP 172.20.120.18 (the FortiGate) and on either 10.10.80.110 (wifi interface called Star) or 10.10.10.100 (internal LAN interface). diag sniffer packet any "port 80 and host 172.20.120.18 and (host 10.10.80.110 or host 10.10.10.100)" 4 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80 and host 172.20.120.18 and (host 10.10.10.100 or host 10.10.80.110)] 5.036340 internal in 10.10.10.100.58753 -> 172.20.120.18.80: syn 4189154 5.036664 internal out 172.20.120.18.80 -> 10.10.10.100.58753: syn 1354149395 ack 4189155 6.464015 Star out 172.20.120.18.80 -> 10.10.80.110.56791: syn 2000204115 ack 571678006 6.471966 Star in 10.10.80.110.56791 -> 172.20.120.18.80: ack 2000204116 6.474720 Star in 10.10.80.110.56791 -> 172.20.120.18.80: psh 571678006 ack 2000204116 5.036837 internal in 10.10.10.100.58753 -> 172.20.120.18.80: ack 1354149396 5.037023 internal in 10.10.10.100.58753 -> 172.20.120.18.80: psh 4189155 ack 1354149396 6.463686 Star in 10.10.80.110.56791 -> 172.20.120.18.80: syn 571678005 Since either the source or destination will be using port 80, all HTML traffic between those two computers will match the filter and be displayed. SSH and HTTPS traffic uses different ports, so that traffic will not be displayed. The first number of each line of output will vary between sources and is a good way to quickly determine which IP addresses are in that session. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 131
  • 132. Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) Packet type filters Let’s look at the packet type — [arp|ip|gre|esp|udp|tcp]. This determines what type of packets to look for. In addition to the common ICMP, IP, TCP, and UDP you can look for ARP (address resolution protocol), GRE (generic routing encapsulation), and ESP (encapsulating security payload) packets. If the protocol you want isn’t listed here you can specify it if you know the ethernet protocol number for it. For example to specify ARP packets on the internal interface with this method: diag packet sniffer internal “ether proto 0x0806” Let’s sniff some ARP packets from a gateway on the network at IP address 172.20.120.2. For this we don’t care about the interface, and five packets will be enough to see what is happening. # diag sniffer packet any 'arp' 1 5 interfaces=[any] filters=[arp] 1.187291 arp who-has 192.168.100.1 tell 192.168.100.99 2.187125 arp who-has 192.168.100.1 tell 192.168.100.99 2.858334 arp who-has 172.20.120.228 tell 172.20.120.224 2.889542 arp who-has 172.20.120.224 tell 172.20.120.228 4.187019 arp who-has 192.168.100.1 tell 192.168.100.99 From this output, we can see ARP requests from a computer with IP address 192.168.100.99 that is looking for the MAC address of a computer with the IP address 192.168.100.1. In the ARP protocol, the who-has request is broadcast and includes the link layer address of where to send the reply. The expected response, when a computer has the 192.168.100.1 IP address, will be in the format arp reply 192.168.100.1 is at 00:26:b9:00:0f:9c. Since there is no such reply in the sniffed packets, we can either sniff more packets or assume there is no computer on the network with the IP address 192.168.100.1. This may be important if a computer is supposed to be using that IP address and is not. It could imply DHCP problems, or that the computer was physically moved to a different part of the network. ARP packets can be the source of problems if there is a network loop. As mentioned above, ARP tries to match a single MAC address to a single IP address. If the request results in two or more replies with the same IP address, or different IP addresses have the same MAC address, as may happen with virtual networking solutions, the loop or asymmetric routing is created. Essentially, all traffic will go to and from both computers. This will appear as a network slowdown or halt. You can see this happening if you are sniffing ARP packets and seeing the double replies or double MAC addresses. To confirm that this is the issue, enter the CLI command config system settings, set asymroute enable, end. This will turn on asymmetric routing, stop these ARP problems, and disable stateful inspection. Disabling stateful inspection will compromise security, so in most cases you should only use this command to confirm a problem. Once the problem is confirmed, use the sniffer output to find and fix the source and then disable asymmetric routing. Miscellaneous advanced filters There are some non-standard filters you can use to match traffic with the packet sniffer. These advanced filters use logical symbols to match specific bits within packet headers. Some examples are: If you want to match TTL = 1 in the packet headers on port2: # diagnose sniffer packet port2 “ip[8:1] = 0x01” 132 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 133. Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) If you want to match packets with a source IP address of 192.168.1.2 in the header: # diagnose sniffer packet internal "(ether[26:4]=0xc0a80102)" The source and destination information are stored in different places in the packet headers. If you want to match packets with a source MAC address of 00:09:0f:89:10:ea on the internal interface # diagnose sniffer packet internal "(ether[6:4]=0x00090f89) and (ether[10:2]=0x10ea)" where matching packets with the same MAC address as a destination MAC on the internal interface is # diagnose sniffer packet internal "(ether[0:4]=0x00090f89) and (ether[4:2]=0x10ea)" You can also target specific types of packets, such as addressing the TCP or UDP flags. If you want to match packets with RST flag set: # diagnose sniffer packet internal "tcp[13] & 4 != 0" If you want to match packets with the SYN flag set: # diagnose sniffer packet internal "tcp[13] & 2 != 0" If you want to match packets with the SYN-ACK flag set: # diagnose sniffer packet internal "tcp[13] = 18" If your FortiGate unit has NP2 interfaces that are offloading traffic, this will change the sniffer trace. Before performing a trace on any NP2 interfaces, you should disable offloading on those interfaces. Best practices Here are some tips that will improve your troubleshooting using the packet sniffer. • Enabling the sniffer will consume additional CPU resources. This can be as high as an additional 25 • percent of CPU usage on low-end models. Therefore, enabling this on a unit that is experiencing excessively high CPU usage, can only render the situation worse. If you must perform a sniff, keep the sniffing sessions short and keep the filter specific. • Try to always include ICMP in the sniffer filter. You may capture an ICMP error message that can help identify the cause of the problem. For example: diag sniff packet interface wan1 'tcp port 3389 or icmp' 3 • Use the “any” interface to sniff all FortiGate unit interfaces. You can use the "any" interface if you want to confirm that a specific packet is sent and received by different FortiGate interfaces. The any interface is also useful if you are not sure which interface will send or receive the packet. An example using the “any” interface: • The FortiGate unit may not display all packets if too much information is requested. When this occurs, the FortiGate unit will log the following message once the trace is terminated: diag sniff packet any 'tcp port 3389' 3 12151 packets received by filter 3264 packets dropped by kernel When this occurs, it is possible that what you were attempting to capture, was not actually captured. In order to avoid this, try to make the filters more specific, reduce the verbosity level, or run the sniffer during a lower traffic period. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 133
  • 134. Advanced troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture) • • Short Ethernet frames sent by the FortiGate unit may appear to be under the minimum length of 64 bytes (also known as runts) and will not be displayed by the sniffer. This is because the sniffer does not display any Ethernet Trailer/Padding information, although it is sent over the network. • The Ethernet source and/or destination MAC addresses may be incorrect when using the "any" interface. They may be displayed as all zeros (00:00:00:00:00:00) or 00:00:00:00:00:01. • Try to always include ICMP in the sniffer filter. You may capture an ICMP error message that can help identify the cause of the problem. For example, diag sniff packet interface wan1 'tcp port 3389 or icmp' 3 • 134 The packet timestamps, as displayed by the sniffer, may become skewed or delayed under high load conditions. This may occur even if no packets were dropped. Therefore, it is not recommended that you rely on these values in order to troubleshoot or measure performance issues that require absolute precise timing. If you are sniffing VLAN packets, you cannot have any filter configured if you want to see the VLAN tags. For example diag sniffer packet wan1 “icmp” will not show the tags where diag sniffer packet wan1 will. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 135. Creating, saving, and using packet capture filters (sniffing packets from the web-based manager) Creating, saving, and using packet capture filters (sniffing packets from the web-based manager) Problem To capture, download, and analyze packets received or sent by a FortiGate unit. 1 01 00 0111 01 11 0100 011 1 1 01 0110 10 ? Solution Packet capturing or packet sniffing through the web-based manager is a new feature for FortiOS 4.0 MR3 Patch 2. From the web-based manager you can go to System > Configure > Advanced and under Packet Capture select Create New to create and save packet capture filters. Packet capture filters contain saved packet sniffer settings that define the packets to capture. You can start a packet capture filter any time when you want to capture the packets defined in the filter. Results of running a packet capture filter can be download to your computer for viewing and analysis as a pcap file. The pcap file contains complete details about the packets captured, including packet content. To read a pcap file, open it with an application that can read pcap files, for example, tcpdump or Wireshark. Capturing HTTP packets on the Internal interface The following filter captures 100 HTTP packets (destination port 80) received at the FortiGate internal interface with destination address 66.171.121.34, from any source address on the 192.168.1.0/24 network, and with any source port. 1 Go to System > Config > Advanced > Packet Capture, select Create New and create a packet capture filter to capture HTTP packets sent and received by the internal interface from and IP address on the 192.168.1.0 network to IP address 66.171.121.34: 2 Select OK. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 135
  • 136. Creating, saving, and using packet capture filters (sniffing packets from the web-based manager) Interface internal Max Packets to Capture 100 Source Address 192.168.1.0/24 Source Port(s) Destination Address Destination Port 80 Protocol TCP Include IPv6 Packets Disable Capture Non-IP Packets 3 66.171.121.34/24 Disable Start capturing packets by selecting the packet capture filter and selecting Start. You can also Edit the packet capture filter and select Start Capture. 4 From a PC with an IP address on the 192.168.1.0/24 network browse to 66.171.121.34. You can view the packet capture progress, which stops when 100 packets are captured. You can also Stop capturing packets at any time. If you select Start to restart capturing packets, the packet count is reset, so packets previously saved are lost. 5 To download captured packets, stop packet capture if its still running, select the packet capture filter, select Download, and open or save the downloaded sniffer-internal.pcap file. (The filename includes the interface name specified in the filter.) 6 View the downloaded pcap file with a pcap file viewer. The output below shows packets with source address 192.168.1.120 and destination address 66.101.121.34 and destination port 80 received by the FortiGate internal interface. The packets in the pcap file do not include the FortiGate interface name. In this example all of the packets are received and sent by the internal interface. If you set the Interface to ANY; however, the pcap file will contain packets from any FortiGate interface. You can use the hardware address to determine which FortiGate interface received or sent the packet. Capturing packets to show static source NAT As described in “Providing Internet access for your private network users (static source NAT)” on page 222 you can use the packet sniffer to verify your NAT configuration. This example shows how to create a packet capture filter to verify basic source NAT in the same way as entering the command: diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 4. 1 136 Go to System > Config > Advanced. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 137. Creating, saving, and using packet capture filters (sniffing packets from the web-based manager) 2 Under Packet Capture, select Create New and create a packet capture filter to capture all HTTP packets sent or received by any interface: Interface any Max Packets to Capture 100 Source Address 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 Source Port(s) Destination Address Destination Port ALL Include IPv6 Packets Disable Capture Non-IP Packets FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 23 Protocol 3 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 Disable Select OK. 137
  • 138. Creating, saving, and using packet capture filters (sniffing packets from the web-based manager) 4 Start capturing packets by selecting the packet capture filter and selecting Start. You can also Edit the packet capture filter and select Start Capture. 5 From a PC with on the internal network browse to any Internet address. You can view the packet capture progress, which stops when 100 packets are captured. 6 To download captured packets, stop packet capture if its still running, select the packet capture filter, select Download, and open or save the downloaded sniffer-any.pcap file. 7 View the downloaded pcap file with a pcap file viewer such as Wireshark. The first line below shows a packets with source address 192.168.1.110 and destination address 172.20.120.101 sent by a PC. The second line shows the same packet with source address changed to 172.20.120.14 exiting the FortiGate wan1 interface. This packet capture filter may capture many more packets than the ones you are looking for. You reduce the number of packets captured by specifying the source and destination addresses of the packets that you are interested in. 138 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 139. Debugging FortiGate configurations Debugging FortiGate configurations Problem I’m having problems configuring my FortiGate unit. I’ve heard of debug commands, how do I use them? 1 3 2 2 Solution FortiGate units have built-in diagnose debug commands that can be used to debug the operation of any FortiGate software system by displaying debug messages on the CLI console as the system operates. When you find the problem you can correct the configuration and run the diagnose debug command again to verify that the system now operates correctly. Before performing any debugging, you should connect to the FortiGate CLI with a terminal program that supports storing the output to a file for later reference. If you do not save the output to a file, you will miss valuable debugging information. Keep in mind that debugging consumes system resources and may affect performance. In most cases this will not be a problem, but if your FortiGate unit is running at 100 percent resource usage already, it is likely that running the debug application will cause the FortiGate unit to drop more packets or sessions, and generally increase its overloaded behavior. The worst is when you are sniffing packets, which can use 10 percent or more of the system resources. To use the diagnose debug commands you must check the current debug configuration, enable debugging, select a software system for which to display debugging information, collect and analyze the results, and stop displaying debugging information. In general you can follow this command sequence: FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 139
  • 140. Debugging FortiGate configurations diagnose diagnose diagnose diagnose debug debug debug debug info <software-system> <debug-level> enable disable The following debug commands are also useful: • diagnose debug reset to reset the debug configuration to a default state. • diagnose debug report Fortinet support may ask you to run this command and send them the output. This is an exhaustive report that runs many different diagnose commands to gather a large amount of information. It may take up to 20 minutes to run on a FortiGate unit with a complex configuration and may temporarily affect system performance. Example diagnose debug procedure for an SSL VPN portal This procedure describes typical steps for displaying debug information for the SSL VPN configuration described in “Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN” on page 301. You can use similar steps to display debug info for many other software systems. 1 Verify the current debug configuration by entering the following command: diagnose debug info debug output: disable console timestamp: disable console no user log message: CLI debug level: 3 disable This is a good command to run first, so you know what filters are in place and so on; otherwise, you may start debugging and wonder why the output is not what you expected. This output above indicates that debug output is disabled so debug messages are not displayed. The output also indicates that debugging has not been enabled for any software systems. 2 Enter the following command to display debug messages for SSL VPN. diagnose debug application sslvpn -1 This command enables debugging of SSL VPN with a debug level of -1. The -1 debug level produces detailed results. You can view all the debug options by entering diagnose debug ? or diagnose debug application ? 3 Enter the following command to verify the debug configuration: diagnose debug info debug output: disable console timestamp: disable console no user log message: disable sslvpn debug level: -1 (0xffffffff) CLI debug level: 3 This output verifies that SSL VPN debugging is enabled with a debug level of -1. 4 Enable displaying debug messages by entering the following command: diagnose debug enable 5 Log into the SSL VPN portal. The CLI displays debug messages similar to the following. diagnose debug enable 140 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 141. Debugging FortiGate configurations FGT60C3G10002814 # [282:root]SSL state:before/accept initialization (172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL state:SSLv3 read client hello A (172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL state:SSLv3 write server hello A (172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL state:SSLv3 write change cipher spec A (172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL state:SSLv3 write finished B (172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL state:SSLv3 flush data (172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL state:SSLv3 read finished A:system lib(172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL state:SSLv3 read finished A (172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL state:SSL negotiation finished successfully (172.20.120.12) [282:root]SSL established: DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA SSLv3 Kx=DH Au=RSA Enc=AES(256) Mac=SHA1 Just the first few messages are shown for an SSL VPN user connecting to the portal from IP address 172.20.120.12. The messages show the connection being accepted and SSL VPN negotiation taking place. You can view and analyze the debug messages or save them to a text file using your terminal program. Enter the following command to stop displaying debug messages: 6 diagnose debug disable If there is a lot of output scrolling by quickly, you may not be able to see the command as you enter it. Debugging authentication Any time a FortiGate unit authenticates a user, the authd daemon is responsible. This is true if the user is logging in through SSL VPN, connecting over IPsec VPN from FortiClient, and even if certificates are involved. You can use the following command to debug authentication: diagnose debug application authd -1 diagnose debug enable authd_http.c:1910 authd_http_connect: called authd_http.c:3071 authd_http_change_state: called change state to: 3 authd_http.c:1112 authd_http_read: called authd_http.c:2383 authd_http_wait_req: called authd_http.c:2443 authd_http_read_req: called authd_http_common.c:276 authd_http_read_http_message: called authd_http_common.c:229 authd_http_is_full_http_message: called authd_http.c:4899 authd_http_on_method_get: called authd_http.c:2098 authd_http_check_auth_action: called authd_http.c:3071 authd_http_change_state: called change state to: 2 The output shows the messages the authentication daemon is receiving and the resulting state changes. This authentication session was between a FortiGate unit and FortiClient during an IPsec VPN session setup. Debugging IPsec VPN You can use the diag debug application ike -1 command to display all the VPN related traffic, especially for initial negotiations. By doing this, it will give you the information to find and fix errors that you would only be guessing at, otherwise. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 141
  • 142. Debugging FortiGate configurations Debugging URL filtering Have you tried to set up URL filters only to have the URLs still come through? The diag debug information can help you determine what is going on “under the hood”, such as “Blocking all web sites except those you specify using a whitelist” on page 276. For example, if one user at 172.20.120.18 is complaining the URL filter is not working for them you can enter the command: #diag debug disable #diag debug application urlfilter -1 #diag debug enable This is very useful if you want to test some new URL filter patterns. The following sample output from this set of commands for a group of URLs that you have included in the UTM Web Filtering Advanced Filtering list, such as *.ro, would appear as: msg="received a request /tmp/.proxyworker000_0_0.url.socket, addr_len=38: d=www.example.ro:80, id=22, vfid=0, type=0, client=10.10.80.110, url=/favicon.ico" Checking urlfilter list 4 Url filter deny action This output shows one attempt to browse to http://www.example.ro, which is a match to the blocked *.ro sites. From this output, we can see the URL, who was going there (the client IP address of 10.10.80.110), and the action - URL filter deny action. It is good to note that the ID number will increment by one for each message matched like this. From this information, we now know the *.ro URL filter is working properly for a client on the 10.10.80.0 subnet. Debugging packet flow You can use the diag debug flow command to show packet flow through the FortiGate unit. As packets are received, you can view debug messages to show how the FortiGate unit processes them. For more information, see “Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy” on page 196. 142 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 143. Quick reference to common diagnose commands Quick reference to common diagnose commands FortiOS diagnose commands, commonly called diag commands, are powerful CLI commands that allow you to see what is happening at a low level. You can find more information about diag and get commands in the Troubleshooting chapter of the FortiOS Handbook. 3 2 1 To find out more information about diagnose command options, enter the command followed by a ?, for example, diagnose debug application ? Display detailed debugging information for FortiGate software systems. For example: diagnose debug application ike -1 For debugging IPsec VPN. debug application diagnose debug application sslvpn -1 For debugging IPsec VPN, see “Debugging FortiGate configurations” on page 139. diagnose debug application urlfilter -1 For debugging URL filtering, see “Debugging FortiGate configurations” on page 139. Show packet flow through the FortiGate unit. As packets are received you can view debug messages to show how the FortiGate unit processes them. The following commands will send 100 packets of output to the console of the packet flow including the IP address. debug flow diagnose diagnose diagnose diagnose debug debug debug debug enable flow show console enable flow filter add 10.10.20.30 flow trace start 100 See “Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy” on page 196. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 143
  • 144. Quick reference to common diagnose commands debug info Display information about how debug is currently configured on your FortiGate unit. Run this before doing a series of diag debug commands, so you know what filters are in place. Otherwise, your output may not what you expected. See “Debugging FortiGate configurations” on page 139. firewall statistic show Display throughput information for the firewall broken down by both packets and bytes. Categories include common applications such as DNS, FTP, IM, P2P, and VoIP and also includes the lower level protocols — TCP, UDP, ICMP, and IP. fortitoken drift Display the drift for each configured FortiToken registered on the FortiGate unit. hardware certificate Verify all FortiGate unit certificates. For each certificate the name, test performed and the results are listed. hardware deviceinfo disk Display all disks in the FortiGate unit. This includes hard disks, and SSD disks. The information includes partitions, size, type, and available space. hardware deviceinfo nic eth0 Display information about the network card attached to the interface. The information displayed varies by the type of NIC. It will include the VLAN id, state, link, speed, counts for received and transmitted packets and bytes. The MAC for this NIC is Current_HWaddr and Permant_HWaddr, and this is only place you can see both the old and new MAC when it is changed. ips urlfilter status Display statistics for URL filters. This includes number of requests, responses, pending responses, errors, timeouts, blocked, and allowed. netlink brctl list Display the information from the bridging table in the FortiGate unit. This is useful when troubleshooting transparent mode. Once you have the bridge names, you can check their forwarding domain using diag netlink brctl domain <bridge_name>. sniffer packet any “port 80” 4 Capture packets on any FortiGate interface that are on port 80, commonly used by HTTP. Verbosity level 4 displays packet header information and interface names. You can use this information to test security policies, network connections, or find where missing packets are going. See “Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture)” on page 125. sys session full-stat Display details about the session table including its size, the sessions in each state, errors, and other statistics. test log Generate default log messages. This allows you to test logging features such as remote log server connections. See “Creating a backup log solution” on page 377 test update info Display information about the update daemon including the last set of messages from the update daemon, the current object versions, the next scheduled updates, and counters for various updates for pass, fail, and retry. vpn tunnel list Display all configured IPsec VPN tunnels in the current VDOM. This is useful to compare settings on both ends of a tunnel that is having problems. 144 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 145. Quick reference to common diagnose commands FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 145
  • 146. FortiOS Cookbook WiFi Networking FortiOS WiFi networking provides a wide range of capabilities for integrating wireless networks into your organization’s network architecture. Each WiFi network or SSID is represented by a virtual network interface to which you apply security policies, UTM features, traffic shaping, and so on, in the same way as for physical wired networks. You can create multiple WiFi networks to serve different groups of users. For example, you might want one network for your employees and another for guests or customers. Also, with the increase in use of smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices that use WiFi technology, wireless networks are becoming busier than ever and have to accommodate a broad range of wireless client devices each with their own strengths and limitations. You may also want to accommodate these devices and technologies on multiple overlapping wireless networks. These networks could differ greatly in the access they provide to other networks, as well as the authentication, access control, and UTM features they apply. A network that requires only one WiFi access point is easily created with a FortiWiFi unit operating as a single thick AP. A thick AP such as a FortiWiFi unit contains the WiFi radio facility as well as access control and authentication functionality. A thin AP, such as a FortiAP unit contains only the radio facility and a microcontroller that receives commands and exchanges data with a WiFi controller. If you already have a FortiGate unit, adding a FortiAP unit as a thin AP managed by the FortiGate unit operating as a WiFi controller is a costeffective solution for adding WiFi to your network. The FortiOS WiFi controller feature is available on both FortiGate and FortiWiFi units. A FortiWiFi unit’s WiFi controller also controls the unit’s internal (Local WiFi) radio facility, treating it much like a built-in thin AP. Whenever multiple APs are required, a single FortiGate or FortiWiFi unit controlling multiple FortiAP units is best. A network of multiple thick APs would be more expensive and more complex to manage. This chapter includes the following WiFi networking examples: • Setting up secure WiFi access on your FortiWiFi unit • Setting up secure WiFi on your FortiGate unit using a FortiAP unit • Improving WiFi security with WPA-Enterprise security • Setting up secure WiFi with RADIUS • Setting up secure WiFi with a captive portal • Sharing the same subnet for WiFi and wired clients • Setting up a WiFi network with an external DHCP server • Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 146
  • 147. Setting up secure WiFi access on your FortiWiFi unit Setting up secure WiFi access on your FortiWiFi unit Problem Your small office wired network is configured using a FortiWiFi unit, but employees also use laptops, and other mobile devices. These devices need secure WiFi access to both the office network and the Internet. Wireless network Inte rna l ne two rk FortiWiFi Unit Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/wifi2.html Configure a WiFi network on your FortiWiFi unit. Use DHCP to assign up to 10 IP addresses to office WiFi users, as most mobile devices are preconfigured to use DHCP. Use WPA2 security. As there is no authentication in place for the wired network and this is a small team in one place, WPA2-Personal security is appropriate. There will be one preshared key that users must know to access the WiFi network. Create security policies to enable the WiFi network to access both the office network and the Internet. This solution assumes an area that can be covered by a single FortiWiFi. You can extend the coverage area by connecting FortiAP units and adding the our_wifi SSID to them. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 147
  • 148. Setting up secure WiFi access on your FortiWiFi unit Create the SSID and enable the WiFi radio 1 Go to WiFi Controller > WiFi Network > SSID and select Create New to define your wireless network: Interface Name IP/Netmask 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 SSID 2 wifi our_wifi Enable DHCP with the following settings: Address Range Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway Same as Interface IP DNS Server 3 10.10.10.10-10.10.10.19 Same as System DNS Configure the security settings as follows: Security Mode WPA/WPA2-Personal Data Encryption AES Pre-shared Key justforus 4 Select OK. 5 Go to WiFi Controller > Managed Access_Points > Local WiFi Radio and select Enable WiFi Radio. Create firewall addresses and security policies 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Office network security policy that allows WiFi users to access to the office network. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT Source NAT is not required for this policy since the WiFi and internal networks are visible to each other. 148 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 149. Setting up secure WiFi access on your FortiWiFi unit 2 Select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Internet security policy that allows WiFi users to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 3 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 4 Select OK. Results On your laptop or mobile device, look for the our_wifi SSID and attempt to connect. Enter the “justforus” preshared key when prompted. Verify that you can connect to servers on your office network. Verify that you can connect to the Internet. You can go to WiFi Controller > Monitor > Client Monitor to view information about the clients that are connected to your WiFi network. If you want a more secure authentication method, see “Improving WiFi security with WPAEnterprise security” on page 155 that requires users to logon instead of using the preshared key. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 149
  • 150. Setting up secure WiFi on your FortiGate unit using a FortiAP unit Setting up secure WiFi on your FortiGate unit using a FortiAP unit Problem A FortiGate unit provides your office with wired networking, but employees also use laptops and mobile devices. These devices need secure WiFi access to both the office network and the Internet. What is a good solution for a small number of users with no access to Windows Active Directory? Wireless network Inte r inte rna nal l ne nit Pu po rt3 tiA For two rk FortiGate FortiGate Unit G Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/wifi3.html Set up a WiFi network with WPA-Personal authentication. Using the WiFi Controller feature on your FortiGate unit, configure a WiFi network. Then connect a FortiAP unit and authorize it to carry your WiFi network. On your WiFi network, use DHCP to assign IP addresses to WiFi users, as most mobile devices are preconfigured to use DHCP. Use WPA2 security. As there is no authentication in place for the wired network and this is a small team in one place, WPA2-Personal security is appropriate. There will be one preshared key that users must know to access the WiFi network. Create security policies to enable the WiFi network to access both the office network and the Internet. Configure port3, an unused network interface on the FortiGate unit, to connect to the FortiAP unit. Connect the FortiAP unit to the port3 interface and wait for it to be discovered. Authorize the FortiAP unit. 150 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 151. Setting up secure WiFi on your FortiGate unit using a FortiAP unit Create the SSID 1 Go to WiFi Controller > WiFi Network > SSID and select Create New to define your wireless network: Interface Name IP/Netmask 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 SSID 2 wifi our_wifi Enable DHCP with the following settings: Address Range Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway Same as Interface IP DNS Server 3 10.10.10.10-10.10.10.19 Same as System DNS Configure the security settings as follows: Security Mode Data Encryption AES Pre-shared Key 4 WPA/WPA2-Personal justforus Select OK. Create firewall and security policy settings 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Office network policy that allows WiFi users to access to the office network. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT Source NAT is not required for this policy since the WiFi and internal networks are visible to each other. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 151
  • 152. Setting up secure WiFi on your FortiGate unit using a FortiAP unit 2 Select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Internet policy that allows WiFi users to access the Interne. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 3 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 4 Select OK. Configure a FortiGate interface to connect to the FortiAP unit and connect the devices 1 Go to System > Network > Interface and Edit the port3 interface: Addressing Mode IP/Netmask 2 Manual 192.168.8.1/255.255.255.0 Select Dedicate this interface to FortiAP connection. Reserve IP addresses for FortiAP connection 192.168.8.2 - 192.168.8.9 The Reserve IP for FortiAP connection setting automatically configures a DHCP server to assign an IP address to the FortiAP unit. The FortiGate unit uses these IP addresses to communicate with the FortiAP unit. 3 Use an Ethernet cable to connect port0 (also the ETH port) on the FortiAP unit to port3 on the FortiGate unit and power up the FortiAP unit. 4 On the FortiGate web-based manager, go to WiFi Controller > Managed Access_Points > Managed FortiAP. Select Refresh every ten seconds or so until the FortiAP unit is listed. Discovery of the FortiAP unit can take up to two minutes. 152 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 153. Setting up secure WiFi on your FortiGate unit using a FortiAP unit If the FortiAP is not listed under Managed FortiAP after two minutes: • Check that port0 (ETH) on the FortiAP unit is connected to port3 on the FortiGate unit. • Power cycle the FortiAP unit. • On the FortiGate unit, go to System > Monitor > DHCP Monitor to see whether the FortiAP unit is assigned an IP address lease. • See also “Using the FortiGate packet sniffer to view the FortiAP discovery process” in the Results section. 5 When the FortiAP unit appears, select it and select Edit. 6 Enter the Name FortiAP1. 7 Select Authorize. 8 Ensure that Enable WiFi Radio is selected and then select OK. This solution assumes an area that can be covered by a single FortiAP. You can extend the coverage area by connecting and authorizing additional FortiAP units and adding the our_wifi SSID to them. Results On your laptop or mobile device, look for the our_wifi SSID and attempt to connect. Enter the “justforus” preshared key when prompted. Verify that you can connect to servers on your office network. Verify that you can connect to the Internet. You can go to WiFi Controller > Monitor > Client Monitor to view information about the clients that are connected to your WiFi network. Using the FortiGate packet sniffer to view the FortiAP discovery process The FortiGate unit’s built-in packet sniffer can help you to view the discovery process if you experience difficulty in getting the FortiGate unit to recognize the FortiAP unit. Use the CLI command diagnose sniffer packet port3 none 4 to capture packets entering or leaving the FortiGate port3 interface to which the FortiAP unit is connected. Packet headers will be shown. For more information about using the sniffer, see “Troubleshooting by sniffing packets (packet capture)” on page 125. The FortiAP unit uses several methods to find a WiFi controller. Here are some examples of the request packets you should see, possibly repeated several times before a response is received and processed: Broadcast DHCP request: port3 -- 0.0.0.0.68 -> 255.255.255.255.67: udp This DCHP client request should reach the DHCP server configured on port3. The server response looks like this: port3 -- 192.168.8.1.67 -> 192.168.8.2.68: udp FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 153
  • 154. Setting up secure WiFi on your FortiGate unit using a FortiAP unit The FortiAP unit is assigned the IP address 192.168.8.2. It will then communicate with the WiFi controller on 192.168.8.1 using the CAPWAP control port 5246. Multicast WiFi controller discovery request: port3 -- 192.168.8.2.5246 -> 224.0.1.140.5246: udp Note that this request is on the CAPWAP control port, 5246. The multicast IP address on the FortiAP unit and the WiFi controller is reconfigurable and must agree. The WiFi controller responds directly to the FortiAP unit in unicast on port 5246. Broadcast WiFi controller discovery request: port3 -- 192.168.8.2.5246 -> 255.255.255.255.5246: udp This request on the CAPWAP control port 5246 should get a response from the WiFi controller at 192.168.8.1 on port 5246. ARP request packet and response packets: port3 -- arp who-has 192.168.8.2 tell 192.168.8.1 port3 -- arp reply 192.168.8.2 is-at 0:9:f:d6:b9:71 ARP who-has packets occur frequently. The ARP reply packet containing your FortiAP unit’s wired MAC address confirms that the unit has successfully obtained an IP address. Ongoing communication between FortiAP unit and WiFi controller: The discovery process should be complete now, with the FortiAP unit listed in the Managed FortiAP list, ready for you to authorize. Routine control channel communications back and forth look like this: port3 -- 192.168.8.2.5246 -> 192.168.8.1.5246: udp port3 -- 192.168.8.1.5246 -> 192.168.8.2.5246: udp 154 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 155. Improving WiFi security with WPA-Enterprise security Improving WiFi security with WPA-Enterprise security Problem You set up a WiFi network with WPA-Personal security, but now you want better security with individual authentication for your users. Wireless network k or w et N al rn te In FortiWiFi Unit Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/wifi1.html Create user accounts and a wifi_users user group on the FortiWiFi unit. Modify your SSID to use WPA/WPA2-Enterprise security and authenticate users who belong to the wifi_users group. There is no longer a pre-shared key that could fall into the wrong hands or would need to be changed if someone left the group. Each user has an individual user name and password. Accounts can be added or removed as needed. Create WiFi network user accounts 1 Go to User > User > User and select Create New to create a user account: User Name Password 2 wloman my_secure_pwd Create additional user accounts as needed, one for each employee. If your employees already have user accounts on the FortiWiFi or FortiGate unit, you can skip this step and use the existing accounts. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 155
  • 156. Improving WiFi security with WPA-Enterprise security 3 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to create a user group: Name Type Firewall Members 4 wifi_users Add wloman and the other employee accounts to the Members list. Select OK. Create the SSID and enable the WiFi radio 1 Go to WiFi Controller > WiFi Network > SSID and select Create New to define your wireless network: Interface Name IP/Netmask 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 SSID 2 wifi our_wifi Enable DHCP with the following settings: Address Range Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway Same as Interface IP DNS Server 3 10.10.10.10-10.10.10.100 Same as System DNS Configure the security settings as follows: Security Mode WPA/WPA2-Enterprise Data Encryption AES Authentication Usergroup Usergroup wifi_users 4 5 156 Select OK. Go to WiFi Controller > Managed Access Points > Local WiFi Radio and select Enable WiFi Radio. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 157. Improving WiFi security with WPA-Enterprise security Create firewall addresses and security policies 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy to and select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Office network security policy that allows WiFi users to access to the office network. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT Source NAT is not required for this policy since the WiFi and internal networks are visible to each other. 2 Select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Internet security policy that allows WiFi users to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 3 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 4 Select OK. Results On your laptop or mobile device, look for the our_wifi SSID and attempt to connect. Unlike WPA/WPA2-Personal you will be prompted to enter your user name and password. Enter wloman as the user name and my_secure_pwd as the password. Once you have been authenticated, verify that you can connect to servers and other resources on your office network. Also verify that you can connect to the Internet. You can go to WiFi Controller > Monitor > Client Monitor to view information about the clients that are connected to your WiFi network. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 157
  • 158. Setting up secure WiFi with RADIUS Setting up secure WiFi with RADIUS Problem A FortiWiFi-60C unit provides your office with wired and wireless networking. As WiFi signals might be accessible beyond the office or to office visitors, the WiFi network must be secured, with clients required to provide user names and passwords. Wireless network r to ica ent it uth un rtiA l rna inte Inte rna po rt3 l ne Fo two rk FortiWiFi Unit Solution Set up a FortiAuthenticator unit as a RADIUS server and use WPA-Enterprise authentication for your WiFi network. On the FortiAuthenticator unit, you need to create a user group with a user account for each employee. Register the FortiWiFi unit as a Network Access Server (NAS) so that it can request user authentication. Create user accounts on the FortiAuthenticator unit 1 Go to Authentication > Users > Users and select Create New to create a user account: Username Password my_secure_pwd Password confirmation 158 wloman my_secure_pwd FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 159. Setting up secure WiFi with RADIUS 2 Select Allow RADIUS authentication and then select OK. On this page you can also • • configure password recovery by email or security question • 3 enter additional information about the user add the user to user groups Create additional user accounts as needed, one for each employee. Register the FortiWiFi unit as a NAS on the FortiAuthenticator unit 1 Go to Authentication > NAS > NAS and select Create New. Enter the following information about the FortiWiFi unit: Name FortiAP1 Server Name / IP 172.20.120.132 Secret hardtoguess (You will also enter this Secret on the FortiWiFi unit.) Configure the FortiWiFi unit to use FortiAuthenticator as a RADIUS server 1 Go to User > Remote > RADIUS and select Create New to add the FortiAuthenticator unit as a RADIUS server. Name Type Query Primary Server Name/IP 172.20.120.53 Primary Server Secret 2 facRADIUS hardtoguess (This is the same Secret that you entered on the FortiAuthenticator unit.) Go to User > User Group > User Group and create a user group with facRADIUS as its only member: Name Type FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ wifi-user-grp Firewall 159
  • 160. Setting up secure WiFi with RADIUS 3 Select Add to add facRADIUS: Remote Server facRADIUS Group Name Any Create the SSID and enable the WiFi radio on the FortiWiFi unit 1 Go to WiFi Controller > WiFi Network > SSID and select Create New to define your wireless network: Interface Name IP/Netmask 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 SSID 2 wifi our_wifi Enable DHCP with the following settings: Address Range Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway Same as Interface IP DNS Server 3 10.10.10.10-10.10.10.210 Same as System DNS Configure the security settings as follows: Security Mode Data Encryption 160 AES Authentication 4 WPA/WPA2-Enterprise Usergroup, select wifi-user-grp. Go to WiFi Controller > Managed Access Points > Local WiFi Radio and select Enable WiFi Radio. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 161. Setting up secure WiFi with RADIUS Create firewall and security policy settings 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Office network policy that allows WiFi users to access to the office network. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT Source NAT is not required for this policy since the WiFi and internal networks are visible to each other. 2 Select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Internet policy that allows WiFi users to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 3 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 4 Select OK. Results On your laptop or mobile device, look for the our_wifi SSID and attempt to connect. You should be asked for your user name and password. After entering valid credentials, you should have access to the office network and the Internet. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 161
  • 162. Setting up secure WiFi with a captive portal Setting up secure WiFi with a captive portal Problem A FortiGate unit provides your office with wired networking, but employees also use laptops and mobile devices. These devices need secure WiFi access to both the office network and the Internet. The employees use web applications and are most comfortable authenticating through the web browser. Wireless network t l Inte rna inte rna l ne po rt3 iAP t For uni two rk FortiGate FortiGate Unit G Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/wifi4.html Set up a captive portal configuration that intercepts connections to the wireless network and displays a portal on wireless clients’ devices. User’s must authenticate with the portal to get access to the wireless network. To configure the portal you must Create a user group with a user account for each employee. Create a WiFi network with captive portal authentication. A captive portal appears to be an open WiFi access point, allowing any WiFi device to connect. On the first attempt to connect to a web site, the captive portal presents a web page that requests the user’s logon credentials which must match credentials in the user group. 162 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 163. Setting up secure WiFi with a captive portal Create WiFi network user accounts 1 Go to User > User > User and select Create New to create a user account: User Name Password 2 wloman my_secure_pwd Create additional user accounts as needed, one for each employee. If your employees already have user accounts on the FortiWiFi or FortiGate unit, you can skip this step and use the existing accounts. 3 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to create a user group: Name Type Firewall Members 4 wifi_users Add wloman and the other employee accounts to the Members list. Select OK. Create the SSID and enable the WiFi radio 1 Go to WiFi Controller > WiFi Network > SSID and select Create New to define your wireless network: Interface Name IP/Netmask 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 SSID 2 wifi our_wifi Enable DHCP with the following settings: Address Range Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway Same as Interface IP DNS Server FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 10.10.10.10-10.10.10.210 Same as System DNS 163
  • 164. Setting up secure WiFi with a captive portal 3 Configure the security settings as follows: Security Mode Captive Portal User Groups wifi_users 4 Select OK. 5 Go to WiFi Controller > Managed Access Points > Local WiFi Radio and select Enable WiFi Radio. Create firewall and security policy settings 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Office network policy that allows WiFi users to access to the office network. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT Source NAT is not required for this policy since the WiFi and internal networks are visible to each other. 2 Select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Internet policy that allows WiFi users to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 164 wifi ACCEPT FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 165. Setting up secure WiFi with a captive portal 3 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 4 Select OK. Results On your laptop or mobile device, look for the our_wifi SSID and attempt to connect. Your device should connect quickly because no password is required at this stage. Some mobile devices display the Fortinet Terms and Disclaimer Agreement portal as soon as you connect to the SSID. Some devices only display the portal when you open a web browser and attempt to connect to an Internet destination. Select the I accept... check box below the Agreement text to indicate that you agree. Enter wloman as Username and my_secure_pwd as Password, then select Continue. Your requested web site should then be displayed and you can otherwise use the WiFi network. You can continue browsing until your authentication times out. Then, you will have to accept the disclaimer and re-enter your logon credentials again. You can go to WiFi Controller > Monitor > Client Monitor to view information about the clients that are connected to your WiFi network. In User > Monitor > Firewall, you can see the authenticated captive portal user: FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 165
  • 166. Sharing the same subnet for WiFi and wired clients Sharing the same subnet for WiFi and wired clients Problem You want to put your WiFi users on the same network segment (or subnet) as your wired LAN users, but the FortiGate unit requires each network interface to have a single unique network segment. Software switch network 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 Wireless network p or t1 Software switch interface combo_lan 10.10.10.1 Internal network FortiWiFi Unit Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/wifi5.html Create a software switch interface with the internal LAN interface and WiFi network virtual interfaces as members. A software switch interface can only include physical and WiFi interfaces. Before adding an interface to a software switch interface you must delete all configuration objects that use that interface. This includes factory default security policies and DHCP server configurations. Create the SSID and enable the WiFi radio 1 Go to WiFi Controller > WiFi Network > SSID and select Create New to add the SSID to be added to the software switch: Interface Name SSID 166 wifi our_wifi FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 167. Sharing the same subnet for WiFi and wired clients 2 Clear the Enable DHCP checkbox. There is no need to specify an IP address for the SSID because the IP address of the software switch interface will be used. Also, you should disable the DHCP server for the SSID since you will add one later for the software switch interface. 3 Configure the security settings as follows: Security Mode WPA/WPA2-Personal Data Encryption AES Pre-shared Key justforus 4 Select OK to save the SSID. 5 Go to WiFi Controller > Managed Access_Points > Local WiFi Radio and select Enable WiFi Radio. You can extend the coverage area by connecting FortiAP units and adding the our_wifi SSID to them. Create the software switch 1 Go to System > Network > Interface and select Create New to add the software switch: Name combo_lan Type Software Switch Physical Interface Members wifi port1 Addressing Mode IP/Netmask FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Manual 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 167
  • 168. Sharing the same subnet for WiFi and wired clients 2 Go to System > Network > DHCP Server and select Create New to add a DHCP server for the devices on the wired and wireless networks connected to the software switch: Interface Name Mode Server Enable Selected Type Regular IP 10.10.10.2-10.10.10.199 Network Mask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 10.10.10.1 DNS Service 3 combo_lan Use System DNS Setting Select OK. Create firewall addresses and security policies 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy to create the security policy that enables users connected to the software switch to connect to the Internet. Source Interface/Zone combo_lan Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 2 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 3 Select OK to save the security policy. Results Configure the devices on the internal network to get their IP addresses using DHCP and renew their leases if required. They should all have IP addresses on the 10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0 network. 168 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 169. Sharing the same subnet for WiFi and wired clients On your laptop or mobile device, look for the our_wifi SSID and attempt to connect. Enter the “justforus” preshared key when prompted. Wireless devices should also acquire IP addresses in the 10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0 network. Verify that you can connect to servers on your office network from mobile devices and verify that you can connect to the Internet. You can go to WiFi Controller > Monitor > Client Monitor to view information about the clients that are connected to your WiFi network. You can also go to System > Monitor > DHCP Monitor to view information about all the address leases for both wired and wireless clients. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 169
  • 170. Setting up a WiFi network with an external DHCP server Setting up a WiFi network with an external DHCP server Problem You want to set up a small WiFi network for your team’s laptops and mobile devices and use the company’s DHCP server instead of a DHCP server configured on the WiFi interface. er rv 1 se 10 P 1. C . H 68 D 2.1 19 Wireless network al rn te In k or tw ne FortiWiFi Unit Solution When you configure the SSID (WiFi network) don’t configure a DHCP server. On the WiFi interface, specify a DHCP relay to the company’s DCHP server. Check your security policies to ensure that DHCP packets can pass through the FortiGate unit from the WiFi network to the LAN where the DHCP server resides. This example shows a FortiWiFi-based network with WPA/WPA2-Personal security. You can also apply this DHCP configuration to WiFi networks with other security settings and to WiFi networks based on FortiAP units. Create the SSID and enable the WiFi radio 1 Go to WiFi Controller > WiFi Network > SSID and select Create New to define your wireless network: Interface Name IP/Netmask 170 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 SSID 2 wifi our_wifi Clear the Enable DHCP checkbox to disable DHCP. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 171. Setting up a WiFi network with an external DHCP server 3 Configure the security settings as follows: Security Mode WPA/WPA2-Personal Data Encryption AES Pre-shared Key justforus 4 Select OK. 5 Go to WiFi Controller > Managed Access_Points > Local WiFi Radio and select Enable WiFi Radio. Configure the WiFi interface to support DHCP relay 1 Go to System > Network > DHCP Server, select Create New and enter the following settings to configure the WiFi interface to support DHCP relay: Interface Name wifi Mode Relay Type Regular DHCP Server IP 192.168.1.101 Create firewall addresses and security policies 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Office network security policy that allows WiFi users to access to the office network: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ wifi ACCEPT 171
  • 172. Setting up a WiFi network with an external DHCP server Source NAT is not required for this policy since the WiFi and internal networks are visible to each other. The default ANY service accepts DHCP sessions. If you make a more restrictive policy, make sure that DHCP sessions are allowed. If the DHCP server that you will use is not on the office network, you will also need a policy to allow DHCP traffic to pass from the DHCP server’s network to the WiFi network. 2 Select Create New to add a WiFi-to-Internet security policy that allows WiFi users to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 3 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 4 Select OK. Results On your mobile device, look for the our_wifi SSID and attempt to connect. Enter the “justforus” preshared key when prompted. Once you are connected, verify that you can connect to servers on your office network, and to the Internet. You can go to WiFi Controller > Monitor > Client Monitor to view information about the clients that are connected to your WiFi network. 172 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 173. Setting up a WiFi network with an external DHCP server If the Auth column shows Pass, but the IP column shows 0.0.0.0, the DHCP Relay configuration isn’t working. Check the following: • Is the mobile device configured to obtain an IP address automatically using DHCP? • Does the wifi-to-wan1 policy allow DHCP service to pass? (ANY service includes DHCP.) • Does the DHCP server have a route to the WiFi network? To check this, add a temporary wan1to-wifi policy and ping the WiFi network gateway from the DHCP server. • Is the DHCP server configured to provide IP addresses for your WiFi network’s subnet? A complete configuration includes the default route and DNS server addresses. The normal DHCP sequence as seen in the server’s log messages looks like this: dhcpd: DHCPDISCOVER from 00:23:4e:52:fd:6f via 10.10.10.1 dhcpd: DHCPOFFER on 10.10.10.10 to 00:23:4e:52:fd:6f (user1-AOA150) via 10.10.10.1 dhcpd: DHCPREQUEST for 10.10.10.10 (192.168.1.101) from 00:23:4e:52:fd:6f (user1-AOA150) via 10.10.10.1 dhcpd: DHCPACK on 10.10.10.10 to 00:23:4e:52:fd:6f (user1-AOA150) via 10.10.10.1 Repeated DHCPDISCOVER and DHCPOFFER messages with no DHCPACK response suggest that these messages are not reaching the client. It is also normal to see a DCHCPREQUEST message for an IP address that was not offered in a prior DHCPOFFER message. Many clients automatically request the IP address that they used previously. If this IP address is acceptable to the server, it will issue a DHCPACK message immediately. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 173
  • 174. Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD Problem You want WiFi users to authenticate using their Windows Active Directory credentials. You are using Windows Active Directory (Windows AD) running on Windows Server 2008. do WIn 172 main dows .20 con AD .12 tro 0.3 ller 2 Inte p or t1 Wireless network rna wifi l ne two w an 1 rk FortiWiFi Unit Solution Configure a RADIUS server (Network Policy Server) in Windows Active Directory (AD). Configure the your WiFi network with WPA-Enterprise to authenticate users with this Windows RADIUS (NPS) server. This example assumes that • You have a Windows AD network which currently uses a RADIUS (NPS) server for authentication. • The server to which the FortiWiFi unit connects is a domain controller with a DNS server, NPS server (same domain), and a CA Authority installed. • WiFi users have been added to a group called WiFi_users. Determine the IP address of the RADIUS server before you begin. Configuring the Windows AD domain controller You need to: • • 174 Configure the Network Policy Server. Install a certificate for PEAP authentication. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 175. Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD • Install the CA certificate. • Add the FortiWiFi unit as a RADIUS client. • Configure a connection request policy for the FortiWiFi unit. • Configure the Security Health Validator. • Configure health policies. • Configure network policies. Configure the Network Policy Server 1 In Windows AD, go to Start > Administrative Tools > Network Policy Server. 2 In the left pane expand Policies right-click Network Policies and select New. 3 On the Specify Network Policy Name and Connection Type screen, for Policy name enter FortinetWiFi. Leave the Type of network access server as Unspecified and select Next. 4 On the Specify Conditions screen, select Add. Select Windows Groups and select Add. 5 In the Windows Groups dialog, select Add Groups. 6 In the Select Group dialog, enter WiFi_users. Select Check Names to verify your entry, then select OK. 7 In the Windows Groups dialog, select OK. 8 In the Specify Conditions window, select Next. 9 In the Specify Access Permission window, select Access Granted, then select Next. 10 In the Configure Authentication Methods window, use the Add button to add PEAP and EAP- MSCHAP v2 to the EAP Types list. Select MS-CHAP-v2 and PAP methods, then select Next. 11 Select Next until you reach the Completing New Network Policy page, then select Finish. Install a certificate for PEAP authentication 1 Go to Start > Run. In Open, type mmc, and then select OK. If there is no Certificates item in the left pane, you need to install the Certificates snap-in. 2 In the mmc left pane, expand Certificates, right-click Personal, select All Tasks > Request New Certificate. 3 In the Certificate Enrollment window, select Next. 4 Select Computer, then select Enroll. 5 Verify that Succeeded is displayed and then select Finish. 6 Close the Console1 window. Do not save the console settings. Install the Root CA 1 Open the Server Manager. 2 In the left pane, select Roles. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 175
  • 176. Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD 3 Select Action > Add Roles. 4 If the Before you Begin wizard appears, select Next. 5 In the list of available server roles, select the Active Directory Certificate Services and select Next twice. 6 Make sure that Certification Authority is selected, and select Next. 7 Select Enterprise and select Next. 8 Specify Root CA and select Next. (Selection must match type of CA you are changing from.) 9 On the Set Up Private Key page, select Next. Keep selecting Next until the Install button is available, then select Install. 10 When installation completes, select Close. Add the FortiWiFi unit to Windows AD as a RADIUS client 1 Open the Network Policy Server. 2 In the left pane, expand RADIUS Clients and Servers. Right-click RADIUS Clients and select New. Enter the following information: Enable this RADIUS client Selected Friendly name FortiWiFi_1 Address (IP or DNS) 172.20.120.32 Shared secret secure_value 3 Select the Advanced tab. 4 Select Access-Request must contain the Message Authenticator attribute. 5 Make sure that RADIUS client is NAP-capable is not selected. 6 Select OK. Configure a connection request policy for the FortiWiFi unit 1 Open the Network Policy Server. 2 In the left pane, expand Policies. 3 Select Connection Request Policies. Right-click the default policy and select Delete. 4 In the left pane, right-click Connection Request Policies and select New. Enter the following information: Policy name Type of network access server 176 FortiWiFi_1_policy Unspecified FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 177. Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD 5 Select Next. Select Add. 6 Double-click NAS IPv4 Address and add the FortiWiFi unit’s IP Address: 172.20.120.32. 7 Select Next. Make sure that Authenticate Requests on this server is selected and then select Next. 8 Select Override network policy authentication settings. 9 Select Add, Select Microsoft: Protected EAP (PEAP), and then select OK. 10 Select the PEAP option in EAP Types and then select Edit. 11 Check that Certificate Issued has the appropriate CA certificate selected. 12 Ensure that Enforce Network Access Protection is selected. Select OK. 13 Select Next. Select Next again. Select Finish. Configure Windows Security Health Validator 1 In the Server Manager left pane, go to Roles > Network Policy and Access > NPS (Local) > Network Access Protection > System Health Validators. 2 In the right pane, select Windows Security Health Validator. Select Settings. Double-click Default Configuration. 3 Ensure that only A firewall is enabled for all network connections is enabled. Select OK. To configure health policies 1 In the Network Policy Server, expand Policies, right-click Health Policies, and select New. 2 Enter the following information and select OK: Policy name WiFi_compliant Client SHV checks Client passes all SHV checks SHVs used in this health policy Select Windows Security Health Validator 3 In the left pane, right-click Health Policies, and select New. 4 Enter the following information and select OK: Policy name Client SHV checks Client fails one or more SHV checks SHVs used in this health policy FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ WiFi_noncompliant Select Windows Security Health Validator 177
  • 178. Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD Configure network policies 1 In the Network Policy Server, expand Policies, right-click Network Policies, and select New. 2 In Policy name, enter NAP_WiFi_compliant and then select Next. 3 Select Add. Double-click Windows Groups. Add the WiFi_users group and select OK. 4 Select Add. Double-click NAS IPv4 Address. Add the FortiWiFi unit IP address and select OK. 5 Select Add. Double-click Health Policy. Add the WiFi_compliant policy and select OK. 6 Select Next. Ensure that Access Granted is selected. Select Next three times. 7 On the Configure Settings page, select Vendor Specific. 8 In the Attributes list, select Vendor-Specific and then select Add. 9 Select Add. Select Enter Vendor Code. Enter the Fortinet vendor code 12356. 10 Select Yes. It conforms. 11 Select Configure Attribute, enter the following information, and then select OK: Vendor-assigned attribute number 1 Attribute format String Attribute value WiFi_users 12 Select OK. Select Close. Select Next. Select Finish. Configure the FortiWiFi unit You need to: • • Configure the WiFi SSID, including security settings. • Configure firewall addresses for the networks. • Configure security policies. • 178 Add the NPS server. Enable the WiFi hardware. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 179. Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD Add the RADIUS (NPS) server to the FortiWiFi unit configuration 1 Go to User > Remote > RADIUS. Select Create New, enter the following information and then select OK: Name Win_NPS Type Query Primary Server Name/IP 172.20.120.2 Primary Server Secret secure_value Authentication Scheme Use Default Authentication Scheme Configure your WiFi network SSID 1 Go to WiFi Controller > WiFi Network > SSID and select Create New to define your wireless network like this: Interface Name IP/Netmask 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 SSID 2 wifi our_wifi Enable DHCP with the following settings: Address Range Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway Same as Interface IP DNS Server 3 10.10.10.10-10.10.10.210 Same as System DNS Configure the security settings as follows: Security Mode Data Encryption AES Authentication FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ WPA/WPA2-Enterprise RADIUS Server, select Win_NPS 179
  • 180. Authenticating WiFi users with Windows AD 4 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy to create the security policies that enable WiFi users to connect to the office network and to the Internet. WiFi-to-Office network policy Source Interface/Zone wifi Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port1 Destination Address all Enable NAT Selected WiFi-to-Internet policy Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Enable NAT 5 wifi Selected Go to WiFi Controller > Managed Access_Points > Local WiFi Radio and select Enable WiFi Radio. This solution assumes an area that can be covered by a single FortiWiFi. You can extend the coverage area by connecting FortiAP units and adding the our_wifi SSID to them. Results Verify that WiFi users can authenticate and have access to both the office LAN and the Internet. 180 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 181. FortiOS Cookbook Using security policies and firewall objects to control traffic Most commonly, FortiGate units are used to control access between the Internet and a network, typically allowing users on the network (such as an office network) to connect to the Internet while protecting the network from unwanted access from the Internet. So a FortiGate unit has to know what access should be allowed and what should be blocked. This is what security policies are for, controlling all network traffic attempting to pass through a FortiGate unit. No traffic can pass through a FortiGate unit unless specifically allowed to by a security policy. Once traffic is allowed, virtually all FortiGate features are applied to allowed traffic through security policies. From a security policy, you can control address translation, control the addresses and services used by the traffic, and apply features such as UTM, authentication, and VPNs. Most of the examples in this cookbook at some point involve the creation of security policies to allow traffic and then apply a feature to it. This chapter focuses more on firewall features and how to configure policies to apply them. Topics include using security policies to restrict access, how to order policies correctly, using geographic addresses, applying traffic shaping and configuring some common forms or source network address translation (S-NAT) and destination address translation (DNAT). Security policies It is simple to set up a FortiGate unit to allow users on a network to access the Internet while blocking traffic from the Internet from accessing the protected network. All that is required is a single security policy that allows traffic from the Internal network to connect to the Internet. As long as you do not add a security policy to allow traffic from the Internet onto your internal network, your network is protected. When a user connects to the Internet, they expect a reply (for example, when you connect to a web site you expect to see a web page). The same security policy that allows you to connect to the Internet also allows servers you contact to respond to you. In effect, a single policy allows two-way traffic, but the incoming traffic is only allowed in response to requests sent by you. Even though there is no risk of unwanted traffic originating from the Internet getting onto your internal network, users are connecting to the Internet and downloading data. These downloads can sometimes include unwanted items, such as viruses. that make their way through to FortiGate unit to your network. To protect your network from this problem, security policies are also the way to turn on all FortiGate UTM features. For example, users may download a virus when browsing the web or retrieving email. You can protect your network from this danger by adding virus scanning to security polices that allow users to connect to the Internet. All traffic in either direction that is controlled by a FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 181
  • 182. Using security policies and firewall objects to control traffic 19 5 rk 5 o .2 w 5 et 5 N 5.2 al 5 r n /2 te .0 In 8.1 16 2. 2. 20 1 17 ] 55 -2 .[1 .1 01 .1 68 .1 ] 20 92 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 .0 Sta tic in be so and tern twee urce al n n t N the AT h Int etwo e ern rk et 14 0. 01 12 .1 0. .2 ] 20 72 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 1 security policy that includes virus scanning will be scanned for viruses. The benefit of this approach is that you can apply security features directly to allowed traffic. This also means that you can apply custom security features to each security policy and to each type of traffic allowed through the FortiGate unit. Security features are applied using UTM objects and profiles. You can create as many profiles as you need and mix and match them in a security policy as required. For example, it might be acceptable to you to apply only web filtering to the security policy that allows users on the protected internal network to access web sites on the Internet. If you have a separate security policy that allows users on the internal network to download and send email, you could apply virus scanning to this traffic to make sure users cannot download email attachments containing viruses. In addition you could apply data leak protection to the email traffic to prevent users from sending confidential email to the Internet. All of these security features can be added to security policies as you create them. Or once you have security policies that control traffic patterns you can edit them to add or change security features as you build up your security requirements or as those requirements change. Defining Firewall objects Firewall objects include addresses, services, and schedules that are used in security policies to control the traffic accepted or blocked by a security policy. Addresses are matched with the source and destination address of packets received by the FortiGate unit. Firewall addresses can be IPv4 or IPv6 addresses that define a single device or a network. You can also add domain names instead of numeric addresses and use geographic addressing to specify all of the IP addresses of traffic originating from a specific country. These powerful address tools allow you to customize addresses for any security policy requirement. The all address matches a security policy with traffic to or from any IP address. 182 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 183. Using security policies and firewall objects to control traffic FortiGate units include a wide range of pre-defined network services that can be added to security policies. For example, you can add a security policy that intercepts all HTTP traffic just by adding the HTTP service to a security policy. Pre-defined services include basic network services such as HTTP, FTP, TCP, SMTP and more specialized services such as H323 (used for VoIP and media), MMS (the multimedia messaging service used by mobile phones) and so on. You can also easily create custom services if your network uses network services that are not in the FortiGate pre-defined services list. You must add at least one service to a security policy. You can also add multiple services to a single security policy if you want to policy to multiple traffic types. The ANY pre-defined service accepts traffic using any network service. Firewall schedules control when security policies are active. The default always schedule does not restrict when a policy is active. You can limit when a policy is active by adding schedules defining the time for which the policy is active. You can create recurring schedules that take effect repeatedly at specified times of specified days of the week (for example, a schedule that is active during office hours: weekdays between 9am and 5 pm). You can also create one-time schedules that take effect only once for the period of time (for example, for a week in September 2020). Firewall objects also include traffic shapers, used to normalize traffic peaks and bursts to prioritize certain flows over others. A wide variety of traffic shaping options are available, allowing you to customize traffic shaping according to your networks requirements and apply custom traffic shaping to any security policy. The Virtual IP firewall objects are added to security policies to perform various forms of destination network address translation (D-NAT) including destination IP address and destination port translation and port forwarding. The final firewall object is load balancing, which is an extension of virtual IPs to load balance traffic passing through the FortiGate unit to multiple servers. FortiGate load balancing supports various load balancing schedules, real server health monitoring, persistence, and SSL acceleration. This chapter includes the following security policy and firewall object examples: • Limiting employees’ Internet access • Restricting Internet access per IP address • Excluding selected users from UTM filtering • Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy • Arranging security policies in the correct order • Allowing DNS queries to only one approved DNS server • Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit • Ensuring sufficient and consistent bandwidth for VoIP traffic • Using geographic addresses • Providing Internet access for your private network users (static source NAT) • Providing Internet access for a private network with multiple Internet addresses (dynamic source NAT) • Dynamic source NAT without changing the source port (one-to-one source NAT) • Dynamic source NAT using the central NAT table • Allowing access to a web server on an internal network when you only have one Internet IP address FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 183
  • 184. Using security policies and firewall objects to control traffic • • Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you have an IP address for the web server • Configuring port forwarding to open ports on a FortiGate unit • 184 Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you only have one Internet IP address, using port translation Dynamic destination NAT for a range of IP addresses FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 185. Limiting employees’ Internet access Limiting employees’ Internet access Problem in te rn al You want to limit employee Internet access for YouTube and Facebook to between 12 noon and 2 pm. In te rn al n et w o w an 1 rk YouTube Facebook Solution Create a firewall schedule that allows access to YouTube and Facebook between 12 and 2. Create a new security policy that includes the schedule. This policy will be independent of the current Internet browsing policy. This procedure presumes the following configurations are already complete: • Users that connect to the FortiGate unit for access to the Internet. • Security policies to allow traffic to and from the Internet. For simplicity, this example uses a wide open policy for all other Internet browsing. These following steps are required to complete this procedure: • Create firewall address entries for YouTube and Facebook. • Create a recurring schedule that allows access to these sites. • Create a security policy that references these sites and the schedule. • Ensure the security is at the top of the policy list. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 185
  • 186. Limiting employees’ Internet access Create address objects for YouTube and Facebook 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New and complete the following: Address Name YouTube Type FQDN FQDN www.youtube.com Interface wan1 2 Select OK. 3 Select Create New and complete the following: Address Name Type FQDN FQDN www.facebook.com Interface 4 Facebook wan1 Select OK. Create the schedule to limit access to between 12 noon and 2 pm 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Schedule > Recurring and select Create New and complete the following: Name Lunch Access Day of the Week Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday Start Time Stop Time 2 186 Hour 12 Minute 00 Hour 14 Minute 00 Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 187. Limiting employees’ Internet access Create security policies Create a security policy that uses the new schedule. For this example as well, you will create a security policy that blocks the use of the two sites outside of the scheduled allowed time. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the security policy that restricts Internet access to between 12 and 2: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address YouTube Facebook Schedule Lunch Access Service ANY Action ACCEPT Enable NAT Select to enable 2 Select OK. 3 Select Create New to add a security policy that restricts access to YouTube and Facebook: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address YouTube Facebook Schedule Service FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ ANY Action 4 Always DENY Select OK. 187
  • 188. Limiting employees’ Internet access Reposition the security policies In this example, there are two new security policies. The FortiGate unit reads policies top down. When conditions are satisfied, it stops reading any further policies. Therefore, to ensure this policy activates when needed, you need to move the specific policies above the general, allow all policy. In this case, move the Deny policy to the top of the list, followed by the Lunch Access policy. To move the security policy 1 Right-click on the Lunch Access policy, and select Move To. 2 Select Before and enter the policy number for the all access policy. 3 Select OK. 4 Repeat these steps for the Deny policy to move it after the Lunch Access policy. Once completed, the policy list will look similar to this: The schedule in the security policy enables network traffic to occur for a specific length of time. The policy is active for a given time frame, and as long as the session is open, traffic can continue to flow. That means, that if a user opens a session for YouTube two minutes before the schedule ends, the user can use YouTube until they stop the session. To ensure all sessions terminate at the end of the desired time, use these CLI commands: config firewall policy edit 2 (whichever is the schedule policy) set schedule-timeout enable end Results With these policies in place, A user trying to access YouTube or Facebook, will not be able to connect. Once the allotted time occurs, access is allowed. The best way to test this is to try to connect to YouTube. It won’t connect. Change either the system time on the FortiGate unit or the schedule time to be within the current time, to see that access to the site is allowed. 188 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 189. Restricting Internet access per IP address Restricting Internet access per IP address Problem 10 g 0 in 5 er -1 ne 00 gi .1 En .20 0 .1 10 M .1 ar 0. ke 20 ti .3 ng 050 How do I restrict access to the Internet based on IP addresses of users on an internal network? g in ct tri es R c ffi tra Solution Identify groups of users according to their IP addresses and add firewall addresses for these groups. Two user groups are identified: • Engineering users with IP addresses in the range 10.10.20.100 - 10.10.20.150 • Marketing users with IP addresses in the range 10.10.20.30 - 10.10.20.50 The solution shows how to allow marketing access to the Internet during office hours (between 8:00 am and 6:00 pm) but restricting engineering to only being able to access the Internet between 12:00 noon and 2:00 pm. Creating the firewall addresses for each user group 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add the engineering address range: Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.10.20.[100-150] Interface FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ engineering internal 189
  • 190. Restricting Internet access per IP address 2 Select Create New to add the marketing address range: Address Name marketing Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.10.20.[30-50] Interface internal Creating the firewall schedules 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Schedule > Recurring and select Create New to add a schedule for engineering: Name Day of Week Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday Start Time 12:00 Stop Time 2 engineering-restrict 14:00 Select Create New to configure the schedule for marketing: Name Day of Week 08:00 Stop Time 190 Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday Start Time 3 marketing-all 18:00 Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 191. Restricting Internet access per IP address Creating security policies 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to create the security policy for marketing: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address marketing Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule marketing-all Service ANY Action ACCEPT 2 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 3 Select Create New to create the security policy for engineering: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address engineering Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule engineering-restrict Service ANY Action ACCEPT 4 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 5 Select OK. Reposition the security policies In this example, there are two security policies. A third policy in this example allows access to everything else. The FortiGate unit reads policies top down. When conditions are satisfied, it stops reading any further policies. Therefore, to ensure this policy activates when needed, you need to move the specific policies above the allow all policy. In this case, move the Engineering and Marketing policies to the top of the list. The easiest way to accomplish this is to move the all access policy to the bottom of the list. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 191
  • 192. Restricting Internet access per IP address To move the security policy 1 Right-click on the all access policy, and select Move To. 2 Select After and enter the policy number for the Engineering policy. 3 Select OK. Results The marketing department should be able to connect to the Internet immediately and the engineering department should not be able to connect to the Internet until the specified time in the schedule. You should also see packets in the Count column in the marketing policy, but nothing in the engineering policy. To test that things are correct, try accessing web sites on the Internet using and IP address assigned to the engineering department. All access should be denied. Try accessing web sites from an IP address assigned by the marketing department. All access should be allowed. To test that the engineering department policy is correct, change the time frame in the engineeringrestrict firewall schedule to the current time, and then try accessing web sites from the engineering department. You should be seeing packets in the Count column in the engineering policy as well as in the marketing policy. Change the time range back to the original time in the engineering-restrict firewall schedule, and all packets should stop and the Count for this policy should not increase. 192 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 193. Excluding selected users from UTM filtering Excluding selected users from UTM filtering Problem There is a group of users on your network that you want to exclude from UTM filtering. be to from ers d g Us clude lterin .20 ex TM fi .101 1.21 U 0.31 .10 1 0.31 1 rk o w 4 et /2 n .0 al 01 r n .1 te 1 In 0.3 1 l rna inte n1 wa Solution Add a general security policy to the FortiGate unit that accepts all connections from the Internal network and applies UTM filtering. Add a specific security policy that does not apply UTM filtering and only accepts connections from the users to be excluded. To only accept connections from selected users, add firewall addresses for each user’s computer. Move the specific security policy above the general policy in the security policy list. Creating the general security policy that accepts all sessions from the internal network to the Internet 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the internal network to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address wan1 Destination Address All Schedule always Service ANY Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ All Destination Interface/Zone 2 internal ACCEPT Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 193
  • 194. Excluding selected users from UTM filtering 3 Select UTM and enable the UTM filtering features required for the users on your network. 4 Select OK to save the security policy. Creating the specific security policy that accepts sessions only from selected users 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add an address for the first user to be excluded: Address Name excluded-user-20 Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.31.101.20/255.255.255.255 Interface internal 2 Select OK. 3 Select Create New to add an address for the second user to be excluded: Address Name excluded-user-21 Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.31.101.21/255.255.255.255 Interface internal 4 Select OK. 5 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Group and select Create New to add an address group that includes the addresses of the users to be excluded: Group Name Members 6 excluded-user-group excluded-user-21 excluded-user-22 Select OK. You could have also added an address range for these two users to the Subnet / IP Range field in the format 10.31.101.[20-21]. In this case you would not need the address group. However, if the addresses of the excluded users are not in a continuous range, you would need to add multiple addresses and add these addresses to a group. 7 194 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and right-click on the general security policy added in the previous procedure. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 195. Excluding selected users from UTM filtering Select Insert Above to add a specific security policy that accepts sessions from the selected users on the internal network above the general security policy. 8 Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address excluded-user-group Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address All Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 9 10 Do not enable UTM. 11 Select OK to save the specific security policy. Results Because the specific security policy is in policy list above the general security policy traffic from the selected users is intercepted by the specific security policy. Verify that the specific security policy is accepting sessions from the users to be excluded from filtering by browsing to the Internet from an excluded user’s PC. Go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to verify that the specific policy is accepting sessions from the excluded user’s IP addresses. Using diagnose debug flow to show traffic hitting the specific policy You can use the diagnose debug flow command to show packet flow through the FortiGate unit. As packets are received you can view debug messages to show how the FortiGate unit processes them. The following command sequence displays packet flow for packets from IP address 10.31.101.22. diagnose debug enable diagnose debug flow show console enable show trace messages on console diagnose debug flow filter add 10.31.101.22 diagnose debug flow trace start 100 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 195
  • 196. Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy Problem 10 g 0 in 5 er -1 ne 00 gi .1 En .20 0 .1 10 M .1 ar 0. ke 20 ti .3 ng 050 How can I verify that traffic is being accepted by (or hitting) a security policy? g in ct tri es R c ffi tra Solution Use the security policy list Count column and the policy monitors. The Count column and the policy monitors provide a visual verification that packets are hitting a policy. This solution uses the security policies created in “Restricting Internet access per IP address” on page 189. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and locate the engineering-restrict and marketing-all policies. The Count column in the following example shows that there are currently no packets hitting the engineering-restrict policy, but packets are hitting the marketing-all policy. 196 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 197. Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy 2 Go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view the marketing-all policy sessions. In the list, you should be seeing that the policy ID, in this case ID number 5, is the marketing-all policy that is accepting these sessions. You can verify this by selecting Refresh to see the byte and packet count increase. 3 4 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ You can drill down to see a graph of the individual sessions accepted by the policy by source or destination address or destination port. 197
  • 198. Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy 5 You can drill down one more level to see a detailed list of the sessions currently accepted by the policy. 6 Go to the engineering-restrict schedule and change the original time to current time so that you can verify that traffic is hitting that policy. 7 On both the policy list and Policy Monitor, you can verify that traffic is now hitting both policies. Results You can use these web-based manager tools to verify that traffic is hitting the expected security policies. More advanced tools for verifying that traffic is hitting the expected policy are available from the CLI. 198 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 199. Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy Using diagnose debug flow to show traffic hitting a policy You can use the diagnose debug flow command to show packet flow through the FortiGate unit. As packets are received you can view debug messages to show how the FortiGate unit processes them. The following command sequence displays packet flow for packets with IP address 10.10.20.30. The command output is extracted from actual command output and shows what happens after one packet is received: • a new session is allocated, • a route is found for the packet, • its source NAT IP and port number are selected, • It is matched with a policy (in this case policy ID 5), • Source is performed and the packet is forwarded. diagnose debug enable diagnose debug flow show console enable show trace messages on console diagnose debug flow filter add 10.10.20.30 diagnose debug flow trace start 100 id=36871 trace_id=1132 msg="vd-root received a packet(proto=17, 10.10.20.30:1029>192.168.110.11:161) from internal." id=36871 trace_id=1132 msg="allocate a new session-00012042" id=36871 trace_id=1132 msg="find a route: gw-172.20.120.2 via wan1" id=36871 trace_id=1132 msg="find SNAT: IP-172.20.120.230, port-54409" id=36871 trace_id=1132 msg="Allowed by Policy-5: SNAT" id=36871 trace_id=1132 msg="SNAT 10.10.20.30->172.20.120.230:54409" The following command sequence and output shows what happens when you do a debug trace for packets that contain IP address 172.20.120.2 and then ping from 10.10.20.30 to 172.20.120.2 through the FortiGate unit. The first six output lines shows the ping packet received from 10.10.20.30 and being accepted by the security policy ID 5. The final four lines show how the reply from 172.20.120.2 is received by an existing session and passed through the FortiGate unit to the source. diagnose debug enable diagnose debug flow show console enable show trace messages on console diagnose debug flow filter add 172.20.120.2 diagnose debug flow trace start 100 id=36871 trace_id=1147 msg="vd-root received a packet(proto=1, 10.10.20.30:512>172.20.120.2:8) from internal." id=36871 trace_id=1147 msg="allocate a new session-00012259" id=36871 trace_id=1147 msg="find a route: gw-172.20.120.2 via wan1" id=36871 trace_id=1147 msg="find SNAT: IP-172.20.120.230, port-59532" id=36871 trace_id=1147 msg="Allowed by Policy-5: SNAT" id=36871 trace_id=1147 msg="SNAT 10.10.20.30->172.20.120.230:59532" id=36871 trace_id=1148 msg="vd-root received a packet(proto=1, 172.20.120.2:59532>172.20.120.230:0)from wan1." id=36871 trace_id=1148 msg="Find an existing session, id-00012259, reply direction" id=36871 trace_id=1148 msg="DNAT 172.20.120.230:0->10.10.20.30:512" id=36871 trace_id=1148 msg="find a route: gw-10.10.20.30 via internal" FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 199
  • 200. Verifying that traffic is accepted by a security policy Using diagnose debug flow to show traffic hitting a DENY policy Change a policy that accepts traffic to one that denies traffic and use the diagnose debug flow commands to view the results. For example, change the policy ID 5 to a DENY, enter the debug flow commands and then ping from 10.10.20.30 to 172.20.120.2 through the FortiGate unit. The output lines show a ping packet being received, a session allocated, a route found and then the packet being denied. Note that the output does not indicate which security policy denied the packet. Note also that traffic hitting a DENY policy does not appear on the Policy Monitor. diagnose debug enable diagnose debug flow show console enable show trace messages on console diagnose debug flow filter add 172.20.120.2 diagnose debug flow trace start 100 id=36871 from id=36871 id=36871 id=36871 200 trace_id=126 internal." trace_id=126 trace_id=126 trace_id=126 msg="vd-root received a packet(proto=1, 10.10.20.30:512>172.20.120.2:8) msg="allocate a new session-00000d37" msg="find a route: gw-172.20.120.2 via wan1" msg="Denied by forward policy check" FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 201. Arranging security policies in the correct order Arranging security policies in the correct order Problem I want to add a security policy that blocks access to the Internet for one source address. Should I arrange it above or below a general policy that allows access to the Internet from any source address? 0 11 1. 8. 16 2. 19 ss ce d Ac nie de k or tw 0 ne .1. .0 al 8 55 rn 16 .2 te 2. 5 In 19 .25 5 25 ss ce ed Ac ow al Solution More specific security policies should be placed in the security policy list above more general policies. In this case the specific policy that blocks one source address should be placed above the general policy that allows access from any source address. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy to allow all users on the internal network to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address wan1 Destination Address All Schedule always Service ANY Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ All Destination Interface/Zone 2 internal ACCEPT Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 201
  • 202. Arranging security policies in the correct order 3 Select OK. Some FortiGate models include this security policy in the default configuration. If you have one of these models, this step has already been done for you. 4 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add the specific address to be blocked: Address Name Blocked address Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.110/255.255.255.255 Interface internal 5 Select OK. 6 Go Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy to deny access for sessions from the source address 192.161.1.110: Source Interface/Zone Source Address Blocked address Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 7 internal DENY Select OK to save the security policy. Results New security policies are always added to the bottom of the policy list so this specific policy is added below the general policy that allows access. 1 Test the configuration by attempting to connect to the Internet from a PC with IP address 192.168.1.110. Access should be allowed. If you go to Policy > Policy > Policy, the Count column should show that the general policy is accepting packets. 2 202 Select the specific policy and select Move to and move this policy Before policy 1. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 203. Arranging security policies in the correct order Test this new configuration by attempting to connect to the Internet from a PC with IP address 192.168.1.110. 3 Access should be denied. If you go to Policy > Policy > Policy the Count column should show that the deny policy is blocking packets. Packet flow The following command sequence displays packet flow for packets from IP address 192.168.1.110 that are blocked by the deny policy. diagnose debug enable diagnose debug flow show console enable show trace messages on console diagnose debug flow filter add 192.168.1.110 diagnose debug flow trace start 100 id=36871 trace_id=301 msg="vd-root received a packet(proto=6, 192.168.1.110:3858>172.16.100.148:80) from internal." id=36871 trace_id=301 msg="allocate a new session-0000876e" id=36871 trace_id=301 msg="find a route: gw-172.20.120.2 via wan1" id=36871 trace_id=301 msg="Denied by forward policy check" The following command sequence displays packet flow for packets from IP address 192.168.1.120 that are allowed by policy 1. diagnose debug enable diagnose debug flow show console enable show trace messages on console diagnose debug flow filter add 192.168.1.120 diagnose debug flow trace start 100 id=36871 trace_id=310 msg="vd-root received a packet(proto=6, 192.168.1.120:3907>172.16.100.148:80) from internal." id=36871 trace_id=310 msg="allocate a new session-000088a8" id=36871 trace_id=310 msg="find a route: gw-172.20.120.2 via wan1" id=36871 trace_id=310 msg="find SNAT: IP-172.20.120.11, port-53199" id=36871 trace_id=310 msg="Allowed by Policy-1: SNAT" FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 203
  • 204. Allowing DNS queries to only one approved DNS server Allowing DNS queries to only one approved DNS server Problem How do I restrict all DNS queries to an approved DNS server on the Internet? In rn te or w et r 2 0 S ov 8. er ed 91 ve D .1 r NS 12 .5 3 n al Ap p k Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/sp1.html Block all DNS sessions except for sessions to the approved DNS server. In this example, the approved DNS server is 208.91.112.53. This DNS server is maintained by Fortinet and is the Primary DNS server in the default configuration of every FortiGate unit. To do this, create a firewall address for the approved DNS server and then add it to a security policy that uses the DNS service and allows access to the Internet. Create another security policy that blocks all DNS sessions. Arrange the allow DNS policy above the more general deny DNS policy. Arrange both of these policies above any general policies that allow access to the Internet. Make sure the devices on the internal network are configured to use the approved DNS server. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy to allow all users on the internal network to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 204 internal ACCEPT FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 205. Allowing DNS queries to only one approved DNS server 2 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 3 Select OK. Some FortiGate models include this security policy in the default configuration. If you have one of these models, this step has already been done for you. 4 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New and add a firewall address for the approved DNS server: Address Name Approved dns server Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet/IP Range 208.91.112.53/255.255.255.255 Interface wan1 5 Select OK. 6 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a policy that allows DNS sessions to access the approved DNS server: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address Approved dns server Schedule always Service DNS Action ACCEPT 7 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 8 Select OK. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 205
  • 206. Allowing DNS queries to only one approved DNS server 9 Select Create New to add a policy to block all DNS sessions to the Internet: Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service DNS Action DENY If you completed the steps in order the internal to wan1 policy list should look similar to the following: 10 Select policy 1 and select Move To. 11 Move policy 1 After policy 3. Results Use the following steps to test the configuration. 1 Configure a PC on the internal network to use the 208.91.112.53 DNS server. 2 Attempt to browse the web from this PC. You should be able to browse the web. 3 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy view the Count column for the security policies. The policy 2 Count column should show that it is processing traffic. The policy monitor (at Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor) should show that all sessions accepted by policy 2 are DNS sessions with a destination address of 208.91.112.53. 206 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 207. Allowing DNS queries to only one approved DNS server 4 Enter the following command to verify DNS sessions from a PC with IP address 192.168.1.110 to IP address 208.91.112.53 are accepted by policy 2. diagnose debug enable diagnose debug flow show console enable show trace messages on console diagnose debug flow filter add 192.168.1.110 diagnose debug flow trace start 100 id=36871 trace_id=459 msg="vd-root received a packet(proto=17, 192.168.1.120:1207>208.91.112.53:53) from internal." id=36871 trace_id=459 msg="allocate a new session-00009c6f" id=36871 trace_id=459 msg="find a route: gw-172.20.120.2 via wan1" id=36871 trace_id=459 msg="find SNAT: IP-172.20.120.11, port-42043" id=36871 trace_id=459 msg="Allowed by Policy-2: SNAT" id=36871 trace_id=459 msg="SNAT 192.168.1.120->172.20.120.11:42043" id=36871 trace_id=459 msg="run helper-dns-udp(dir=original)" 5 Change the PC to use a different but still valid DNS server on the Internet. 6 Attempt to browse the web. Web browsing will not work because DNS lookups are blocked. The policy 3 Count column should show that it is denying traffic. 7 Enter the following command to verify that DNS sessions from a PC with IP address 192.168.1.110 to a different DNS server are blocked. diagnose debug enable diagnose debug flow show console enable show trace messages on console diagnose debug flow filter add 192.168.1.110 diagnose debug flow trace start 100 id=36871 trace_id=409 >8.8.8.8:53) from id=36871 trace_id=409 id=36871 trace_id=409 id=36871 trace_id=409 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ msg="vd-root received a packet(proto=17, 192.168.1.120:1051internal." msg="allocate a new session-00009c09" msg="find a route: gw-172.20.120.2 via wan1" msg="Denied by forward policy check" 207
  • 208. Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit Problem How do I use AirPlay and Air print when a FortiWiFi unit separates client and server AirPlay and AirPrint devices. Solution To configure the FortiWiFi unit to allow printing to an AirPrint-compatible printer, the network topology determines the solution. For example, if an iPhone and an AirPrint-compatible printer both use WiFi to connect to the same FortiWiFi wireless access point on the same subnet, no FortiWiFi configuration changes are required as long as intra-SSID traffic is not blocked. The iPhone and the printer can communicate directly. If the iPhone and the AirPrint-compatible printer are on different networks separated by a FortiWiFi unit you can use the information below to set all AirPrint communication through the FortiWiFi unit. The following examples also describe how to allow AirPlay communication between AirPlay devices also separated by a FortiWiFi unit. Enable multicast forwarding If you require AirPrint or AirPlay traffic to pass through a FortiWiFi unit, the first step is to enable multicast forwarding in the FortiWiFi unit. 1 Enter the following CLI command to enable multicast forwarding: config system settings set multicase-forward enable end 2 Create multicast security policies to allow the multicast traffic to pass. config firewall multicast-policy edit 1 set dstaddr 224.0.0.251 255.255.255.255 set dstintf "port2" set srcintf "port1" set protocol 17 set end-port 5353 set action accept next edit 2 set dstaddr 224.0.0.251 255.255.255.255 set dstintf "port1" set srcintf "port2" set protocol 17 set end-port 5353 set action accept next end 208 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 209. Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit AirPrint from iOS To allow an iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod Touch) to print to an AirPrint enabled printer on separate WiFi networks, configure the FortiWiFi units according to these procedures: iOS device In ne ter tw na or l k al rn k te or In tw e ne FortiWiFi1 AirPrint-capable printer FortiWiFi 2 1 On both FortiWiFi units, enable multicast forwarding and create security policies to allow multicast traffic. See “Enable multicast forwarding” on page 208. 2 Go to Firewall Objects > Service > Custom and select Create New to create an Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) custom service for AirPrint: Name Protocol Type TCP Source Port Low 1 Source Port High 65535 Destination Port Low 631 Destination Port High FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ TCP/UDP/SCTP Protocol 3 IPP 631 Select OK. 209
  • 210. Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit 4 On FortiWiFi 1 go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy to allow the AirPrint traffic from the wireless network to the internal network. Source Interface/Zone wlan Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address all Schedule always Service IPP Action ACCEPT 5 Select OK. 6 On FortiWiFi 2 go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy to allow the AirPrint traffic from the internal network to the wireless network. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wlan Destination Address all Schedule always Service IPP Action 7 internal ACCEPT Select OK. With this configuration in place, anyone using an iOS device on FortiWiFi 1’s wireless network can use AirPrint to print to the printer. 210 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 211. Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit AirPrint from OS X In ne ter tw na or l k To allow an OS X computer to print to an AirPrint enabled printer on a WiFi network, configure the FortiWiFi unit according to these procedures: OS X computers AirPrint-capable printer FortiWiFi FortiWiFi unit i 1 Enable multicast forwarding and create security policies to allow multicast traffic. See “Enable multicast forwarding” on page 208. 2 Go to Firewall Objects > Service > Custom and select Create New to create a PDL data streaming custom service: Name PDL Protocol Type TCP/UDP/SCTP Protocol TCP Source Port Low 1 Source Port High 65535 Destination Port Low 9100 Destination Port High 9100 3 Select OK. 4 Select Create New to allow AirPrint traffic from the internal network to the wireless network: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wlan Destination Address all Schedule always Service IPP Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ internal ACCEPT 211
  • 212. Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit 5 Select OK. With this configuration in place, anyone using an OS X computer on the network connected to the internal interface of the FortiWiFi unit can use AirPrint to print to the printer. AirPlay from iOS To allow an iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod Touch) to play to an Apple TV on a separate network, configure the FortiWiFi unit according to these procedures: In ne ter tw na or l k iOS device FortiWiFi Apple TV App 1 Enable multicast forwarding and create security policies to allow multicast traffic. See “Enable multicast forwarding” on page 208. 2 Go to Firewall Objects > Service > Custom and select Create New to create a new custom service with these characteristics: Name AirPlay - iOS to Apple TV Protocol Type TCP/UDP/SCTP Protocol Destination Port Low Destination Port High 1 65535 7000 7000 TCP 1 65535 7100 7100 TCP 1 65535 49152 50000 UDP 212 Source Port High TCP 3 Source Port Low 1 65535 1 65535 Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 213. Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit 4 Select Create New to create another new custom service with these characteristics: Name AirPlay - Apple TV to iOS Protocol Type TCP/UDP/SCTP Protocol Source Port Low Source Port High Destination Port Low Destination Port High TCP 1 65535 7000 7000 UDP 1 65535 1 65535 5 Select OK. 6 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to create a security policy to allow AirPlay traffic from the wireless network to the internal network. Source Interface/Zone wlan Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address all Schedule always Service AirPlay - iOS to Apple TV Action ACCEPT 7 Select OK. 8 Select Create New to create a security policy to allow the AirPlay traffic from the internal network to the wireless network. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wlan Destination Address all Schedule always Service AirPlay - Apple TV to iOS Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ internal ACCEPT 213
  • 214. Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit 9 Select OK. With this configuration in place, anyone using an iOS device on the wireless interface of the FortiWiFi unit can use AirPlay to play media on the Apple TV. Although AirPlay will function with this configuration, playing You Tube video requires that security policies allow the iOS device and the Apple TV to access the Internet. AirPlay from OS X To allow an OS X computer to play to an Apple TV on a separate network, configure the FortiWiFi unit according to these procedures: App Apple TV In ne ter tw na or l 1 k 2 al rn rk te o In etw n OS X computers FortiWiFi FortiWiFi unit F 1 Enable multicast forwarding and create security policies to allow multicast traffic. See “Enable multicast forwarding” on page 208. 2 Go to Firewall Objects > Service > Custom and select Create New to create a new custom service with these characteristics: Name AirPlay - OS X to Apple TV Protocol Type TCP/UDP/SCTP Protocol Destination Port Low Destination Port High 1 65535 7000 7000 TCP 1 65535 49152 49152 UDP 214 Source Port High TCP 3 Source Port Low 1 65535 1 65535 Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 215. Extending AirPlay and AirPrint communication through a FortiWiFi unit 4 Select Create New to create another new custom service with these characteristics: Name AirPlay - Apple TV to OS X Protocol Type TCP/UDP/SCTP Protocol Source Port High Destination Port Low Destination Port High TCP 1 65535 3689 3689 UDP 5 Source Port Low 1 65535 6002 6002 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to create a security policy to allow AirPlay traffic from the OS X computer network to the Apple TV network. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal2 Destination Address all Schedule always Service AirPlay - OS X to Apple TV Action 6 internal1 ACCEPT Select Create New to create a security policy to allow the AirPlay traffic from the Apple TV network to the OS X computer network. Source Interface/Zone Source Address wlan Destination Address all Schedule always Service AirPlay - Apple TV to OS X Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ all Destination Interface/Zone 7 internal ACCEPT With this configuration in place, anyone using an iOS device on the wireless interface of the FortiWiFi unit can use AirPlay to play media on the Apple TV. 215
  • 216. Ensuring sufficient and consistent bandwidth for VoIP traffic Ensuring sufficient and consistent bandwidth for VoIP traffic Problem You want to make sure that enough bandwidth is reserved through the FortiGate unit to adequately support the use of IP phones in the office. ork Inte rn net al IP wo ph rk one etw ln rna Inte Solution Using traffic shaping, you can configure shared shapers that ensure a consistent amount of bandwidth is reserved for VoIP/SIP communications and still maintain bandwidth for other Internet traffic such as email and web browsing. For this solution, 200000 kbits/s is guaranteed to be available for VoIP and VoIP traffic is given higher priority than other traffic. Other traffic is limited to a maximum bandwidth of 100000 kbits/s. In this configuration, the internal IP phone network and internal network both connect to the FortiGate internal interface. When creating a traffic shaper, you must include a data value for the Maximum Bandwidth and/or the Guaranteed Bandwidth as well as selecting the Traffic Priority. Create traffic shapers for VoIP traffic and for other traffic 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Traffic Shaper > Shared and select Create New to add a shared shaper for IP phone traffic: Name Apply Shaper Per Policy Traffic Priority High Maximum Bandwidth 16776000 Guaranteed Bandwidth 216 VoIP 2000000 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 217. Ensuring sufficient and consistent bandwidth for VoIP traffic 2 Select OK. 3 Select Create New and add a shared shaper for other traffic: Name Daily_Traffic Apply Shaper Per Policy Traffic Priority Medium Maximum Bandwidth 1000000 Creating the firewall addresses for the IP phone and internal networks 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add the engineering address range: Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range44444 Subnet / IP Range 10.10.10.[10-50] Interface 2 IP Phone net internal Select Create New to add the marketing address range: Address Name Internal net Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.10.10.[100-200] Interface internal Create the security policies that include the traffic shapers 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New and add a security policy for VoIP/SIP traffic: Source Interface/Zone Source address IP Phone net Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service SIP Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ internal ACCEPT 217
  • 218. Ensuring sufficient and consistent bandwidth for VoIP traffic 2 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 3 Select Traffic Shaping and select the VoIP shaper for both directions: Shared Traffic Shaper VoIP Shared Traffic Shaper Reverse Direction VoIP 4 Select OK. 5 Select Create New and add a security policy for other traffic from the Internal network to the Internet: Source Interface/Zone internal Source address Internal net Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 6 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 7 Select Traffic Shaping and select the daily traffic shaper for both directions: Shared Traffic Shaper Daily_Traffic Shared Traffic Shaper Reverse Direction Daily_Traffic To monitor the data passing through the FortiGate unit for troubleshooting, remember to enable Log Allowed Traffic in both policies. Results Phone usage has a guaranteed bandwidth and a higher priority than other standard Internet usage. As such, telephony use will not be degraded by other traffic between the internal network and the Internet. 218 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 219. Ensuring sufficient and consistent bandwidth for VoIP traffic Go to Firewall Objects > Monitor > Traffic Shaper Monitor and select Current Bandwidth to view the current bandwidth being used by active traffic shapers. If standard traffic volume is high enough, it will top out at the maximum bandwidth defined in each shaper, To ensure that the shaper is in use, go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > Traffic Log. Filter the Service by SIP to see the telephony traffic. Viewing the detailed information for a SIP log messages, the shaper name appears in the Sent Shaper Name field. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 219
  • 220. Using geographic addresses Using geographic addresses Problem You need to restrict employee access to the subversion servers at branch offices, located in Ireland, Brazil and Egypt, so that scheduled backups at these locations are uninterrupted. l i raz -B e 2 22 ffic 0.1-1 o nch 8.11 Bra 2.16 19 Br 10. anch 10. offi 20. ce 1-2 3 5 C hin a nd ela - Ir e 1 55 ffic .15-1 o nch .144 Bra 2.16 17 H 172 eadq .26 uart .12 ers 0.1 -15 5 Solution Create schedules for each branch office, as well as addresses with the geographic-based address feature. The geographic-based addresses allow you to indicate the country, and the traffic originating or going to this country is logged, blocked or specific filtering is applied. The schedules, in this case, will block employee access to the servers at specified times. For this solution, we are using Eastern Time zone (GMT -5:00) as the time zone for the location of the schedules and addresses. Creating the geographic addresses 1 2 Enter the name, branch_office_1 for the Address Name. 3 220 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and create a new address. Select Geography from the Type list. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 221. Using geographic addresses 4 From the Country list, select Ireland. 5 Select wan1 from the Interface list. 6 Select OK. 7 Create the other two addresses using steps 2 to 6; use the names branch_office_2 for Brazil, and branch_office_3 for Egypt. 8 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Group and create a group of the three addresses. Creating the firewall schedules 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Schedule > Recurring. 2 Create a new schedule for the Ireland branch, and enter branch_office1 for the Name of the schedule. 3 Select Monday, Wednesday and Friday for the Day of Week. 4 Select 11:00 as the Start Time and 13:00 as the Stop Time. 5 Select OK to save the schedule. 6 Create a new schedule for Brazil and enter branch_office1 for the Name of the schedule. 7 For Day of Week, select Monday and Friday. 8 Select 16:00 as the Start Time and 18:00 as the Stop Time. 9 Select OK to save the schedule. 10 Create a new schedule for Egypt and enter branch_office3 for the Name of the schedule. 11 For Day of Week, select Tuesday and Saturday. 12 Select 11:00 as the Start Time and 13:00 as the Stop Time. 13 Select OK to save the schedule. 14 Go to Firewall Objects > Schedule > Group and group these three schedules. Applying the addresses and schedules to a policy Go to Policy > Policy > Policy, and apply both groups to a security policy. Results Employee access to these servers should be blocked during the times specified in the firewall schedules. You can test this by trying to access a server in Ireland at 11:00 am your time; you should not be able to access the server. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 221
  • 222. Providing Internet access for your private network users (static source NAT) Providing Internet access for your private network users (static source NAT) Problem How to configure static source address translation (or static SNAT) to allow users on a private internal network to connect to the Internet. The NAT requirement is to translate the source address of packets from the private network. Packets from the private network have a private source address. For communication with an Internet site the private source address must be translated to a public source address so that response packets can be routed on the Internet. 1 9 rk 5 o .2 w 5 et 5 N 5.2 al 5 r n /2 te .0 In 8.1 6 .1 2 5 Sta tic inte betw sou and rna ee rce l ne n th NA the T Inte two e rne rk t 17 2. 20 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 .0 1 ] 3 2 55 -2 .[1 .1 01 .1 68 .1 ] 20 92 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 1 3 2 14 0. 01 12 .1 0. .2 ] 20 72 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d Solution Static source address translation (or static SNAT) is most often used to allow users on an internal network to connect to the Internet. Static SNAT translates the source addresses of all outgoing packets to the IP address of the external interface. To keep track of individual sessions, the FortiGate unit also translates the source port of all packets. This type of NAT is also called port address translation (PAT), network address and port translation (NAPT), IP masquerading, NAT overload, and many-to-one NAT. 222 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 223. Providing Internet access for your private network users (static source NAT) Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet. 1 Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 2 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 3 Select OK to save the security policy. Results All packets accepted by this security policy have their source IP addresses translated from a private IP address on the 192.168.1.0 network to the IP address of the wan1 interface (172.20.120.14). As well, the source port is translated to a random source port. The destination IP address and destination port are not changed. Test source NAT by browsing a website on the Internet from a device on the internal network. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 4 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 7.863458 internal in 192.168.1.110.3444 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 2322143869 7.872937 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.36344 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 2322143869 7.873146 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.14.36344: syn 593799196 ack 2322143870 7.873325 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.110.3444: syn 593799196 ack 2322143870 • The first output line shows a packet was received by the Internal interface with source address 192.168.110. • The second output line shows that when the packet exits the wan1 interface the source address is changed to 172.20.120.14. • The third output line shows that when the response packet is received by the wan1 interface the destination address is still 172.20.120.14. • The fourth output line shows that when the response packet exits the internal interface to return to the source, its destination address has changed to 192.168.1.110. • Notice also in this example, the source port is translated from 3444 to 36344 and then back to 3444. • The source IP of all packets from any source IP is always translated to 172.20.120.14. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 223
  • 224. Providing Internet access for your private network users (static source NAT) Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active sessions for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. If you can browse the web from the internal network, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. 224 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 225. Providing Internet access for a private network with multiple Internet addresses (dynamic source NAT) Providing Internet access for a private network with multiple Internet addresses (dynamic source NAT) Problem How to configure dynamic source address translation NAT to allow users on a private internal network connect to the Internet when you have more than one external IP address and you want outgoing packets to use some or all of these addresses. 1 9 .1 5 rk 5 o .2 w 5 et 5 N 5.2 al 5 r n /2 te .0 In 8.1 6 2 AT N ce ur he k so t or ic een tw net e am tw l n ter yn e a n D b rn e I te h in d t an .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 E x 17 te 17 2. rna 17 2. 20 l I 2. 20 .12 Ps 20 .1 0 .1 20 .13 20 .1 .1 4 5 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 .0 2. 20 1 17 ] 55 -2 .[1 .1 01 .1 68 .1 ] 20 92 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 ] 15 3[1 0. 01 12 .1 0. .2 ] 20 72 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 1 Solution Use dynamic source address translation when you have more than one external IP address and you want outgoing packets to use some or all of these addresses. To get the FortiGate unit to use more than one IP address for source NAT, you add the addresses to an IP pool. This example uses an IP pool containing only 3 IP addresses: 172.20.120.[13-15]. Then you add a security policy and select Use Dynamic IP Pool. 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > IP Pool and select Create New to add the following IP pool. Name IP Range/Subnet FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Dynamic-Source 172.20.120.13-172.20.120.15 225
  • 226. Providing Internet access for a private network with multiple Internet addresses (dynamic source NAT) 2 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 3 Select Enable NAT and Use Dynamic IP Pool and select the Dynamic-Source IP Pool. 4 Select OK to save the security policy. Results All packets accepted by this security policy have their source IP addresses translated from a private IP address on the 192.168.1.0 network to one of the IP addresses in the IP pool. (172.20.120.[13-15]). As well, the source port is translated to a random source port. The destination IP address and destination port are not changed. Test dynamic source NAT by browsing a website on the Internet from multiple IP addresses on the internal network. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 8 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 4.893372 internal in 192.168.1.120.4806 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 1222685135 4.893644 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.45642 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 1222685135 4.893855 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.14.45642: syn 3955257209 ack 4.894016 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.120.4806: syn 3955257209 4.559945 internal in 192.168.1.110.4834 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 2817814036 4.560189 wan1 out 172.20.120.13.49774 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 2817814036 4.562207 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.13.49774: syn 1591702338 ack 4.562383 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.110.4834: syn 1591702338 1222685136 ack 1222685136 2817814037 ack 2817814037 • The first four output lines show a session from IP address 192.168.1.120 where the source IP address has been translated to 172.20.120.14. • The next four output lines show a session from IP address 192.168.1.110 where the source IP address has been translated to 172.20.120.13. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. 226 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 227. Providing Internet access for a private network with multiple Internet addresses (dynamic source NAT) Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active sessions for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. If you can browse the web from the internal network, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 227
  • 228. Dynamic source NAT without changing the source port (one-to-one source NAT) Dynamic source NAT without changing the source port (one-toone source NAT) Problem Some protocols or services will only function if they use a specific source port, or a source port that does not change. Normally source NAT changes the source port to allow multiple simultaneous sessions. 19 16 5 rk 5 o .2 w 5 et 5 N 5.2 al 5 r n /2 te .0 In 8.1 2. AT N ce ur he k so t or d ic een tw net ge e am tw l n ter an yn e a n ch D b ern e I ot t h n in d t rt an po ce ur .0 17 2. 20 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 E x 17 te 17 2. rna 17 2. 20 l IP 2. 20 .12 s 20 .1 0 .1 20 .13 20 .1 .1 4 5 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 so 1 ] 3 2 55 -2 .[1 .1 01 .1 68 .1 5 20 92 41 0.1 : 1 : 2 .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d ] 1 15 33 2 [1 0. 01 12 .1 0. .2 5 20 72 41 0.1 : 1 : 2 .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr t I or s d tp s d Solution You can select the fixed port option to restrict the FortiGate unit to not translate the source port. This results in a one-to-one NAT configuration. One-to-one NAT limits the number of simultaneous sessions that are supported because one variable for tracking sessions (the source port number) is no longer available. To allow more sessions, one-to-one NAT is normally used with multiple external IPs added to an IP pool. In this example, you enable one-to-one NAT by enabling the fixed port option in a security policy and adding an IP pool containing three IP addresses: 172.20.120.[13-15]. The fixed port option is enabled from the CLI so this entire example is configured from the CLI. 1 Enter the following command to add the IP pool: config firewall ippool edit Dynamic-Source set startip 172.20.120.13 set endip 172.20.120.15 end 228 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 229. Dynamic source NAT without changing the source port (one-to-one source NAT) Enter the following command to add a security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet. 2 config firewall policy edit 0 set srcintf internal set srcaddr all set dstintf wan1 set dstaddr all set schedule always set service ANY set action accept set nat enable set fixedport enable set ippool enable set poolname Dynamic-Source end If you edit this policy from the web-based manager, you will notice that the Fixed Port option is visible and is selected. Results All packets accepted by this security policy have their source IP addresses translated from a private IP address on the 192.168.1.0 network to one of the IP addresses in the IP pool. (172.20.120.[13-15]). The source port, destination IP address, and destination port are not changed. Test dynamic source NAT by browsing to a website on the Internet from multiple IP addresses on the internal network. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 18 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 17.388234 internal in 192.168.1.110.2415 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 1350596827 17.392883 wan1 out 172.20.120.13.2415 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 1350596827 17.395249 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.13.2415: syn 927139461 ack 1350596828 17.395425 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.110.2415: syn 927139461 ack 1350596828 17.395537 internal in 192.168.1.110.2415 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 927139462 17.395626 wan1 out 172.20.120.13.2415 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 927139462 17.406820 internal in 192.168.1.110.2416 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 1206067881 17.407038 wan1 out 172.20.120.13.2416 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 1206067881 17.407246 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.13.2416: syn 921167482 ack 1206067882 17.407383 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.110.2416: syn 921167482 ack 1206067882 17.407493 internal in 192.168.1.110.2416 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 921167483 17.407582 wan1 out 172.20.120.13.2416 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 921167483 2.872214 internal in 192.168.1.120.2483 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 543091999 2.872890 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.2483 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 543091999 2.873090 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.14.2483: syn 868936759 ack 543092000 2.873263 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.120.2483: syn 868936759 ack 543092000 2.873413 internal in 192.168.1.120.2483 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 868936760 2.873513 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.2483 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 868936760 • The first six output lines show a session from IP address 192.168.1.110 where the source IP address has been translated to 172.20.120.13. The source port remains unchanged at 2415. • The next six output lines also show a session from IP address 192.168.1.110 where the source IP address has been translated to 172.20.120.13. The source port for this session was 2416 and was also not changed. • The final six output lines show a session from IP address 192.168.1.120 where the source IP address has been translated to 172.20.120.14. The source port for this session was 2483 and was also not changed. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 229
  • 230. Dynamic source NAT without changing the source port (one-to-one source NAT) Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active sessions for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. If you can browse the web from the internal network, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. 230 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 231. Dynamic source NAT using the central NAT table Dynamic source NAT using the central NAT table Problems How to use the central NAT table to cause packets with a specific range of source ports (3380 to 3400) to have their source ports and source IP addresses translated differently than packets with other source ports. 1 9 rk 5 o .2 w 5 et 5 N 5.2 al 5 r n /2 te .0 In 8.1 6 .1 2 5 .0 19 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 1 Ex 17 te 17 2. rna 17 2. 20 l I 2. 20 .12 Ps 20 .1 0 .1 20 .13 20 .1 .1 4 5 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 e bl ta rce AT ou n l N g s tio la tra l in s en o n C ntr tra t co or p 2. 20 1 17 ] 55 -2 ] .[1 00 .1 34 01 68 - .1 .1 0 20 92 38 0.1 : 1 : [3 .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 ] 15 3- 0] [1 2 0. 00 1 12 3 0 0. - .1 .2 00 20 72 00 0.1 : 1 : [3 .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr t I or s d tp s d 3 2 1 Solution The central NAT table provides full control over how source addresses and source ports are translated and is the only solution when you want to control how source ports are translated. By using the central NAT table, you can specify an incoming source address range and source port range and specify how the source address and source ports are translated. This can be useful for protocols that require a fixed source port or that require the source port be translated in a controlled and predictable way. In this example: • Packets with a source IP on the internal network and a source port in the range 3380 to 3400 will have their source address translated to an address in the range 172.20.120.[13-15] and their source ports translated to a port number in the range 30000 to 30020. • Packets with a source IP on the internal network and a source port in the range 1 to 3379 and 3401 to 65,535 will have their source address translated to the IP address of the FortiGate wan1 interface (172.20.120.11). This is the default source NAT behavior. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 231
  • 232. Dynamic source NAT using the central NAT table 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > IP Pool and select Create New to add the following IP pool. Name IP Range/Subnet 2 Dynamic-Source 172.20.120.13-172.20.120.15 Go to Firewall Objects > Address> Address and select Create New to add the following firewall address. Name Internal Network Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.1 - 192.168.1.255 Interface internal 3 Go to System > Admin > Settings and under Display Options on GUI, make sure the Central NAT Table option is selected. 4 Select Apply if you made a change. 5 Go to Policy > Policy > Central NAT Table and select Create New to add a central NAT table entry. Source Address Translated Address Dynamic-Source Original Source Port 3380 - 3400 Translated Port 6 Internal Network 30000 - 30020 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the following security policy that allows users on the private network to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT 7 8 232 Select Enable NAT and Use Central NAT Table. Select OK to save the security policy. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 233. Dynamic source NAT using the central NAT table Results All packets accepted by this security policy from the internal network with source ports in the range 3380 to 3400 have their source IP addresses translated to one of the IP addresses in the IP pool. (172.20.120.[13-15]) and their source ports translated to a number in the range 30000 to 30020. Packets with any other source port are handled according to the default source NAT behavior (if you selected Use Destination Interface Address). Test the configuration by browsing a website on the Internet from any IP address on the internal network. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 8 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 5.117683 internal in 192.168.1.110.3364 -> 172.16.100.148.80: syn 3821216192 5.117980 wan1 out 172.20.120.11.40360 -> 172.16.100.148.80: syn 3821216192 5.177848 wan1 in 172.16.100.148.80 -> 172.20.120.11.40360: syn 1388291811 ack 3821216193 5.178020 internal out 172.16.100.148.80 -> 192.168.1.110.3364: syn 1388291811 ack 3821216193 5.178181 internal in 192.168.1.110.3364 -> 172.16.100.148.80: ack 1388291812 5.178297 wan1 out 172.20.120.11.40360 -> 172.16.100.148.80: ack 1388291812 6.950657 wan1 in 172.16.100.148.80 -> 172.20.120.11.40360: fin 1388326799 ack 3821216763 129.595427 internal in 192.168.1.110.3385 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 2385736674 129.595715 wan1 out 172.20.120.13.30005 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 2385736674 129.598782 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.13.30005: syn 2238273308 ack 2385736675 129.598923 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.110.3385: syn 2238273308 ack 2385736675 129.599054 internal in 192.168.1.110.3385 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 2238273309 129.599164 wan1 out 172.20.120.13.30005 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 2238273309 144.656912 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.13.30005: fin 2238273938 ack 2385737098 144.657027 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.110.3385: fin 2238273938 ack 2385737098 145.982513 internal in 192.168.1.110.3385 -> 172.20.120.101.80: fin 2385737098 ack 2238273939 145.982631 wan1 out 172.20.120.13.30005 -> 172.20.120.101.80: fin 2385737098 ack 2238273939 • The first seven output lines show a session from IP address 192.168.1.110 with a source port of 3364. Since this source port is outside the range specified in the central NAT table entry (3380 to 3400) the source port has been translated to any source port (in this case 40360) and the source address has been translated to 172.20.120.11 (the IP address of the wan1 interface). • The next ten output lines show sessions from IP address 192.168.1.110 with a source port of 3385. Since this source port is in the range specified in the central NAT table entry the source port has been translated to 30005, which is in the range specified in the central NAT table entry (30000 to 30020) and the source address has been translated to 172.20.120.13, one of the addresses in the IP pool. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active sessions for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. If you can browse the web from the internal network, your configuration is successful. If you cannot, try the steps described in “Troubleshooting NAT/Route mode installations” on page 24 to find the problem. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 233
  • 234. Allowing access to a web server on an internal network when you only have one Internet IP address Allowing access to a web server on an internal network when you only have one Internet IP address Problem You want to allow users on the Internet to access a web server on your internal network. You have only one Internet address (172.20.120.14), which is the address of the FortiGate wan1 interface. n o r rk ve wo 0 er t 1 S Ne .1 .1 eb te 8 W iva .16 r P 92 1 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 r t fo rne AT te N In n e er io th rv at m se tin ro b es f e D ons e w i h ss o t se t 2. 20 1 17 12 0. 0 12 0. 11 .2 ] .1. 72 ny 68 : 1 : [a .1 IP rt 2 c o 19 0 sr p : 8 c P t: sr t I or s d tp s d 3 2 12 0. 4 12 .1 0. .2 ] 20 72 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 1 Solution In this basic DNAT example, to allow connections to the web server, you must configure the FortiGate unit to accept HTTP sessions with a destination address of 172.20.120.14 and translate this destination IP address to the IP address of the web server (192.168.1.110) before forwarding the session to the internal network. 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > Virtual IP and select Create New to add a virtual IP that maps the wan1 interface IP address to the web server IP address. Name External Interface wan1 Type Static NAT External IP Address/Range 172.20.120.14-172.20.120.14 Mapped IP Address/Range 234 Web Server VIP 192.168.1.110-192.168.1.110 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 235. Allowing access to a web server on an internal network when you only have one Internet IP address 2 Select OK to save the VIP. 3 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a policy that allows users on the Internet to access the web server. Source Interface/Zone wan1 Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Web Server VIP Schedule always Service HTTP Action ACCEPT Select OK to save the security policy. 4 If you select NAT, the source address is changed to the internal interface address. Normally, you would not want to perform source NAT since this has the affect of hiding the actual source address of the sessions. Results All HTTP packets accepted by this security policy have their destination IP addresses translated from 172.20.120.14 to 192.168.1.110 before being forwarded to the Internal network where they are received by the web server. The source IP address and source port are not changed. As a result of this configuration, you cannot establish an administrative connection to the wan1 interface because all sessions with a destination address of the wan1 interface (172.20.120.14) are accepted or denied by the security policy. This configuration is not recommended, especially if you want to remotely administer your FortiGate unit from the wan1 interface. Instead, you should get another Internet IP address for the web server and change the VIP to forward this address to the web server. Test destination NAT by browsing to http://172.20.120.14 from the Internet. The session passes through the FortiGate unit to the web server which sends a response. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 4 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 6.150356 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.51439 -> 172.20.120.14.80: syn 15893888 6.150637 internal out 172.20.120.12.51439 -> 192.168.1.110.80: syn 15893888 6.150803 internal in 192.168.1.110.80 -> 172.20.120.12.51439: syn 553485227 ack 15893889 6.150974 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.80 -> 172.20.120.12.51439: syn 553485227 ack 15893889 • FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ The first output line shows a packet from a client device with IP address 172.20.120.12 was received by the wan1 interface with destination address 172.20.120.14 and destination port 80. 235
  • 236. Allowing access to a web server on an internal network when you only have one Internet IP address • The second output line shows that when the packet exits the internal interface the destination address is changed to 192.168.1.110 and the destination port is still 80. • The third output line shows the response from the web server. • The fourth output line shows the response from the web server being returned to the client device. The source address has been changed back to 172.20.120.14. • In this example, the source port is not changed. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active sessions for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. 236 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 237. Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you only have one Internet IP address, using port translation Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you only have one Internet IP address, using port translation Problem You want to allow users on the Internet to access a web server on your internal network. You only have one Internet address (172.20.120.14), which is being used by the FortiGate wan1 interface. n o r rk ve o w 0 er t 1 S Ne .1 .1 eb te 8 W iva .16 r P 92 1 2. 20 1 17 12 0. 0 12 0. 11 .2 ] .1. 72 ny 68 : 1 : [a .1 IP rt 2 c o 19 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 D ses po estin sio rt t atio ns ran n N to the from slat AT we th ion with b s e In for erv ter er net 12 0. 4 12 .1 0. .2 ] 20 72 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 80 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr t I or s d tp s d 3 2 1 Solution In this DNAT example, to allow connections to the web server you must configure the FortiGate unit to accept HTTP sessions with a destination address of 172.20.120.14 and translate this destination IP address to the IP address of the web server (192.168.1.110) before forwarding the session to the internal network. In addition, the web server accepts connections on the standard HTTP port (port 80), but you want sessions from the Internet to the web server to use port 8080. The FortiGate unit must also translate the destination port from 8080 to 80. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 237
  • 238. Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you only have one Internet IP address, using port translation 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > Virtual IP and select Create New to add a virtual IP that maps the wan1 interface IP address to the web server IP address and maps connections from port 8080 to port 80. Name External Interface wan1 Type Static NAT External IP Address/Range 172.20.120.14-172.20.120.14 Mapped IP Address/Range 2 Web Server VIP 192.168.1.110-192.168.1.110 Select Port Forwarding and configure the following port forwarding settings: Protocol TCP External Service Port 8080 - 8080 Map to Port 80 - 80 3 Select OK to save the VIP. 4 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a policy that allows users on the Internet to access the web server. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Web Server VIP Schedule always Service HTTP Action 5 wan1 ACCEPT Select OK to save the security policy. If you select NAT, the source address is changed to the internal interface address. Normally, you would not want to perform source NAT since this has the affect of hiding the actual source address of the sessions. 238 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 239. Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you only have one Internet IP address, using port translation Results All HTTP packets accepted by this security policy have their destination IP addresses translated from 172.20.120.14 to 192.168.1.110 and their destination port translated from 8080 to 80 before being forwarded to the Internal network where they are received by the web server. The source IP address and source port are not changed. Even though in the security policy, the Service is set to the HTTP predefined service, which would normally only receive packets on port 80, this configuration still accepts HTTP packets on port 8080. Test destination NAT by browsing to http://172.20.120.14:8080. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80 or port 8080' 4 4 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80 or port 8080] 8.823058 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.52568 -> 172.20.120.14.8080: syn 2855697809 8.829146 internal out 172.20.120.12.52568 -> 192.168.1.110.80: syn 2855697809 8.829287 internal in 192.168.1.110.80 -> 172.20.120.12.52568: syn 2151198672 ack 2855697810 8.838931 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.8080 -> 172.20.120.12.52568: syn 2151198672 ack 2855697810 • The first output line shows a packet from a client device with IP address 172.20.120.12 was received by the wan1 interface with destination address 172.20.120.14 and destination port 8080. • The second output line shows that when the packet exits the internal interface the destination address is changed to 192.168.1.110 and the destination port has been changed to 80. • The third output line shows the response from the web server. • The fourth output line shows the response from the web server being returned to the client device. The source address has been changed back to 172.20.120.14 and the source port to 8080. • The original source port is not changed. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active sessions for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more information about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 239
  • 240. Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you have an IP address for the web server Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you have an IP address for the web server Problem You want to allow users on the Internet to access a web server on your internal network. You have an Internet address for the web server (172.20.120.11) that is different than the Internet address of the FortiGate wan1 interface (172.20.120.14). n o r rk ve wo 0 er t 1 S Ne .1 .1 eb te 8 W iva .16 r P 92 1 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 2. 20 1 17 12 0. 0 12 0. 11 .2 ] .1. 72 ny 68 : 1 : [a .1 IP rt 2 c o 19 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 r ss v e re er d 1 S ad .1 0 eb IP 2 W et 0.1 r n .2 te 2 In 17 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 ses De si sti to ons f natio the rom n N we th AT b s e In for erv ter er net 12 0. 1 12 .1 0. .2 ] 20 72 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 1 Solution In this DNAT example, to allow connections to the web server, you must configure the FortiGate unit to accept HTTP sessions with a destination address 172.20.120.11 and translate this destination IP address to 192.168.1.110 before forwarding the session to the web server. 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > Virtual IP and select Create New to add a virtual IP that maps the wan1 interface IP address to the web server IP address. Name External Interface Static NAT External IP Address/Range 172.20.120.11-172.20.120.11 Mapped IP Address/Range 240 wan1 Type 2 Web Server VIP 192.168.1.110-192.168.1.110 Select OK to save the VIP. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 241. Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you have an IP address for the web server Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a policy that allows users on the Internet to access the web server. 3 Source Interface/Zone wan1 Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Web Server VIP Schedule always Service HTTP Action ACCEPT Select OK to save the security policy. 4 If you select NAT, the source address is changed to the internal interface address. Normally, you would not want to perform source NAT since this has the affect of hiding the actual source address of the sessions. Results All HTTP packets accepted by this security policy have their destination IP addresses translated from 172.20.120.11 to 192.168.1.110 before being forwarded to the Internal network where they are received by the web server. The source IP address and source port are not changed. Test destination NAT by browsing to http://172.20.120.11 from the Internet. The session passes through the FortiGate unit to the web server which sends a response. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 3.454327 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.51526 -> 172.20.120.11.80: syn 3420016827 3.458908 internal out 172.20.120.12.51526 -> 192.168.1.110.80: syn 3420016827 3.459044 internal in 192.168.1.110.80 -> 172.20.120.12.51526: syn 3323826862 ack 3420016828 3.468915 wan1 out 172.20.120.11.80 -> 172.20.120.12.51526: syn 3323826862 ack 3420016828 3.469133 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.51526 -> 172.20.120.11.80: ack 3323826863 3.469260 internal out 172.20.120.12.51526 -> 192.168.1.110.80: ack 3323826863 3.470322 internal in 192.168.1.110.80 -> 172.20.120.12.51526: psh 3323826863 ack 3420017308 3.470453 wan1 out 172.20.120.11.80 -> 172.20.120.12.51526: psh 3323826863 ack 3420017308 • The first output line shows a packet from a client device with IP address 172.20.120.12 was received by the wan1 interface with destination address 172.20.120.11 and destination port 80. • The second output line shows that when the packet exits the internal interface the destination address is changed to 192.168.1.110 and the destination port is still 80. • The third output line shows the response from the web server. • The fourth output line shows the response from the web server being returned to the client device. The source address has been changed back to 172.20.120.11. • The source port is not changed. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 241
  • 242. Allowing Internet access to a web server on a protected network when you have an IP address for the web server Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active session for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph form the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. Allowing the web server to connect to the Internet You can add the following security policy to allow sessions from the web server to connect to the Internet. (The web server might need to contact servers on the Internet for software updates, etc.) Source Interface/Zone internal Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action ACCEPT Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. All sessions from the web server to the Internet that are accepted by this security policy have their source addresses translated to 172.20.120.14, the wan1 interface IP address. Start a connection from the web server to the Internet and use the following packet sniffer command to see the results: diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80' 4 6 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80] 16.796304 internal in 192.168.1.110.2703 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 2181076939 16.798962 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.55811 -> 172.20.120.101.80: syn 2181076939 16.799160 wan1 in 172.20.120.101.80 -> 172.20.120.14.55811: syn 1829260053 ack 2181076940 16.799335 internal out 172.20.120.101.80 -> 192.168.1.110.2703: syn 1829260053 ack 2181076940 16.799493 internal in 192.168.1.110.2703 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 1829260054 16.799594 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.55811 -> 172.20.120.101.80: ack 1829260054 242 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 243. Configuring port forwarding to open ports on a FortiGate unit Configuring port forwarding to open ports on a FortiGate unit Problem You want to allow incoming connections from the Internet to a PC on the internal network so that the PC can access an Internet service that requires open ports. The service requires opening TCP ports in the range 7882 to 7999, as well as opening UDP ports 2119 and 2995. rk n o o tw 0 C e 11 P N .1. te 8 va 6 ri .1 P 92 1 Op 17 2. 20 1 3 2 or 12 0. 9, 1 11 12 .1 2 0. .2 ] 20 9, 72 ny 0.1 99 : 1 : [a .2 -7 IP rt 2 82 c o 17 8 sr c p P: t: 7 sr t I or s d tp s d 12 0. 9, 0 11 12 0. 11 2 .2 ] .1. 9, 72 ny 68 99 : 1 : [a .1 -7 5 IP rt 2 82 9 c o 19 8 9 sr p : 7 2 c P t: r sr t I or o s d tp s d 3 2 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 en T 2 CP Inte for tr 119, ports affi and 78 rne t to c fro 299 82the m t 5 7999 , ser he ver 1 95 29 Solution This DNAT example describes how to configure firewall VIPs to map the following sessions to the PC on the internal network: • TCP sessions to the wan1 IP address with destination port in the range 7882 to 7999. • UDP sessions to the wan1 IP address with destination port 2119 or 2995. The solution involves creating multiple VIPs that map sessions from the wan1 IP address to the PC IP address and adding the VIPs to a VIP group and adding that VIP group to a wan1 to internal security policy. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 243
  • 244. Configuring port forwarding to open ports on a FortiGate unit 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > Virtual IP and select Create New to add a virtual IP that maps connections to the wan1 interface on ports 7882 to 7999 to the server. Name External Interface wan1 Type Static NAT External IP Address/Range 172.20.120.14-172.20.120.14 Mapped IP Address/Range 2 Port Range VIP 192.168.1.110-192.168.1.110 Select Port Forwarding and configure the following port forwarding settings: Protocol TCP External Service Port 7882 - 7999 Map to Port 7882 - 7999 3 Select OK to save the VIP. 4 Select Create New to add a virtual IP that maps connections to the wan1 interface on UDP port 2119 to the server. Name External Interface wan1 Type Static NAT External IP Address/Range 172.20.120.14-172.20.120.14 Mapped IP Address/Range 5 First UDP Port VIP 192.168.1.110-192.168.1.110 Select Port Forwarding and configure the following port forwarding settings: Protocol External Service Port 244 2119 Map to Port 6 UDP 2119 Select OK to save the VIP. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 245. Configuring port forwarding to open ports on a FortiGate unit 7 Select Create New to add a virtual IP that maps connections to the wan1 interface on UDP port 2995 to the server. Name External Interface wan1 Type Static NAT External IP Address/Range 172.20.120.14-172.20.120.14 Mapped IP Address/Range 8 Second UDP Port VIP 192.168.1.110-192.168.1.110 Select Port Forwarding and configure the following port forwarding settings: Protocol External Service Port 2995 Map to Port 9 UDP 2995 Select OK to save the VIP. 10 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > VIP Group and select Create New to add a VIP Group that includes all three VIPs. Group Name Server VIP Group Interface wan1 11 Add Server Port Range, First UDP Port VIP, and Second UDP Port VIP to the Members list. 12 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a policy that accepts includes the VIP Group. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Server VIP Group Schedule always Service ANY Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ wan1 ACCEPT 245
  • 246. Configuring port forwarding to open ports on a FortiGate unit 13 Select OK to save the security policy. If you select NAT, the source address is changed to the internal interface address. Normally, you would not want to perform source NAT since this has the affect of hiding the actual source address of the sessions. Results All packets accepted by this security policy have to have a destination port defined in the VIPs. The VIPs also translate the destination IP address 172.20.120.14 to 192.168.1.110 before being forwarded to the Internal network where they are received by the server. The destination ports, source IP address and source port are not changed. Test the configuration by operating the service and using the packet sniffer to see the results. For example, you could try the following command: diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 7882' 4 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 7882] 4.150689 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.56825 -> 172.20.120.14.7882: syn 2904689044 4.150936 internal out 172.20.120.12.56825 -> 192.168.1.110.7882: syn 2904689044 4.151102 internal in 192.168.1.110.7882 -> 172.20.120.12.56825: syn 1081214414 ack 2904689045 4.151258 wan1 out 172.20.120.14.7882 -> 172.20.120.12.56825: syn 1081214414 ack 2904689045 Other commands could include: diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 7882 or port 7883' 4 diagnose sniffer packet any 'udp and port 2119 or port 2995' 4 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active session for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph form the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more info about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. 246 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 247. Dynamic destination NAT for a range of IP addresses Dynamic destination NAT for a range of IP addresses Problem In this DNAT example, you want to allow users on the Internet to access three different web servers on your internal network. You have three Internet addresses for the web servers (172.20.120.100103) and each server has a different IP address on the Internal network (192.168.20.120-123). n o k rs or 23 ve tw 1 er e 0S N 12 . eb te .1 W va 8 ri 6 P .1 2 9 1 .1 wa 20 n .1 1 4 19 2. 20 1 17 3 12 0. 12 012 0. 12 .2 ] .1. 72 ny 68 : 1 : [a .1 IP rt 2 c o 19 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 s r se ve es 03 er r 1 S dd 0a 0 eb P .1 W t I 20 e 1 r n 0. te .2 In 72 1 2. in 16 te 8. rn 1. al 99 ses De st s to ions f inatio the rom n N we b s the I AT fo erv nte r ers rne t 1 3 0 12 -1 0. 00 12 .1 0. .2 ] 20 72 ny 0.1 : 1 : [a .2 IP rt 2 80 c o 17 0 sr c p P: t: 8 sr I r st o d tp s d 3 2 Solution To allow connections to the web servers, you must configure the FortiGate unit to accept HTTP sessions with a destination address in the range 172.20.120.100-103 and translate this destination IP address to 192.168.1.120-123 before forwarding the session to a web server. In addition, the port used by each web server to accept HTTP connections is the standard HTTP port 80. But you want connections from the Internet to the web servers to use port 8000. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 247
  • 248. Dynamic destination NAT for a range of IP addresses 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Virtual IP > Virtual IP and select Create New to add a virtual IP that maps the internet IP addresses of the web server to its actual internal network IPs. Name External Interface wan1 Type Static NAT External IP Address/Range 172.20.120.100-172.20.120.103 Mapped IP Address/Range 2 Web Server Range VIP 192.168.1.120-192.168.1.123 Select Port Forwarding and configure the following port forwarding settings: Protocol TCP External Service Port 8000 - 8000 Map to Port 80 - 80 3 Select OK to save the VIP. 4 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a policy that allows users on the Internet to access the web server. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Web Server Range VIP Schedule always Service HTTP Action 5 wan1 ACCEPT Select OK to save the security policy. If you select NAT, the source address is changed to the internal interface address. Normally, you would not want to perform source NAT since this has the affect of hiding the actual source address of the sessions. 248 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 249. Dynamic destination NAT for a range of IP addresses Results HTTP packets accepted by this security policy have their destination IP addresses translated as follows: • 172.20.120.100 to 192.168.1.120 • 172.20.120.101 to 192.168.1.121 • 172.20.120.102 to 192.168.1.122 • 172.20.120.103 to 192.168.1.123 In all cases the destination port is translated from 8080 to 80. The source IP address and source port are not changed. Test destination NAT by browsing to http://172.20.120.100 - 103:8000 from the Internet. Use the following packet sniffer command to see the results. diagnose sniffer packet any 'port 80 or port 8000' 4 interfaces=[any] filters=[port 80 or port 8000] 10.603074 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.57053 -> 172.20.120.100.8000: syn 3591312927 10.603312 internal out 172.20.120.12.57053 -> 192.168.1.120.80: syn 3591312927 10.603479 internal in 192.168.1.120.80 -> 172.20.120.12.57053: syn 3848795067 ack 10.603635 wan1 out 172.20.120.100.8000 -> 172.20.120.12.57053: syn 3848795067 ack 16.422671 wan1 in 172.20.120.12.57070 -> 172.20.120.102.8000: syn 1145994219 16.422927 internal out 172.20.120.12.57070 -> 192.168.1.122.80: syn 1145994219 16.423096 internal in 192.168.1.122.80 -> 172.20.120.12.57070: syn 3958945838 ack 16.423264 wan1 out 172.20.120.102.8000 -> 172.20.120.12.57070: syn 3958945838 ack • • • • • 3591312928 3591312928 1145994220 1145994220 The first output line shows a packet from a client device with IP address 172.20.120.12 was received by the wan1 interface with destination address 172.20.120.100 and destination port 8000. The second output line shows that when the packet exits the internal interface the destination address is changed to 192.168.1.120 and the destination port has been changed to 80. The third output line shows the response from the web server. The fourth output line shows the response from the web server being returned to the client device. The source address has been changed back to 172.20.120.100 and the source port back to 8000. The original source port is not changed. Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column for the security policy you added to verify that it is processing traffic. Go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can also see results by going to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view a graph of active sessions for each policy. Since there is only one policy, that graph contains only one entry. You can select the bar graph for the policy to view the top sessions by source address, destination address, or destination port/service. The Top Sessions dashboard widget presents another view of sessions that you can also drill down into to get more information about current sessions. Other dashboard widgets display session history, traffic history, and per-IP bandwidth usage. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 249
  • 250. FortiOS Cookbook UTM Profiles UTM profiles, including antivirus, web filtering, application control, intrusion protection (IPS), email filtering, and data leak prevention (DLP) apply core UTM security functions to traffic accepted by security policies. The FortiGate unit comes pre-configured with default UTM profiles for all of these security features, and you can apply UTM features to traffic accepted by a security policy by selecting the default profiles for the UTM features that you want to apply. You can also create UTM profile groups to group together sets of UTM profiles to further simplify adding UTM features to security policies. The default profiles are designed to provide basic protection. You can modify the default profiles for you needs or create new ones. Creating multiple profiles means you can apply different levels of protection to different traffic types according to the security policies that accept the traffic. In addition to the basic set of UTM profiles, the FortiGate unit includes specialized profiles for protecting SIP and SCCP VoIP traffic and offloading additional security functions using ICAP. Endpoint control profiles are created to ensure that workstation computers (also known as endpoints) on your network, meet the network’s security requirements; otherwise, they are not permitted access. Enhanced by Fortinet’s FortiClient Endpoint Security software, FortiGate endpoint control can block or control access through the FortiGate unit for workstation computers depending on the security functions enabled on the computers and the applications running on them. After creating endpoint control profiles, you can add endpoint security profiles to security policies. The final UTM profile feature, vulnerability scanning is independent of security policies. By using vulnerability scanning, you can scan computers on your network for multiple vulnerabilities, and take action to remove those vulnerabilities. This chapter includes the following UTM examples: • Protecting your network from viruses • Protecting your network against greyware • Protecting your network against legacy viruses • Changing the maximum file size that the AV scanner examines • Blocking files that are too large to scan for viruses • Improving FortiGate performance with flow-based UTM scanning • Limiting the types of web sites your users can visit • Overriding FortiGuard web filtering for selected users • Prevent offensive search results in Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines • Finding the FortiGuard web filter category of a URL • Listing the web sites your users have visited • Using FortiGuard web filtering to block access to web proxies FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 250
  • 251. UTM Profiles • Blocking access to streaming media using web filtering • Blocking access to specific web sites • Blocking all web sites except those you specify using a whitelist • Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check IP addresses as well as URLs • Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check images as well as URLs • Applying ratings to HTTP redirects • Visualizing the applications on your network • Preventing the use of instant messaging clients • Blocking access to social media web sites • Blocking peer-to-peer file sharing • Using IPS to protect a web server • Configuring IPS to stop traffic if the scanner fails • Protecting against denial of service (DoS) attacks • Filtering incoming spam • Use DLP to track personal information in HTTP traffic • Blocking outgoing email containing sensitive information • Using the FortiGate vulnerability scanner to check your network for vulnerabilities FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 251
  • 252. Protecting your network from viruses Protecting your network from viruses Problem Protecting a network from viruses from the Internet. ANTIVIRUS/ ANTISPYWARE Internal network Virus FortiGate Unit Malware Spyware Solution Configure your FortiGate unit to scan all Internet traffic for viruses and other malware and if a virus is found the file containing the virus is removed or blocked. FortiGate units are shipped with a default antivirus profile, so all you have to do to enable virus scanning is add UTM antivirus scanning to security policies that accept connections to the Internet’ 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and Edit a security policy that allows access to the Internet. 2 Select the UTM > Enable AntiVirus. 3 Select OK. All traffic accepted by this security policy will now be scanned for viruses. You can repeat these steps for all security policies that allow access to the Internet or a high-risk network. Results You can test virus scanning by downloading the EICAR Anti-Malware test file from http://www.eicar.org. If you attempt to download the icar test file using a web browser and if the session is accepted by a security policy with virus scanning enabled, the file is blocked and a message similar to the following should appear in your browser: 252 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 253. Protecting your network from viruses You can also test virus scanning by attaching a virus test file to an email message that you send through the FortiGate unit to the Internet. You can verify the virus scanning results by going to UTM Profiles > Monitor > AV Monitor. The following shows the EICAR test file detected three times. You can drill down to display the FortiGuard Center page for the virus that was detected. The Log and Archive Statistics dashboard widget also displays information about viruses caught including details about the date an time on which the virus was detected, the source and destination address of the session in which the virus was caught, and the service. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 253
  • 254. Protecting your network from viruses Finally, when the file is removed from the email its replaced with a message similar to the following: Dangerous Attachment has been Removed. The file "eicar.com" has been removed because of a virus. It was infected with the "EICAR_TEST_FILE" virus. File quarantined as: ""."http://www.fortinet.com/ve?vid=2172" You can customize this message by going to System > Config > Replacement Message > Mail > Virus Message. The default message specifies that the file is quarantined. If you have not configured quarantine, you can remove this part of the message. 254 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 255. Protecting your network against greyware Protecting your network against greyware Problem You need to stop users from downloading and installing software that could potentially be greyware. Users can unintentionally install software designed to display ads, allow remote access, or even transmit information. The best way to deal with greyware is to prevent it from entering your network before it can cause problems. ANTIVIRUS/ ANTISPYWARE Internal network Greyware FortiGate Unit Greyware Solution Enable greyware scanning. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > AntiVirus > Virus Database. 2 Select Enable Grayware Detection. By enabling grayware detection, all security policies with antivirus protection will also detect greyware. If you have configured your FortiGate unit to protect your network against viruses, enabling greyware protection allows your FortiGate unit to scan for greyware threats as well. Results With greyware detection enabled, all traffic scanned for viruses is also scanned for greyware. Greyware scanning works in parallel with antivirus scanning. To protect against greyware, ensure the security policy allowing the traffic to be protected has an antivirus profile active in which antivirus scanning is enabled. If traffic is not scanned for viruses, it is not scanned for greyware, even if greyware detection is enabled. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 255
  • 256. Protecting your network against legacy viruses Protecting your network against legacy viruses Problem Protecting a network from viruses that are no-longer common on the Internet. ANTIVIRUS/ ANTISPYWARE Internal network Virus FortiGate Unit Malware Extreme virus database Legacy Virus Spyware Solution Configure your FortiGate unit to use the Extreme Virus Database by entering these CLI commands. config antivirus settings set default-db extreme end In addition to the signatures of current common viruses, the Extreme Virus Database contains signatures of all the viruses detected by the FortiGuard Antivirus Service. If your FortiGate unit does not offer the Extreme Virus Database, select the Extended Virus Database. The extended database contains the signatures of current common viruses and a large library of older viruses that are no longer common. While larger AV databases can detect more viruses, they also require more resources. For regular virus protection, use the normal virus database. If you choose a more capable database for all AV scanning, and your FortiGate unit frequently enters conserve mode, you may need to consider measures to save system memory. Only the some FortiGate units support all the AV databases. Other FortiGate units offer a subset from which you may choose. All FortiGate units have the Regular Virus Database, which includes all the currently detected viruses on the Internet. 256 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 257. Protecting your network against legacy viruses Results Manually force a virus database update to ensure the database is current. 1 Go to System > Config > FortiGuard. 2 Expand AntiVirus and IPS Options. 3 Select Update Now. Confirm that the update has occurred. 1 Go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > Event Log. 2 Check the recent log entries for one that begins with Fortigate update now. This indicates a manually triggered update. If the log entry timestamp matches when you triggered the manual update, the virus database was updated successfully. If the update does not occur, ensure that you have an antivirus profile in which antivirus scanning is enabled and selected in a security policy. If no antivirus scanning is enabled, no antivirus databases are updated. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 257
  • 258. Changing the maximum file size that the AV scanner examines Changing the maximum file size that the AV scanner examines Problem How to scan larger downloaded files for viruses. ANTIVIRUS/ ANTISPYWARE Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Use the uncompsizelimit CLI command to change the maximum uncompressed file size that the antivirus service will scan. In this example, the antivirus service is configured to scan uncompressed files up to 15 MB in size. config antivirus service http set uncompsizelimit 15 end The size limit can be set for FTP, HTTP, IM, IMAP, NNTP, POP3, and SMTP traffic. If your FortiGate unit supports encrypted content inspection, you can also set the size limit for FTPS, HTTPS, IMAPS, POP3S, and SMTPS traffic. Archive files, such as ZIP and RAR, are extracted and the contents are scanned for viruses. The total size of all the contents of an archive must be smaller than the uncompsizelimit for the archive contents to be scanned for viruses. The default value is 10 MB. The maximum size varies by FortiGate model. To determine the limit for your model, enter: config antivirus service http set uncompsizelimit ? The result is a brief description of the command and the acceptable range. For example: <value> max uncompressed size to scan (1-547MB or use 0 for unlimited) Entering an uncompsizelimit of 0 indicates no maximum size restriction. This setting is not recommended. 258 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 259. Changing the maximum file size that the AV scanner examines Results The FortiGate antivirus scanner will examine any file smaller than the size limit you set. For archives, the extracted contents must total a size smaller than the limit to be scanned. If you increase the size limit, you may be more likely to push the FortiGate unit into conserve mode because each simultaneous download has the potential to make a greater demand on the available memory. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 259
  • 260. Blocking files that are too large to scan for viruses Blocking files that are too large to scan for viruses Problem You need to make sure that files too large to be scanned for viruses are not passed to your internal network. ANTIVIRUS/ ANTISPYWARE Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Configure the protocol options to block files larger than the FortiGate is configured to cache. This procedure applies only to proxy-based scanning. Flow-based scanning has no maximum file size limits. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Protocol Options and expand HTTP. 2 Set Oversized File/Email to Block. 3 If you have used the uncompsizelimit CLI command to change the maximum scan size, change the Threshold value to match the setting you used. The default value for all FortiGate models is 10 MB. 4 All the protocols have default values of Pass and 10 MB. Change the settings for each protocol as required. Results If you leave the Threshold setting at 10 MB and set the Oversized File/Email action to Block, any attempt to download a file larger than 10 MB is blocked. The FortiGate unit displays a replacement message explaining why the attempt failed. Each supported content protocol can be configured separately. You can set some to Block and others Pass, and each can have a different threshold. 260 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 261. Improving FortiGate performance with flow-based UTM scanning Improving FortiGate performance with flow-based UTM scanning Problem You need faster UTM scanning or you need UTM scanning to use fewer FortiGate resources. INTRUSION PREVENTION Internal network Attacks FortiGate Unit Attacks Solution Enable flow-based antivirus scanning, web filtering, and DLP. In addition to faster scanning, flow-based scanning can save considerable resources. Flow-based scans examine files as they pass through while proxy-based scans require that files are cached as they come in and examined once complete. Caching files takes more memory and system resources. Flow-based scanning is an ideal solution to ease the memory requirements of some UTM scans, but it can be difficult to achieve. The problem is that if any proxy-based scan is active, files are cached. For example, if you configure antivirus and DLP to use flow-based scanning, and leave web filtering as a proxy-based scan, no memory is saved. Even if your FortiGate unit is configured so that flow-based scanning does not save memory, there is an advantage to using it. Should your FortiGate unit approach its memory or session limits, it will enter conserve mode. Conserve mode stops all proxy-based scans on new connections until the FortiGate unit leaves conserve mode. UTM features using flow-based scans will continue to protect network traffic without interruption. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 261
  • 262. Improving FortiGate performance with flow-based UTM scanning Enable flow-based antivirus scanning 1 Go to UTM Profiles > AntiVirus > Profile. 2 Select the Flow-based inspection mode. Note that flow-based scanning is not available on all FortiGate units. 3 Select Apply. The inspection mode setting affects only the profile in which it is changed. If you use multiple profiles and want all antivirus scanning to be flow-based, you much change the inspection mode setting in all your antivirus profiles. Flow-based antivirus scanning is used to examine network traffic instead of the default proxy-based scan. Files will be checked as they flow through the FortiGate unit, rather than being buffered and examined whole. Advantages of flow-based antivirus scanning include faster scanning, lower memory requirements, and no file size limitation. Clients also begin receiving download file data immediately. Disadvantages include no detection of polymorphic and self-cloaking viruses, support for fewer file archive formats, and no replacement messages. Enable flow-based web filtering 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile. 2 Select Proxy from the Inspection Mode setting. 3 Select Apply. Flow-based scanning does not support web content filtering. If you use flow-based web filtering and enable web content filtering, the FortiGate will use proxy-based scanning for web content filtering and flow-based scanning for other web filtering. Flow-based web filtering is used to filter web traffic instead of the default proxy-based scan. Files will be checked as they flow through the FortiGate unit, rather than being buffered and examined whole. Advantages of flow-based antivirus scanning include faster scanning, lower memory requirements, and no file size limitation. Clients also begin receiving download file data immediately. Disadvantages include support for fewer file archive formats and no support for web content filtering, meaning that both flow-based and proxy-based scanning operates when web filtering is configured for flow-based scanning and web content filtering is enabled. Enable flow-based DLP 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Data Leak Prevention > Profile. 2 Select Proxy-based Detection from the Inspection Method setting. 3 Select Apply. Advantages of flow-based antivirus scanning include faster scanning, lower memory requirements, and no file size limitation. Clients also begin receiving download file data immediately. Disadvantages include no detection of polymorphic and self-cloaking viruses and support for fewer file archive formats. 262 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 263. Limiting the types of web sites your users can visit Limiting the types of web sites your users can visit Problem You need to control the web sites your users can visit, but you don’t have the resources to create and maintain a URL list of web sites. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/utm1.html FortiGuard web filtering assigns web sites into nearly 100 categories. The categories are organized into six major groups. You can configure web filter profiles to allow, block, monitor, warn, or require authentication for categories and category groups as required by your network. In this example, configure a web filter to block the Bandwidth Consuming category group. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile and enable FortiGuard Categories. 2 Select the Bandwidth Consuming category group. 3 Select the Block action for Change Action for Selected Categories to and select Apply. Enable FortiGuard web filtering Select the web filter profile in a security policy to enable it. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy. 2 Edit the security policy that allows Internet access. 3 Select UTM. Select Enable Web Filter. If you have multiple security policies that allow Internet access, make these same changes to each of them. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 263
  • 264. Limiting the types of web sites your users can visit Results Users will not be able to visit web sites belonging to the categories within the Bandwidth Consuming category group. When attempting to visit these web sites, users will be presented with a replacement message explaining that visiting the site violates the Internet usage policy. You can customize replacement messages by going to System > Config > Replacement Message, selecting the feature, the replacement message to be customized, and selecting Edit. 264 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 265. Overriding FortiGuard web filtering for selected users Overriding FortiGuard web filtering for selected users Problem You need to allow some users to override FortiGuard web filter blocking when required. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Configure FortiGuard web filtering to use the Authenticate action rather than Block. Put the users who need to override the restriction into a user group and specify it in the web filter profile. When a user attempts to visit a restricted site, they will be asked for their username and password. Those in the user group will be allowed access after providing their credentials while the others will be blocked. This example, allows the users Sally and Roger to override the restriction on the Potentially Liable category group. Create the users and the user group 1 Go to User > User > User and select Create New. 2 Enter the username Sally, password abcxyz, and select OK. 3 Select Create New again. 4 Enter the username Roger, password abc123, and select OK. 5 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New. 6 Enter Web filter override users for the user group name. 7 Select Sally from the Available Users window and select the right arrow icon to move them to the Members window. 8 Repeat the procedure for Roger and select OK. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 265
  • 266. Overriding FortiGuard web filtering for selected users Configure the web filter profile 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile. 2 Select the Potentially Liable category group. 3 Select the Authenticate action for Change Action for Selected Categories to. 4 Select the Web filter override users group and select the right arrow icon to move the group to the Selected User Groups window. 5 Select OK. Enable the FortiGuard web filter Select the web filter profile in a security policy to enable it. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy. 2 Edit the security policy that allows Internet access. 3 Select UTM. Select Enable Web Filter. If you have multiple security policies that allow Internet access, make these same changes to each of them. Results Browse to a proxy web site such as proxy.org. Before being allowed access, you are asked for a username and password. If you provide credentials for a user in the user group applied to the web filter profile, you are allowed access to the site. Further, once you provide a valid username and password, you will be able to browse any sites in the category group before having to authenticate again. If you do not have a valid username and password, you are denied access to any web site in the category group. This test involves proxy.org because it is classified as Proxy Avoidance, part of the Potentially Liable category group. Any site in a classification that is part of the Potentially Liable category group will function in exactly the same way with this configuration. 266 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 267. Prevent offensive search results in Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines Prevent offensive search results in Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines Problem You need to ensure that search results contain no offensive site by forcing the safe searching of Google, Bing, and Yahoo. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Configure the default web filter to block offensive search results. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile. 2 Select Enable Safe Search. 3 Select Apply. Select the default web filter in the security policy that allows Internet access. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy. 2 Edit the security policy that allows Internet access. 3 Enable UTM and Web Filter, and select the profile named default. If you have multiple security policies that allow Internet access, make these same changes to each of them. Results Google, Yahoo, and Bing search results will no longer contain offensive sites. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 267
  • 268. Finding the FortiGuard web filter category of a URL Finding the FortiGuard web filter category of a URL Problem You need to find the FortiGuard web filter category of a particular web page to properly configure web filtering. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution The FortiGuard Centre web site offers a web-based URL lookup. 1 Go to http://www.fortiguard.com/tools/url_lookup.html 2 Enter the URL in the first field. enter the displayed code in the second field and select Search. Results The page is refreshed, listing the category of the URL you entered. The lookup may also show a classification. The classification is not used by FortiOS 4.0 MR3 firmware and is included for those still using older firmware versions in which it is supported. If a URL hasn’t been categorized, or if you feel the categorization is incorrect, you can submit the URL to the FortiGuard team and suggest a category. 268 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 269. Finding the FortiGuard web filter category of a URL To suggest or correct a URL category 1 Perform a URL look up as described above. 2 Select the Check to submit the URL check box. 3 Enter your name, Company, and email address. 4 Choose the category you feel best represents the URL and select Submit. When a web site contains elements in different categories, web pages on the site are categorized according to their contents. A web page will be assigned to only one category, but the web pages at a single URL may not all share the same category. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 269
  • 270. Listing the web sites your users have visited Listing the web sites your users have visited Problem You need a list of the web sites your users have visited. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/utm2.html Use web filtering to log every site that anyone on your network visits. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile to configure the default web filter profile. 2 Select the Monitor option from the Show drop-down menu. 3 Select all of the visible FortiGuard categories. 4 Select Monitor from the Change Action for Selected Categories to drop-down menu. 5 Select Apply. With these changes, all allowed categories are monitored. Access to the categories is allowed, but the monitor action also logs visits to the sites. To use this profile, you must select it in the security policies that allow users on your network to visit web sites. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select the security policy that allows your used to visit web sites. 2 Select Edit. 3 Enable UTM. 4 Select Enable Web Filter. 5 Select the default web filter policy. 6 Select OK. If you have multiple security policies that allow users to visit web sites, follow these steps for each of them. 270 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 271. Listing the web sites your users have visited Results The web sites your users visit will be recorded in the UTM log. The default settings of the UTM log page do not display the URLs. Configure the log settings to display URLs. 1 Go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > UTM Log. 2 Select Column Settings. 3 Choose Hostname in the left column and select the right arrow button to move it to the right column. 4 Choose URL in the left column and select the right arrow button to move it to the right column. 5 Select OK. When you view the UTM log, the hostname column will display the domain name of site, and the URL will display the path of the file accessed on the host. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 271
  • 272. Using FortiGuard web filtering to block access to web proxies Using FortiGuard web filtering to block access to web proxies Problem You need to ensure that users don’t bypass web filtering entirely by using an external web proxy. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Use FortiGuard web filtering to block web proxies. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile. 2 In the FortiGuard Categories window, expand the Potentially Liable category group and select Proxy Avoidance. 3 For the Change Action for Selected Categories to setting, select the Block action and choose Apply. 4 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and in the policies that allow access to the Internet, enable UTM and Web Filter, and then select the web filter profile named default. 5 Select OK. Results After configuring the web filter to block the Proxy Avoidance category, go to the proxy.org web site. If the web filter is configured correctly, any attempt to visit proxy.org will be blocked. Although the web site itself is not a proxy, it maintains a large list of proxies and is, therefore, categorized as a proxy avoidance cite. Reporting proxy sites If you discover a proxy that isn’t correctly categorized, go to http://www.fortiguard.com/tools/url_lookup.html and use the URL lookup to check the assigned category. If it is incorrect, or not categorized, submit the URL with a suggested category. The FortiGuard web filter team will review the site categorization, usually within 24 hours. 272 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 273. Blocking access to streaming media using web filtering Blocking access to streaming media using web filtering Problem You need to prevent your users from accessing any streaming audio and video. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Configure FortiGuard web filter to block sites that offer streaming media. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter> Profile. 2 Expand the Bandwidth Consuming FortiGuard Category and select the Streaming Media and Download and Internet Radio and TV categories. 3 Select Apply. 4 Verify that UTM and Web Filtering are enabled in the security policies that allow access to the Internet. Results After making these configuration changes, visit http://www.youtube.com. The FortiGate unit prevents you from visiting the site so you can not view any streaming video. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 273
  • 274. Blocking access to specific web sites Blocking access to specific web sites Problem You need prevent users from visiting specific web sites. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Create a web filter profile that blocks access to those web sites you specify. In this example, users will be blocked from visiting fortinet.com. Create the web filter profile 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > URL Filter and select Create New. 2 Name the new URL filter list Block List and select OK. 3 Select Create New to create a list entry that blocks access to any web site with a domain name ending in fortinet.com. URL Type Block Enable 274 Wildcard Action 4 *fortinet.com Checked Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 275. Blocking access to specific web sites Enable the URL filter list 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile. 2 Expand the Advanced Filter heading. 3 Enable Web Filter URL and select Block List. 4 Select Apply. 5 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy. 6 Edit the security policy that allows Internet access. 7 Select UTM. Select Enable Web Filter. If you have multiple security policies that allow Internet access, make these same changes to each of them. Results In this example configuration, you can visit web sites normally but all web access to any domain ending in fortinet.com is blocked. Visit http://fortinet.com after completing the configuration above to see the result. Add more list entries to Block List to block access to other web sites as required. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 275
  • 276. Blocking all web sites except those you specify using a whitelist Blocking all web sites except those you specify using a whitelist Problem You need to allow users to access only a small number of web sites. They must not have access to any others. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/utm3.html Create a web filter profile that blocks all sites except those you explicitly allow. In this example, users will be blocked from all sites except fortinet.com. You can do this by making a URL filter that has an entry that blocks all sites, and entries that allow individual sites. Ensure the entry that blocks all sites is the last entry in the URL filter list. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > URL Filter and select Create New. 2 Name the new URL filter list White List and select OK. 3 Select Create New to create a new list entry that blocks all web access. URL Type Block Enable 276 Wildcard Action 4 * Checked Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 277. Blocking all web sites except those you specify using a whitelist 5 Select Create New to create another new list entry that allows access to any web site with a domain name ending in fortinet.com. URL *fortinet.com Type Wildcard Action Allow Enable Checked The list entries are processed from top to bottom. Since the block entry is first, all sites will be blocked regardless of any following items that allow sites. To fix this problem, move the entries allowing access above the block entry. The entry blocking all sites should always be last. 6 Select the check box in the first column of the *fortinet.com entry. 7 Select Move To and enter these items: Move to URL 8 Before * Select OK. Enable the URL filter list Select it in a web filter profile in a security policy to enable it. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile. 2 Expand the Advanced Filter heading. 3 Enable Web Filter URL and select White List from the list. 4 Select Apply. 5 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy. 6 Edit the security policy that allows Internet access. 7 Select UTM. Select Enable Web Filter. If you have multiple security policies that allow Internet access, make these same changes to each of them. Results In this example configuration, you can view fortinet.com and go anywhere on the site, but all other web sites are blocked. URL filtering uses a black list approach. That is, all sites are allowed, except those that are blocked. Adding an entry that blocks all sites reverses this behavior. All sites are blocked except those that you add to the top of the list and allow access to. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 277
  • 278. Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check IP addresses as well as URLs Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check IP addresses as well as URLs Problem How do I prevent users from using IP addresses to access web sites that are suppose to be blocked? Users accessing web sites using IP addresses can bypass FortiGuard web filtering. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Configure FortiGuard web filtering to check IP addresses as well as domain names. This will prevent users from bypassing FortiGuard web filtering by using IP addresses to access web sites. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile and expand Advanced Filter. 2 Enable Rate URLs by Domain and IP Address and select Apply. Results The FortiGate unit submits IP addresses to the FortiGuard service just as it submits domain names when FortiGuard web filtering is enabled. If a site is part of a blocked category, the users will get the same result whether they use the site domain name or IP address when they visit. FortiGuard Web Filter ratings for IP addresses are not updated as quickly as ratings for URLs. This can sometimes temporarily cause the FortiGate unit to allow access to sites that should be blocked, or to block sites that should be allowed. Test the configuration by blocking access to fortinet.com and then attempt to access it using the site’s IP address. Configure FortiGuard web filtering to block access to the Information Technology category which is part of the General Interest - Business category group. Browse to http://www.fortinet.com/ and confirm that you are not allowed access. 278 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 279. Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check IP addresses as well as URLs Find the web site IP address by executing this CLI command: FG600B3908600705 # execute ping fortinet.com The result reveals the IP address in the first line: PING fortinet.com (66.171.121.34): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 66.171.121.34: icmp_seq=0 ttl=45 time=92.8 64 bytes from 66.171.121.34: icmp_seq=1 ttl=45 time=92.7 64 bytes from 66.171.121.34: icmp_seq=2 ttl=45 time=94.7 64 bytes from 66.171.121.34: icmp_seq=3 ttl=45 time=93.3 64 bytes from 66.171.121.34: icmp_seq=4 ttl=45 time=93.4 ms ms ms ms ms --- fortinet.com ping statistics --5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max = 92.7/93.3/94.7 ms Browse to http://66.171.121.34/ and if your attempt is blocked, you have verified that FortiGuard web filtering is checking IP addresses in addition to domain names. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 279
  • 280. Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check images as well as URLs Configuring FortiGuard web filtering to check images as well as URLs Problem How do I prevent users from accessing images directly, bypassing FortiGuard web filtering. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Configure FortiGuard web filtering to check images themselves as well as domain names. This will prevent users from bypassing FortiGuard web filtering by loading images directly. Since images are checked on their own, an image in a blocked category will not be blocked even if part of an allowed web site. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile and expand Advanced Filter. 2 Enable Rate Images by URL (Blocked images will be replaced with blanks) and select Apply. Results With this feature active, the FortiGate unit submits image addresses to the FortiGuard service just as it submits site addresses when FortiGuard web filtering is enabled. If an image is part of a blocked category, users will not be permitted to view it whether they access it directly, or as part of a site in an allowed category. If a blocked image is part of an allowed web site, the user is able to visit the web site, but the image is replaced by a placeholder. 280 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 281. Applying ratings to HTTP redirects Applying ratings to HTTP redirects Problem How do I make sure that your users are not automatically redirected to other web pages that have different ratings. WEB FILTERING Internal network FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Configure your FortiGate unit to consider the FortiGuard web filter category of the redirect destination, and act accordingly. Web sites can use HTTP redirects to seamlessly move users to other web pages or web sites. By default, the FortiGate unit does not check the FortiGuard web filter rating of the destination. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile. 2 Expand Advanced Filter enable Block HTTP Redirects by Rating. Results When a user is redirected, the FortiGate unit checks the category of the destination before allowing access to the web page. If the category is blocked, the user is denied access to the web page and presented with a replacement message. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 281
  • 282. Visualizing the applications on your network Visualizing the applications on your network Problem You need to find the applications that are using the most network bandwidth. APPLICATION CONTROL Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Find the security policies that process the most data and add the application control sensor named default to them. Use the application monitor to view a graph of the 10 applications using the most bandwidth. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and check the Count column to find security policies that process large amounts of data. 2 Edit each of these policies, enable UTM and Application Control, and select the application control sensor named default. If the application monitor does not show any information, verify that the security policies are processing traffic by viewing the Count column in the policy list. If the count is increasing the policy is processing traffic. You can also view policy usage from Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor. 282 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 283. Visualizing the applications on your network Results Go to UTM Profiles > Monitor > Application Monitor to view a graph that shows the 10 applications that are currently using the most data. The graph displays date and time on which data collection started. You can reset the graph to restart data collection. You can select Refresh to update the data displayed by the graph. You can drill down into any bar on the graph to display the source and destination addresses or names of the hosts that used the application. If the user authenticated you can also display the name of the user that used the application. The application monitor shows the results for all traffic being monitored by application control. You can monitor selected traffic by only adding application control monitoring to selected security policies. You can monitor all traffic by adding application control monitoring to all security policies. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 283
  • 284. Preventing the use of instant messaging clients Preventing the use of instant messaging clients Problem You need to prevent users on your network from using instant messaging applications. APPLICATION CONTROL Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Configure application control to block instant messaging: 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Application Control > Application Sensor. 2 Select Create New. 3 Under Filters in the Category list, choose im. 4 Confirm that the Action is set to Block, and then select OK. 5 Ensure that UTM and Application Control are enabled in the security policies that allow access to the Internet. Results Open any recognized instant messaging client and attempt to log in to the IM service. Your attempt is blocked. Users can run any instant messaging clients they may have installed, but the FortiGate unit will not allow them to log in to IM services. Users already logged in when you make this change may continue their IM session uninterrupted because only logging in to instant messaging services is blocked. You can view the instant messaging clients the FortiGate unit recognizes by filtering the application list to display only IM category applications: 1 2 3 284 Go to UTM Profiles > Application Control > Application List. Select the funnel icon in the Category column header. Move IM the right-hand column and select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 285. Blocking access to social media web sites Blocking access to social media web sites Problem You need to stop social media web site use on your network. APPLICATION CONTROL Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Configure the default application control sensor to block access to social media web sites. 1 Go to UTM > Application Control > Application Sensor and select Create New. 2 For the Category filter, select web. 3 For the Subcategory filter, select social-network and facebook-apps. 4 Confirm that the Action is set to Block, then select OK. 5 Ensure that UTM and Application Control are enabled in the security policies that allow access to the Internet. Results Users will not be able to access social media web sites. To confirm this, open a web browser and visit facebook.com. Instead of the Facebook web site, you are presented with a replacement message explaining that the site is blocked. There are many subcategories in the web category. Other combinations of selections may better suit your needs. Choose other subcategories and view the resulting sites in the Applications/Settings window. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 285
  • 286. Blocking peer-to-peer file sharing Blocking peer-to-peer file sharing Problem You need to stop peer-to-peer sharing on your network. APPLICATION CONTROL Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Configure the default application control sensor to block peer-to-peer sharing. 1 Go to UTM > Application Control > Application Sensor and select Create New. 2 For Category, select Specify. 3 Choose p2p from the category drop down menu. 4 For the Action, select Block. 5 Select OK. Select the default application control sensor in the security policy that allows Internet access. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy. 2 Enable UTM and Application Control, and select the application sensor named default. If you have multiple security policies that allow Internet access, make these same changes to each of them. Results Users will not be taking advantage of P2P transfers to share files in traffic controlled by the security policies incorporating the default application sensor. You can view which P2P protocols are blocked from the Application List. 1 286 Go to UTM > Application Control > Application List. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 287. Blocking peer-to-peer file sharing 2 Select Filter Settings and choose Add new filter. 3 Select the Category field. 4 Select the p2p value. 5 Select OK. The application list displays only the items in the P2P category. These are the blocked items. the Category heading filter is highlighted to indicate an active filter. As applications are added to the application list by FortiGuard updates, new items in the P2P category will be automatically included in your sensor. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 287
  • 288. Using IPS to protect a web server Using IPS to protect a web server Problem You want to protect a public web server from attacks. Internal Network Po Po rt 1 rt 2 Ex ter nal FortiGate IPS Web Server Solution Since web servers must be accessible, protection is not as simple as blocking access. This example uses IPS to protect a web server by placing the web server on a separate internal network and creating a security policy that allows web access from the Internet to the server. IPS is added to the policy to protect the server from attacks. Since the web server is running Apache under Linux, IPS is configured to detect and block known Apache and Linux attacks. Create a new IPS sensor 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Intrusion Protection > IPS Sensor and select Create New. 2 Enter web-server as the name of the new IPS sensor. 3 Select OK. The new IPS sensor is created but it has no filters, and therefore no signatures are included. Create the Linux filter 1 2 288 Go to UTM Profiles > Intrusion Protection > IPS Sensor and select the web-server IPS sensor. Select Create New to add a filter to the sensor. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 289. Using IPS to protect a web server 3 Configure the filter. Severity Target server OS Linux Protocol All (You could also select just the protocols allowed to the connect to the web server, for example HTTP and FTP.) Application All Tags 4 All All Select OK. The filter is saved and the IPS sensor page reappears. In the filter list, find the Linux Server filter and look at the value in the Matched Signatures column. This shows how many signatures match the current filter settings. You can select filter and select the View Rules icon to see a listing of the included signatures. The web server software is Apache, so you need to create a second filter for all Apache signatures. Create the Apache filter 1 Select Create New to add the Apache filter to the sensor. 2 Configure the filter. Severity All Target server OS Linux Protocol All Application Apache Tags All 3 Select OK. 4 Select Apply to save the sensor. It might seem that you can skip a step and create one filter that specifies both Linux server and Apache signatures. However, this would include a smaller number of filters. It would not include signatures to detect attacks against the operating system directly, for example. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 289
  • 290. Using IPS to protect a web server Add the IPS sensor to the security policy that allows access from the Internet to the web server 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and Edit the security policy that allows access from the Internet to the web server. 2 Select UTM. 3 Select Enable IPS. 4 Select the web_server IPS sensor. 5 Select OK to save the security policy. Results The web_server IPS sensor examines the web server traffic for matches to the signatures it contains. 290 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 291. Configuring IPS to stop traffic if the scanner fails Configuring IPS to stop traffic if the scanner fails Problem By default, traffic is allowed to flow without IPS protection if the IPS scanner fails. In particularly sensitive networks, the FortiGate unit be configured to block traffic while the problem is corrected. INTRUSION PREVENTION Internal network Attacks FortiGate Unit Attacks Solution Disable the IPS fail-open behavior by entering this CLI command: config ips global set fail-open disable end Results Under normal circumstances, changing the IPS failover setting will not change how your FortiGate unit behaves. In the unlikely event that the IPS scanner fails, however, all traffic controlled by security policies with IPS scanning will be blocked until the IPS scanner is working again. Traffic controlled by security policies without IPS scanning will continue to flow, regardless of the IPS fail-over setting and the state of the IPS scanner. Before making this change, consider whether a period without IPS protection is worse than your users having no Internet access. Even more important is whether your web server should continue to be accessible without IPS protection or inaccessible while the problem is fixed. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 291
  • 292. Protecting against denial of service (DoS) attacks Protecting against denial of service (DoS) attacks Problem You need to ensure that your web server is available even when subjected to a denial of service attack. INTRUSION PREVENTION Internal network DoS Attacks FortiGate Unit DoS Attacks Solution Create a DoS sensor, enable it in a DoS policy and adjust the threshold for your network. Create a new DoS sensor 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Intrusion Protection > DoS Sensor and select Create New. 2 Name the profile General Protection and select OK. 3 Select Enable and Logging for the tcp_syn_flood anomaly. Create a DoS policy and select the DoS sensor 1 2 For the Source Interface/Zone, select the interface connected to the Internet that visitors use to connect to your web site. Leave the source and destination addresses set to all and the Service set to ANY. 3 Enable DoS Sensor and select General Protection from the list. 4 292 Go to Policy > Policy > DoS Policy and select Create New. Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 293. Protecting against denial of service (DoS) attacks The DoS policy will scan incoming traffic and take no action when the number of SYN packets exceed the threshold, but it will log these occurrences. Run the DoS policy for a period to check the suitability of the default threshold of 2000 SYN packets per second to your network traffic. If a traffic peak triggers the DoS policy, increase the threshold. The idea is to set the threshold high enough that legitimate traffic will not trigger any action, but not so high that attacks are permitted. When you have found a threshold that fits these criteria for your network, change the tcp_syn_flood action to Block. Results Once you have determined the ideal threshold for your network, normal traffic will not exceed the threshold and it will be allowed. When an attack occurs, the attack will be blocked but legitimate traffic is permitted. This is because a communication session is initiated by a client sending a SYN packet. Legitimate clients send a second SYN packet when they do not receive the expected ACK acknowledgement and are allowed. Attackers attempt to open as many sessions as possible and will not ‘retry’ a connection attempt by sending a second SYN packet. In this way, the FortiGate unit can distinguish between an attack and legitimate traffic, and act accordingly. Periodically monitor the UTM log for traffic exceeding the threshold. Over time, your web site traffic may increase, requiring a higher threshold. Temporary traffic changes may also require a threshold adjustment, for example, increased traffic for a commerce web site during the holiday season. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 293
  • 294. Filtering incoming spam Filtering incoming spam Problem You need to filter incoming spam to stop wasting people’s time and your mail server’s resources. EMAIL FILTER Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Configure the default email filter profile to detect and filter spam. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Email Filter > Profile and select Enable Spam Detection and Filtering. 2 Verify that the email protocols (POP3, SMTP, IMAP) are all enabled. 3 Set the Spam Action for SMTP to Tagged. The SMTP spam action can be set to Discard, but always set the action to Tagged when creating or editing a spam filter profile. This will allow you to see the messages that the FortiGate unit determines are spam and ensures that no important messages are discarded if the profile doesn’t function as expected. 4 Expand FortiGuard Spam Filtering and enable IP Address Check, E-mail Checksum Check, and URL Check. 5 Find the security policies that process incoming email and add the email filter profile named default to them. Results Incoming email messages are scanned and those that the FortiGate unit determines are spam, are tagged with the word Spam at beginning of the email messages’ subject. Go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > UTM Log periodically to review the email filter activity. Users can configure their email client software to move spam messages to their email client’s spam or junk folder automatically, if required. 294 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 295. Use DLP to track personal information in HTTP traffic Use DLP to track personal information in HTTP traffic Problem You need to have a record of users sending credit card and other key personal information into and out of your network using HTTP. DLP Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Configure Data Leak Prevention (DLP) to examine HTTP traffic for credit card and other numbers and write a log message when a number is detected. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Data Leak Prevention > Sensor and select Create New to create a new DLP sensor named Personal-ID-HTTP. 2 Select Create New to add a filter to find American Express credit cards. Name Filter Byt Advanced Rule Advanced Rule HTTP-AmEx Action Log Only Archive FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ HTTP-AmEx Disable 295
  • 296. Use DLP to track personal information in HTTP traffic 3 Select Create New to add a filter to find Canadian Social Insurance Numbers (SINs). Name Filter By Advanced Rule Advanced Rule HTTP-Canada-SIN Action Log Only Archive 4 HTTP-Canada-SIN Disable Select Create New to add a filter to find American Social Security Numbers (SSNs). Name Filter By Advanced Rule Advanced Rule HTTP-US-SSN Action Log Only Archive 5 HTTP-US-SSN Disable Select Create New to add a filter to find Visa and Mastercard credit cards. Name HTTP-Visa-Mastercard Filter By Advanced Rule Advanced Rule HTTP-Visa-Mastercard Action Log Only Archive Disable 6 Select Apply to save the DLP sensor. 7 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and edit the security policy that allows Internet access. 8 Select UTM and DLP Sensor, and select the DLP sensor named Personal-ID-in-HTTP. 9 Select OK to save the security policy. Results To test, enter a random credit number into a web form. Check the UTM log for DLP log messages showing that a credit card number was found. 296 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 297. Blocking outgoing email containing sensitive information Blocking outgoing email containing sensitive information Problem You need to prevent users from sending sensitive information out of your network using email. DLP Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Configure Data Leak Prevention (DLP) to examine outgoing email for sensitive data. In this example, configure Visa and Mastercard credit card numbers as the information to protect. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Data Leak Prevention > Sensor and select Create New to create a new DLP sensor: Filter Name credit cards by email Filter By Advanced Rule Advanced Rule Email-Visa-Mastercard Action Log Only Archive Disable 2 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and edit the security policy that allows Internet access. 3 Enter credit cards by email as the Filter Name. 4 Select Advanced. 5 Edit each of these policies, enable UTM and DLP Sensor, and select the DLP sensor named default. Results To test, create an email message with a credit card number and send it. Your email client will return an error indicating that the message is blocked because it contains sensitive information. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 297
  • 298. Using the FortiGate vulnerability scanner to check your network for vulnerabilities Using the FortiGate vulnerability scanner to check your network for vulnerabilities Problem You need to discover if any of the computers on your network are vulnerable to attack. Internal network FortiGate Unit Solution Configure your FortiGate unit to scan your network for vulnerable hosts. In this example, the local network uses the 172.20.120.0/24 subnet. The FortiGate unit internal interface is a part on this subnet. Configure a vulnerability scan to run at midnight on the first day of every month. Create the asset definition 1 Go to UTM > Profiles > Vulnerability Scan > Asset Definition and select Create New to create a new asset. Name Type 298 Range Range 2 172.20.120 subnet 172.20.120.1-172.20.120.255 Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 299. Using the FortiGate vulnerability scanner to check your network for vulnerabilities Configure the scan schedule 1 Go to UTM > Profiles > Vulnerability Scan > Scan Schedule and configure the following settings: Recurrence Day of Month 1 Hour 00 Minutes 00 Vulnerability Scan Mode 2 Monthly Quick Select Apply. Vulnerability scans should always be schedule for periods of off-peak traffic. These scans can use significant network and FortiGate resources and may impact network performance. Run a manual scan immediately 1 Go to UTM > Profiles > Vulnerability Scan > Asset Definition and specify the 172.20.120 subnet by selecting the check box at the beginning of the row. 2 Select Start Scan. The scan will take a few moments. Results When the scan is complete, go to UTM > Profiles > Vulnerability Scan > Vulnerability Result. The results are broken down into four sections: Summary The scan start and stop time, the current scan status, and number of hosts scanned. Vulnerability by Severity A chart displaying the number of vulnerabilities sorted by high, low, and info severity. Vulnerability by Category A chart displaying the number of vulnerabilities by category. Results by host FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ The table listing all of the scanned hosts. The Asset Definition used to target the scan is listed as well as the host IP address, the OS Version, the Vulnerability Severity, and the number of vulnerabilities for the host. You may select the host to view further details, including a list of the vulnerabilities. 299
  • 300. FortiOS Cookbook SSL VPN SSL is an easy to use application-level network independent method of ensuring private communication over the Internet. Commonly used to protect the privacy of online shopping payments, customer’s web browsers can almost transparently switch to using SSL for secure communication without customer’s being required to do any SSL-related configuration or have any extra SSL-related software. SSL protection can also be applied to secure communication over the Internet between client PCs and a remote network using SSL VPN. For basic SSL VPN functionality all a user needs to do to access an SSL VPN is to browse to the IP address of a FortiGate unit configured for SSL VPN. The users do not require any special SSL VPN software or configuration since SSL in the form of HTTPS is automatically enabled by most web browsers. The FortiGate SSL VPN configuration requires an SSL VPN web portal for SSL VPN users to log into, the addition of a user authentication configuration to allow SSL VPN users to login and then the creation of SSL VPN security policies that control the source and destination access of SSL VPN users. SSL VPN security policies can also apply UTM and other security features to all SSL VPN traffic. FortiASIC processors can accelerate SSL VPN encryption, optimizing SSL VPN performance for a large user base. Additional SSL VPN features are available including tunnel mode, virtual desktop for enhanced endpoint protection, and endpoint security checks. These features are supported for SSL VPN clients that can be downloaded automatically by SSL VPN users after logging into the SSL VPN portal. Users can also download Fortinet SSL VPN clients to access these additional SSL VPN features without logging into and SSL VPN portal. Fortinet supports SSL VPN clients for many PC and mobile platforms. This chapter includes the following SSL VPN examples: • Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN • Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access for remote users • SSL VPN split tunneling: Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access and access to head office servers for remote users • Verifying that SSL VPN users have the most recent AV software before they can log into the SSL VPN FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 300
  • 301. Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN Problem You want to provide remote users the ability to access corporate internal sites and specific companyrelated external sites. er Us ote in 3 m Log 0.22 Re ser 0.12 U .2 172 Fo rtiG ate Un 6 .13 120 . n1 wa 72.20 1 it r rve Se .1 ail 168.1 Em 92. 1 Solution Using SSL VPN you can create a web portal, which, when the remote user connects they can view a list of links for internal servers and web sites. Creating a firewall address for the email server Create a firewall address for the email server. 1 To add the email server address, go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address, select Create New and enter the email server address: Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.12 Interface FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Email Server Internal 301
  • 302. Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN 2 Select OK. Creating the web portal Create the SSL VPN portal and a bookmark for the email server that the user connects to after logging in. 1 Go to VPN > SSL > Config and for IP Pools select Edit and add twhite to the Selected table. 2 Go to VPN > SSL > Portal and select Create New to create the portal: Name Internal_company_sites_portal Applications HTTP/HTTPS Portal Message Internal Company sites 3 Select OK to close the Edit Settings window. 4 On the default web portal delete the Bookmarks widget by selecting its Remove icon (looks like an X). 5 On the Add Widget on the right of the default portal select Bookmarks. 6 In the new Bookmarks widget select the Edit icon (looks like a pencil). 7 Optionally edit the Name and make sure Applications is set to HTTP/HTTPS. 8 Select OK in the Bookmarks widget. 9 In the Bookmarks widget select Add and create a bookmark to link the email server web page: Name Email Type HTTP/HTTPS Location https://mail.company.com Description Corporate email system 10 Select OK at the bottom of the Bookmarks widget. 11 Select Apply at the top of web portal page to save the web portal configuration. Adding and working with web portal widgets can be confusing and produce unexpected results. Always select Apply at the top of the web portal page after making a change. When you have completed making changes, navigate to another web-based manager page and then navigate back to the web portal to make sure you changes were saved. 302 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 303. Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN Creating an SSL VPN user and user group Create the SSL VPN user and add the user to a user group configured for SSL VPN use. 1 Go to User > User > User and select Create New to add the user: User Name Password 2 twhite password Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to add twhite to the SSL VPN user group: . Name Sales Type Firewall Allow SSL-VPN Access Internal_company_sites_portal Make sure you select the Allow SSL-VPN Access option and that you also select the SSL VPN web portal that the members of this user group connect to. If not selected, the Sales user group will not appear in the group list when configuring the SSL VPN authentication security policy. 3 Move twhite to the Members list. 4 Select OK. Creating an SSL VPN security policy Create an SSL VPN security policy with SSL VPN user authentication. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the SSL VPN security policy: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Email Action FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ wan1 SSL-VPN 303
  • 304. Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN 2 Select Configure SSL-VPN Users and select Add to add an authentication rule for remote SSL VPN users: Selected User Groups Selected Services Schedule Sales HTTP HTTPS always If the Sales user group does not appear in the User Group list, ensure you selected the SSL PVN Access option when creating the user group. If that option is not selected, the Sales user group will not appear in the group list when configuring the authentication security policy. 3 Select OK. Results To verify the setup works: 1 From the Internet, browse to https://172.20.120.136:10443/remote/login. 2 Login to the web portal: Name twhite Password password After logging in, the SSL VPN portal appears. 304 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 305. Setting up remote web browsing for internal sites through SSL VPN 3 Select the Email link in the Bookmarks widget. The portal launches a new window that displays the email server website. 4 From the FortiGate web-based manager go to VPN > Monitor > SSL-VPN Monitor to view the list of users connected using SSL VPN. From the FortiGate web-based manager, go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the session information for the SSL connection. Because of the internal nature of the SSL connection, the source address appears as 0.0.0.0 and the destination is the internal home address of 224.0.0.1 You can also use the diagnose debug application sslvpn -1 command to debug this configuration as described in “Debugging FortiGate configurations” on page 139. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 305
  • 306. Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access for remote users Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access for remote users Problem You want to provide remote users the ability to access the Internet while travelling, and ensure that they are not subjected to malware and other dangers by using the corporate firewall to filter all of their Internet traffic. er Us PN in 0 V SL Log .20 te S User 2.134 mo 21 Re 10. ot .ro ing ssl rows b n1 wa .136 0 .12 .20 Fo rtiG 172 ate Un it Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/ssl1.html Using SSL VPN and FortiClient SSL VPN software, you create a means to use the corporate FortiGate to browse the web safely. Creating an SSL VPN IP pool and SSL VPN web portal 1 Go to VPN > SSL > Config and for IP Pools select Edit and add SSLVPN_TUNNEL_ADDR1 to the Selected table. 2 Create the SSL VPN portal to by going to VPN > SSL > Portal and selecting tunnel-access. 3 Select the Edit pencil icon for the Tunnel Mode widget and enter the following: Name IP Mode User Group IP Pools 306 Browsing SSLVPN_TUNNEL_ADDR1 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 307. Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access for remote users 4 Select OK. Creating the SSL VPN user and user group Create the SSL VPN user and add the user to a user group configured for SSL VPN use. 1 Go to User > User > User and select Create New to add the user: User Name twhite Password password 2 Select OK. 3 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to add twhite to the SSL VPN user group: Name Tunnel Type Firewall Allow SSL-VPN Access tunnel-access Make sure you select the Allow SSL VPN Access option. If not selected, the Tunnel user group will not appear in the group list when configuring the authentication security policy. 4 Move twhite to the Members list. 5 Select OK. Creating a static route for the remote SSL VPN user Create a static route to direct traffic destined for tunnel users to the SSL VPN tunnel. 1 Go to Router > Static > Static and select Create New to add the static route: Destination IP/Mask 10.212.134.0/255.255.255.0 Device ssl.root The Destination IP/Mask matches the network address of the remote SSL VPN user. 2 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Select OK. 307
  • 308. Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access for remote users Creating security policies Create an SSL VPN security policy with SSL VPN user authentication to allow SSL VPN traffic to enter the FortiGate unit. Create a normal security policy from wan1 to SSLVPN Tunnel Interface to allow SSL VPN traffic to connect to the Internet. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the SSL VPN security policy: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone SSLVPN Tunnel Interface Destination Address SSLVPN_TUNNEL_ADDR1 Action 2 wan1 SSL-VPN Under Configure SSL-VPN Users, select Add to add an authentication rule for the remote user: Selected User Groups Tunnel Selected Services ANY Schedule always If the Tunnel user group does not appear in the User Group list, ensure you select the SSL VPN Access option when creating the user group. If that option is not selected, the Tunnel user group will not appear in the user group list when configuring the authentication security policy. 3 Select OK. 4 Select Create New to add a security policy that allows remote SSL VPN users to connect to the Internet: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 308 wan1 Destination Address 6 all Destination Interface/Zone 5 SSLVPN Tunnel Interface ACCEPT Select Enable NAT. Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 309. Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access for remote users Results Using FortiClient SSLVPN application, log into the VPN using the address https://172.20.120.136:10443/ and log in as twhite. Once connected, you can browse the Internet. From the FortiGate web-based manager go to VPN > Monitor > SSL-VPN Monitor to view the list of users connected using SSL VPN. The Subsession entry indicates the split tunnel which redirects to the Internet. From the FortiGate web-based manager, go to Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor to view the policy information for the SSL connection. For any web traffic, the source interface becomes ssl.root. Go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > Traffic Log to view the log information, and the logs will also show the source interface for outbound traffic from the SSL connection through the ssl.root interface. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 309
  • 310. SSL VPN split tunneling: Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access and access to head office servers for remote users SSL VPN split tunneling: Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access and access to head office servers for remote users Problem em .1 w 20 an .1 1 36 20 2. 17 H ea d 19 Se Of 2. rv fic 16 er e 8. 1. 1 R e fic it of Un d te ea a H tiG r Fo ot e U U SS 10 s .2 er se L V 12 Lo r P N .1 g 34 in .2 00 ss br l.ro ow o si t ng You want remote users to be able to securely access head office internal network servers and browse the Internet through the head office firewall. Solution This solution describes how to configure FortiGate SSL VPN split tunnelling using the FortiClient SSL VPN software, available from the Fortinet Support site. Using split tunneling, all communication from remote SSL VPN users to the head office internal network and to the Internet uses an SSL VPN tunnel between the user’s PC and the head office FortiGate unit. Connections to the Internet are routed back out the head office FortiGate unit to the Internet. Replies come back into the head office FortiGate unit before being routed back through the SSL VPN tunnel to the remote user. Creating a firewall address for the head office server 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New and add the head office server address: Address Name Type 192.168.1.12 Interface 310 Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 2 Head office server Internal Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 311. SSL VPN split tunneling: Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access and access to head office servers for remote users Creating an SSL VPN IP pool and SSL VPN web portal 1 Go to VPN > SSL > Config and for IP Pools select Edit and add SSLVPN_TUNNEL_ADDR1 to the Selected table. 2 Create the SSL VPN portal to by going to VPN > SSL > Portal and selecting tunnel-access. 3 Select the Edit pencil icon for the Tunnel Mode widget and enter the following: Name IP Mode User Group IP Pools SSLVPN_TUNNEL_ADDR1 Split Tunneling 4 Connect to head office server Enable Select OK. Creating the SSL VPN user and user group Create the SSL VPN user and add the user to a user group configured for SSL VPN use. 1 Go to User > User > User, select Create New and add the user: User Name twhite Password password 2 Select OK. 3 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to add twhite to the SSL VPN user group: Name Tunnel Type Firewall Allow SSL-VPN Access tunnel-access Make sure you select the Allow SSL-VPN Access option. If not selected, the Tunnel user group will not appear in the group list when configuring the authentication security policy. 4 Move twhite to the Members list. 5 Select OK. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 311
  • 312. SSL VPN split tunneling: Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access and access to head office servers for remote users Creating a static route for the remote SSL VPN user Create a static route to direct traffic destined for tunnel users to the SSL VPN tunnel. 1 Go to Router > Static > Static and select Create New to add the static route: Destination IP/Mask 10.212.134.0/255.255.255.0 Device ssl.root The Destination IP/Mask matches the network address of the remote SSL VPN user. 2 Select OK. Creating security policies Create an SSL VPN security policy with SSL VPN user authentication to allow SSL VPN traffic to enter the FortiGate unit. Create a normal security policy from ssl.root to wan1 to allow SSL VPN traffic to connect to the Internet. 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add the SSL VPN security policy: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address Head office server Action 2 wan1 SSL-VPN Select Configure SSL-VPN Users and select Add to add an authentication rule for the remote user: Selected User Groups Tunnel Selected Services ANY Schedule always If the Tunnel user group does not appear in the User Group list, ensure you select the SSL VPN Access option when creating the user group. If that option is not selected, the Tunnel user group will not appear in the user group list when configuring the authentication security policy. 312 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 313. SSL VPN split tunneling: Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access and access to head office servers for remote users 3 Select OK. 4 Select Create New to add a security policy that allows remote SSL VPN users to connect to the Internet: Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 5 ssl.root ACCEPT Select OK. Results Using the FortiClient SSL VPN application on the remote PC, connect to the VPN using the address https://172.20.120.136:10443/ and log in with the twhite user account. Once connected, you can connect to the head office server or browse to web sites on the Internet. From the web-based manager go to VPN > Monitor > SSL-VPN Monitor to view the list of users connected using SSL VPN. The Subsession entry indicates the split tunnel which redirects SSL VPN sessions to the Internet. From the web-based manager, go to Policy > Monitor > Session Monitor to view the session information for the SSL connection. For any web traffic, the source interface becomes ssl.root. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 313
  • 314. SSL VPN split tunneling: Using SSL VPN to provide protected Internet access and access to head office servers for remote users Go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > Traffic Log to view the log information, and the logs will also show the source interface for outbound traffic from the SSL connection through the ssl.root interface. 314 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 315. Verifying that SSL VPN users have the most recent AV software before they can log into the SSL VPN Verifying that SSL VPN users have the most recent AV software before they can log into the SSL VPN Problem Before a remote SSL VPN user logs into the network, you want to be sure that they have approved antivirus software installed on their computers. Only clients that meet the requirements are permitted to log on. l rna rk Inte etwo n Se rve Fo rtiG ate Un it r Re VP mote Nu S ser SL Solution Use SSL VPN host checking. When the remote client attempts to log in to the VPN network, the FortiGate unit uses the host check information to verify that the approved antivirus software is installed on the client computer. 1 Go to VPN > SSL > Portal, Edit a portal and select Settings. 2 Select Security Control and select the following: Host Check Custom Policy Select the names of one or more antivirus software packages from the FortiGate AV software database. You can select multiple options. If your company does not require a standard AV software on remote computers, you can set Custom to AV option, in which case, the FortiGate unit will check for any AV software from its SSL VPN antivirus software database. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 315
  • 316. Verifying that SSL VPN users have the most recent AV software before they can log into the SSL VPN 3 Select OK twice to save the portal configuration changes. Results When a remote user connects to the SSL VPN tunnel, the FortiGate unit verifies that the approved antivirus software is installed on the remote user’s device. If it is, the user can log in. If the approved antivirus software is not installed, the remote user sees the following error message: From the FortiGate web-based manager go to Log&Report > Event Log to see the tunnel message in the Action column. Select the log entry to view the detailed information, which indicates the user attempting to connect. The Reason row indicates that the host check failed. To make sure that SSL logs appear in the event log, go to Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting. Enable Event Logging and select SSL VPN user authentication event and SSL VPN session event. 316 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 317. FortiOS Cookbook IPsec VPN IPsec VPN is a common method for enabling private communication over the Internet. IPsec supports a similar client server architecture as SSL VPN. However, to support a client server architecture, IPsec clients must install and configure an IPsec VPN client (such as Fortinet’s FortiClient Endpoint Security) on their PCs or mobile devices. IPsec client configurations can be cryptic and complex, usually making SSL VPN more convenient for users with little networking knowledge. IPsec VPN, however, supports more configurations than SSL VPN. A common application of IPsec VPN is for a gateway to gateway configuration that allows users to transparently communicate between remote networks over the Internet. When a user on one network starts a communication session with a server on the other network, a security policy configured for IPsec VPN intercepts the communication session and uses an associated IPsec configuration to both encrypt the session for privacy but also transparently route the session over the Internet to the remote network. At the remote network the encrypted communication session is intercepted and decrypted by the IPsec gateway at the remote network and the unencrypted traffic is forwarded to the server. Responses from the server than pass back over the encrypted tunnel to the client. Many variations of the gateway to gateway configuration are available depending on the requirements. In addition to gateway to gateway IPsec VPNs, FortiGate units also support various mesh IPsec VPN configurations that can allow transparent communication between networks at multiple locations around the world. FortiGate units also support automated IPsec configurations of FortiClient software running on client PCs. All communication over IPsec VPNs is controlled by security policies. Security policies allow for full access control and can be used to apply UTM and other features to IPsec VPN traffic. Fortinet IPsec VPNs employs industry standard features to ensure the best security and interoperability with industry standard VPN solutions provided by other vendors. This chapter includes the following IPsec VPN examples: • Protecting communication between offices across the Internet using IPsec VPN • Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network • IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone • IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an Android device • Using the FortiGate FortiClient VPN Wizard to set up a VPN to a private network • Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 317
  • 318. Protecting communication between offices across the Internet using IPsec VPN Protecting communication between offices across the Internet using IPsec VPN Problem 12 0. w 17 an 2. 1 20 .1 2 ch ran _B _to HQ c se IP N VP al rn te In Q) l (H 4 rna 0.0/2 Inte 0.1 1 10. 2 You need to provide secure, transparent communication between company headquarters (HQ) and a branch office. o_H h_t Q 17 2. 20 .1 w 20 a .2 n1 00 nc Bra al rn te In h) anc (Br /24 l rna .0 Inte.168.1 192 Solution Create a gateway-to-gateway IPsec VPN between headquarters and the branch office. This basic gateway-to-gateway IPsec VPN assumes that both office have connections to the Internet with static IP addresses. This configuration uses a basic policy-based IPsec VPN configuration. 318 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 319. Protecting communication between offices across the Internet using IPsec VPN Configure the HQ FortiGate 1 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE), select Create Phase 1 and configure the IPsec VPN phase 1 configuration. Name HQ_to_Branch_p1 Remote Gateway Static IP Address IP Address 172.20.120.200 Local Interface wan1 Mode Main (ID protection) Authentication Method Preshared Key Pre-shared Key fortinet123 2 Select OK. 3 Select Create Phase 2 and configure the phase 2 configuration. Name HQ_to_Branch_p2 Phase 1 HQ_to_Branch_p1 4 Select OK. 5 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add a firewall address for the HQ network. Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0 Interface 6 HQ_net internal Select Create New to add a firewall address for the branch office network. Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 Interface FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Branch_net wan1 319
  • 320. Protecting communication between offices across the Internet using IPsec VPN 7 Select OK. 8 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy for the IPsec VPN. Source Interface/Zone Source Address HQ_net Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address Branch_net Schedule always Service ANY Action IPSEC VPN Tunnel 9 internal HQ_to_Branch_p1 Select Allow inbound and Allow outbound. 10 Select OK. Configure the Branch office The branch office settings are almost identical to the HQ settings. 1 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE), select Create Phase 1 and configure the IPsec VPN phase 1 configuration. Name Branch_to_HQ_p1 Remote Gateway Static IP Address IP Address 172.20.120.122 Local Interface wan1 Mode Main (ID protection) Authentication Method Preshared Key Pre-shared Key fortinet123 2 3 320 Select OK. Select Create Phase 2. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 321. Protecting communication between offices across the Internet using IPsec VPN 4 Enter the following information Name Branch_to_HQ_p2 Phase 1 Branch_to_HQ_p1 5 Select OK. 6 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add a firewall address for the branch office network. Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 Interface 7 Branch_net internal Select Create New to add a firewall address for the HQ network. Name HQ_net Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.10.10.0/255.55.255.0 Interface wan1 8 Select OK. 9 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a security policy for the IPsec VPN. Source Interface/Zone Source Address Branch_net Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address HQ_net Schedule always Service ANY Action IPSEC VPN Tunnel FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ internal Branch_to_HQ_p1 321
  • 322. Protecting communication between offices across the Internet using IPsec VPN 10 Select Allow inbound and Allow outbound. 11 Select OK. Results A user on either of the office networks should be able to connect to any address on the other office network transparently. For example, from a PC on the branch office with IP address 192.168.1.100 you should be able to ping a device on the HQ network with the IP address 10.10.10.100. When the VPN is operating you should be able to go to VPN > Monitor > IPsec Monitor and verify that its status is up. 322 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 323. Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network Problem You need a secure communication channel between FortiClient on a remote user’s computer, and the office so that the user can access work network resources. You also want to require individual IPsec VPN uses to authenticate to get access. l rna k Inte twor e n l .1 rna 8.1 inte 92.16 1 146 20. Offi ce n1 .1 wa 72.20 1 For tiG ate I wit Psec h X VP Au N th er Us ss ent dre Cli IP ad ti For ic ote nam em th Dy R i w Solution Create an IPsec VPN between FortiClient on the remote user’s PC and the office FortiGate unit that uses XAuth to authenticate the remote user. The remote user’s IP address changes so you need to configure a dialup IPsec VPN on the FortiGate unit. As well the remote user must start the VPN because the office FortiGate unit doesn’t know the user’s IP address. Creating a user and user group to support XAuth 1 Go to User > User > User and select Create New to add the user: User Name Password FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ fsmith passw0rd 323
  • 324. Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network 2 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to add fsmith to the user group:. Name FortiClient_group Type Firewall 3 Move fsmith to the Members list. 4 Select OK. Creating the IPsec VPN phase 1 and phase 2 and a DHCP server for the IPsec VPN 1 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE), select Create Phase 1 and configure Phase 1. Name FClient_VPN (the name must be under 16 characters) Remote Gateway Dialup User Local Interface wan1 Mode Main (ID protection) Authentication Method Preshared Key Pre-shared Key fortinet123 Peer Options Accept any peer ID 2 Select Advanced to configure advanced settings. 3 Select Enable IPsec Interface Mode and configure the following: IKE Version 1 IPv6 Version Clear check box. Local Gateway IP Main Interface IP DNS Server Use System DNS P1 Proposal 1 - Encryption 3DES Authentication SHA1 2 - Encryption AES128 Authentication SHA1 DH Group Keylife 324 5 28800 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 325. Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network XAuth Server Type PAP User Group FortiClient_group NAT Traversal Enable Keepalive Frequency 10 Dead Peer Detection 4 Enable as Server Enable Select OK. Go to System > Network > Interface and verify that a tunnel interface named FortiClient_VPN has been added under the wan1 interface. Edit the FortiClient_VPN tunnel interface and verify that the IP and Remote IP are both 0.0.0.0. These IPs must be set to 0.0.0.0 for the DHCP server to supply IP addresses to the remote users. 5 Go to System > Interface > DHCP server and elect Create New to add a DHCP server for the IPsec VPN Interface Name FortiClient_VPN Mode Server Enable Select Type IPsec IP 10.254.254.1 - 10.254.254.254 Network Mask 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway 192.168.1.1 DNS Service Use System DNS Setting 6 Select OK. 7 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE) and select Create Phase 2 to configure the phase 2 for the IPsec VPN. Name Phase 1 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ FortiClient_VPN2 FortiClient_VPN 325
  • 326. Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network 8 Select Advanced to configure advanced settings. P1 Proposal 1 - Encryption 3DES Authentication SHA1 2 - Encryption AES128 Authentication SHA1 Enable Replay Detection Select Enable perfect forward secrecy (PFS) Select DH Group 5 Keylife 1800 Seconds Autokey Keep Alive Do not select DHCP-IPsec Enable If DHCP-IPsec is grey, there is no valid DHCP server attached to the FortiClient _VPN tunnel interface. If there are static IP addresses assigned to the FortiClient_VPN tunnel interface IP and Remote IP, delete the Phase1 entry and start again. The DHCP server will not work if static IPs are assigned to the FortiClient_VPN tunnel interface. Creating a static route and security policies for the IPsec VPN configuration The static route ensures that traffic for the VPN does not leave the FortiGate unit for the default gateway. When you select the VPN interface as the Device, there is no requirement for a gateway, as shown by it being greyed out. 1 Go to Router > Static > Static Route and select Create New to add a static route for the IPsec VPN. Destination IP/Mask Device 2 326 10.254.254.0/255.255.255.0 FortiClient_VPN Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 327. Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network 3 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to create a policy to allow IPsec VPN traffic on the FortiClient_VPN interface. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone internal Destination Address all Schedule always Service ANY Action 4 FortiClient_VPN ACCEPT Select OK. Configure FortiClient These instructions were tested on FortiClient 4.2.1, and FortiClient 4.3.2. 1 On the remote computer, start the FortiClient console. 2 Go to VPN > Connections. 3 Select Advanced > Add. 4 Enter the following. Connection Name VPN Type 172.20.120.146 Remote Network 192.168.1.0 / 255.255.255.0 Authentication Method Preshared Key Pre-Shared Key FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Manual IPsec Remote Gateway 5 Work_VPN fortinet123 Select Advanced. 327
  • 328. Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network 6 Enter the following information. Acquire virtual IP address Enable and select Config to ensure DHCP is set. eXtended Authentication Enable and select Config to ensure Prompt to login is set. Remote Network 192.168.1.0 / 255.255.255.0 7 In the Policy area, select Config. 8 For both IKE and IPsec Proposals, remove the MD5 authentication entries. 9 In the IKE area, select Main Mode. 10 In Advanced Options, ensure that NAT Traversal is enabled. 11 Select OK to close the windows. Results You know your VPN is successful when you select the VPN on FortiClient, select Connection, and receive a “Connection Successful!” message. In FortiClient, the status next to the VPN connection will appear as Up, with the number of seconds it has been up, next to it. To ensure your new VPN works, from FortiClient select the Work_VPN entry, and then select Advanced > Test. This will open a window and display each step of the attempted connection. If there are any problems they will appear here for troubleshooting. For additional information, look at the event log of the FortiGate unit by going to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > Event Log. In particular, the Message, Action, and Error Reason parts of the log messages can be useful when troubleshooting. What if it didn’t work? Some useful troubleshooting checks include: • • Ensure both ends use the same P1 Proposal settings. • Ensure both ends are using main mode, unless there are connection problems and you want to try aggressive mode on both ends which is easier to connect but less secure. • Ensure XAuth settings are the same for both ends, with the FortiGate unit being the Server if it is enabled. • Ensure P2 Proposal details on the FortiGate unit match those on FortiClient. • When working with policy routing, ensure you have allowed inbound and outbound, especially if network services such as DNS or DHCP are having problems. • Check your NAT settings - for best results NAT traversal is enabled in the Phase 1 configuration, and NAT is not enabled in the security policy. • 328 Ensure both pre-shared keys match exactly. If the negotiation is OK but there is no traffic, check the route. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 329. Using FortiClient VPN for secure remote access to an office network • Only the FortiClient end can initiate the VPN tunnel because the FortiGate does not know the FortiClient IP address. Best Practices There are CLI only options that can help with FortiClient VPNs in certain situations. Phase2 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ set forticlient-enforcement {enable | disable} When enabled, only FortiClient users can connect. set add-route {enable | disable} Phase1 Enable to propagate VPN routes when using dynamic routing. set encapsulation {tunnel-mode | Set to transport-mode when using L2TP or transport-mode} other encapsulation with IPsec. 329
  • 330. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone Problem You need to configure an iPhone for user F. Smith to access a web server at work over a secure connection. IP se c VP N iPhone exa mp le.c om w an1 O ne ffic tw e or k inte rna l Solution The easiest way to connect to the office from a remote location is by an IPsec VPN connection. It is secure, and to the user, it appears as if they are on the network at work. The iPhone IPsec client is a Cisco UNITY client. In this example, user fsmith is part of the iPhoneVPN usergroup. F. Smith’s iPhone will be assigned an IP address in the range 172.16.1.1 - 172.16.1.254. The VPN is interface based. You already have three security policies to allow traffic to flow on your network; Internal to Wan1, Internal to dmz, and dmz to Internal. This example uses an Apple iPhone 4 running iOS 5.1. Menu options may vary for different models and iOS versions. The steps involved include: • • Configure the firewall address ranges called DMZ_WebServer and iPhoneVPNUsers. • Configure IPsec VPN Phase1. • 330 Configure the user fsmith, and the user group iPhoneVPN. Configure IPsec VPN Phase2. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 331. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone • Configure iPhone VPN Phase 1 access to the DMZ subnet in the CLI. • Configure an IPsec security policy between the iPhoneVPNUsers and DMZ_WebServer. • Configure the iPhone VPN settings. Create fsmith user account, and iPhoneVPN group 1 Go to User > User > User and select Create New and add a user account for an iPhone user. User Name fsmith Password my1pwd 2 Select OK. 3 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to create a user group for iPhone users. Name Type Firewall Available Users 4 iPhoneVPN Move fsmith to Members list. Select OK. Create a firewall addresses for the web server on DMZ and iPhone Users 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to enter the following information. Address Name Type 10.0.0.0/255.255.255.0 Interface FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 2 DMZ_WebServer dmz Select OK. 331
  • 332. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone 3 Select Create New and enter the following information. Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 172.16.1.0/255.255.255.0 Interface 4 iPhoneVPNUsers Any Select OK. Configure IPsec Phase1 settings 1 Go to VPN > IPsec Auto Key (IKE), select Create Phase 1 and enter the following. Name Remote Gateway Dialup User Local Interface wan1 Mode Main Authentication Method Preshared Key Preshared Key mykey123 Peer Options 2 iPhone Accept any peer ID Select Advanced and enter the following information. Enable IPsec Interface Mode IKE Version Main Interface IP DH Group 2 XAUTH Enable as Server Server Type AUTO User Group 332 1 Local Gateway IP 3 Enable iPhoneVPNUsers Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 333. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone Configure IPsec Phase2 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key and select Create Phase 2 to enter the following information. 1 Name iPhone_P2 Phase1 iPhone Select Advanced and enter the following information. 2 DH Group 2 Select OK. 3 Configure iPhone VPN Phase 1 access to the DMZ subnet Enter the following CLI commands. 1 config vpn ipsec phase1-interface edit iPhone set mode-cfg enable set unity-support enable set assign-ip enable set assign-ip-from range set mode-cfg-ip-version 4 set ipv4-start-ip 172.16.1.1 set ipv4-end-ip 172.16.1.254 set ipv4-netmask 255.255.255.0 set ipv4-split-include DMZ_WebServer end Create a new security policy for the VPN 1 Go to Policy > Policy and select Create new to enter the following information Source Interface/Zone Source Address DMZ Destination Address DMZ_WebServer Schedule Always Service ANY Action Accept Enable NAT FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ iPhoneVPNUsers Destination Interface/Zone 2 iPhone Disable Select OK. 333
  • 334. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone 3 Move this policy to the top of the policy list, to ensure it will be matched first. Configure the iPhone 1 On the iPhone, go to Settings > General > Network > VPN. 2 Select Add VPN Configuration > L2TP. 3 Enter the following information, and select Save. Description Office_VPN Server FortiGate external interface IP address Account fsmith RSA SecurID OFF Password my1pwd Secret mykey123 Send All Traffic ON Results To test the configuration, on the iPhone: 1 Ensure the iPhone has access to a data network. 2 Go to Settings > General > Network > VPN. 3 Select the Office_VPN, and set VPN to ON. When iPhone connects, a VPN icon appears next to the battery power indicator. On the FortiGate unit you can see the connection attempt and completion by going to Log&Report > Event Log. Figure 1: Sample event log of the iPhone VPN connection 334 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 335. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an iPhone When your VPN connection is established on your iPhone there will be a small VPN tag at the top of the screen. However, this is easily missed. If you want a clear message that your VPN connection is up and working on the iPhone, then enter the following CLI command on the FortiGate unit: config vpn ipsec phase1-interface edit iPhone set banner “YOU ARE NOW CONNECTED” next end This creates a pop-up banner message that is displayed on your iPhone when the VPN connection is successful. What if it didn’t work? Should your users encounter any problems connecting to the VPN using their iPhone, use the diagnose commands below to determine where the connection problem is. diag debug application ike -1 diag debug enable For example, for a failed connection, the debug output below indicates that the pre-shared keys did not match. In this case, the iPhone user incorrectly entered the pre-shared key. Re-entering the key corrected the problem. ike 0:iPhone:12: responder: main mode get 3rd message... ike 0:iPhone:12: dec 6FE92716080DA88485CF802B911B8B2A05100201000000000000006412F660DA267B11216B9A74F5D661FBBF7D9 C2CA9976C873AC02FF991FA073C7840C6E5C7A2A0AFD08477B1715E2E1031A9E0469D8EF992EF8F74FC4C1A0F84 66C875E5B2193FDC29 ike 0:iPhone:12: probable pre-shared secret mismatch ike 0:iPhone:12: unable to parse msg ike 0:iPhone:12: negotiation timeout, deleting ike 0:iPhone: connection expiring due to phase1 down ike 0:iPhone: deleting ike 0:iPhone: flushing ike 0:iPhone: sending SNMP tunnel DOWN trap FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 335
  • 336. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an Android device IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an Android device Problem A user on your network, W. Loman, has an Android device and needs access to the office servers over a secure connection. Android device ec IPs N VP exa mp le. wa com n1 dm z s ver ce Offi ser Solution The easiest way to connect to the office from a remote location is by VPN. It is secure and it appears as if you are physically on the network at the office. To connect over an IPsec VPN connection with an Android device, you need to use L2TP. In this example, user wloman is part of the Android_Users user group. The Android mobile device will be assigned an IP address in the range 192.168.1.90 - 192.168.1.99. This is a VPN policy; not interface based. For this example an LG P999 mobile phone running Android 2.2.2 was used. Menu options may vary for different models or versions of the Android OS. The steps involved include: • • Configure the firewall address ranges called Android_Range, and DMZ_Server. • Configure the FortiGate as an L2TP server in the CLI. • 336 Configure the user wloman, and the user group Android_Users. Configure IPsec VPN Phase1. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 337. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an Android device • Configure IPsec VPN Phase2 in the CLI. • Configure an IPsec security policy between the Android_Users and DMZ_Server. • Configure the Android device VPN settings. Create the user account for wloman 1 Go to User > User > User, select Create New and create the following user account.: Name wloman Password my1pass 2 Select OK. 3 Go to User > User Group > User Group select Create New to create a user group for Android users. Name Type Firewall Available Users 4 Android_users Select wloman and move to Members list Select OK. Configure the firewall address for Android_Range and DMZ_Server 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to add and a firewall address for Android users. Address Name Android_Users Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.[90-99] Interface wan1 2 Select OK. 3 Select Create New to add a firewall address for the DMZ network. Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0 Interface FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ DMZ_Server dmz 337
  • 338. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an Android device 4 Select OK. Configure the FortiGate unit as an LT2P server. Enter the following CLI commands: config vpn l2tp set sip 192.168.1.90 set eip 192.168.1.99 set status enable set usrgrp Android_Users end Configure IPsec tunnel Phase1 1 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE), and select Create Phase 1. 2 configure following settings. Name Remote Gateway Dialup User Local Interface wan1 Mode Main Authentication Method Preshared Key Preshared Key fortinet123 Peer Options 3 AndroidVPN Accept any peer ID Select Advanced and complete the following settings. Enable IPsec Interface Mode 1 - Encryption MD5 2 - Encryption 3DES 2 - Authentication SHA1 DH Group 338 AES256 1 - Authentication 4 Disable 2 Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 339. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an Android device Configure IPsec tunnel Phase2 in the CLI. 5 config vpn ipsec phase2 edit AndroidVPN2 set phase1name AndroidVPN set proposal aes256-md5 3des-sha1 set replay enable set pfs disable set keylifeseconds 3600 set encapsulation transport-mode end Create a security policy to establish the VPN connection 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New. Source Interface/Zone WAN1 Source Address Android_Users Destination Interface/Zone DMZ Destination Address DMZ_Server Action IPSEC Log Allowed Traffic enable VPN Tunnel AndroidVPN Inbound enable Outbound enable 2 Select OK. 3 Move the policy to the top of your policy list to ensure it is matched first. Configure the Android device. 1 On the Android device, go to Settings > Wireless & Networks > VPN Settings. 2 Select Add VPN. 3 Select Add L2TP/IPsec PSK VPN. 4 Enter the following information, and select the Menu Key > Save. VPN Name VPN Server 210.0.0.1 Set IPsec Pre-Shared Key FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Office_DMZ_server fortinet123 339
  • 340. IPsec VPN for a secure connection using an Android device Results To test the configuration: 1 Ensure the Android device has access to a data network. 2 Select the Office_DMZ_servers VPN. When the VPN connects, you will have access to the office servers as expected. What if it didn’t work? If there are problems connecting, check the event log on the FortiGate unit by going to Log&Report > Log Access > Event Log. The logs will show if the connection was successful. You can also use the CLI diagnose command below to get more details on where the connection attempt failed: diag debug application ike -1 The output can indicate something as simple as a pre-shared key mismatch, caused by the Android user entering the password incorrectly. 340 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 341. Using the FortiGate FortiClient VPN Wizard to set up a VPN to a private network Using the FortiGate FortiClient VPN Wizard to set up a VPN to a private network Problem You want to setup a VPN between FortiClient Endpoint Security users and a FortiGate unit quickly and easily. l rna k Inte twor ne l .1 rna 8.1 inte 92.16 1 146 20. Offi ce For n1 .1 wa 72.20 1 tiG ate I wit Psec h X VP Au N th ser t U ress lien add tiC P For ic I ote nam em th Dy R i w Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/vpn1.html Within FortiOS 4.3.1, there is a feature called the FortiClient VPN Wizard, that provides and easy way to setup a VPN with your FortiClient Connect. The wizard and FortiClient connect take care of encryption, authentication and related options. In this example, user sgreen is part of the Wizard_Users usergroup. Once the VPN tunnel is up, sgreen’s FortiClient Connect will be assigned an IP address in the range 192.168.1.90 - 192.168.1.99. The VPN is a VPN route is interface based. The FortiClient VPN Wizard configuration here was tested with FortiClient 4.2.1, FortiClient Connect (4.3), and FortiClient 4.3.2. On the FortiGate unit, the VPN is on the wan1 interface, the public facing interface with a domain of example.com. The office network is on the FortiGate internal interface. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 341
  • 342. Using the FortiGate FortiClient VPN Wizard to set up a VPN to a private network The FortiGate unit’s public facing interface, wan1 here, must have a public IP address, a public domain name, or a domain name resolved by dynamic DNS. This example uses the domain name example.com for the FortiGate unit gateway information. Create sgreen user account, and Wizard_users group 1 Go to User > User > User and select Create New and add a user account for an iPhone user. User Name sgreen Password my1pwd 2 Select OK. 3 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to create a user group for iPhone users. Name Type Firewall Available USers 4 Wizard_users Move fsmith to Members list. Select OK. Create a firewall addresses for Wizard_Range and Internal_Range 1 Go to Firewall Objects > Address > Address and select Create New to enter the following information. Address Name Type 192.168.1.[80-89] Interface 342 Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 2 Wizard_Range Any Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 343. Using the FortiGate FortiClient VPN Wizard to set up a VPN to a private network 3 Select Create New and enter the following information. Address Name Type Subnet / IP Range Subnet / IP Range 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 Interface 4 Internal_Range Any Select OK. Configure IPsec Phase1 settings using the FortiClient VPN Wizard This is where you use the Wizard rather than a typical IPSec VPN Phase 1 configuration. The encryption, authentication and other advanced settings are set by the FortiGate unit and FortiClient. All that is required is to configure the key phase 1 settings. 1 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE), select Create FortiClient VPN and enter the following:. Name Wiz Local Outgoing Interface wan1 Authentication Method Pre-shared key Pre-shared Key fortinet123 User Group Wizard_users Address Range Start IP 192.168.1.80 Address Range End IP 192.168.1.89 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 Configure IPsec Phase2 1 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE) and select Create Phase 2 to enter the following information. Name Phase1 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Wiz2 Wiz 343
  • 344. Using the FortiGate FortiClient VPN Wizard to set up a VPN to a private network Create a new security policy for the VPN 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create new and enter the following. Source Interface/Zone Source Address Wizard_Range Destination Interface/Zone Internal Destination Address Internal_Range Action ACCEPT Log Allowed Traffic enable Enable NAT 2 Wiz disable Move the policy to the proper location in the policy list. Configure FortiClient Connect 1 Start the FortiClient application 2 Go to IPsec VPN. 3 Select + at the bottom of the IPsec VPN connections list. 4 Enter the following information. Connection name Description VPN connection with office. Used Wizard to set it up. Remote gateway example.com Authentication Method Pre-shared Key Pre-shared Key fortinet123 Authentication (XAuth) 5 Wizard Prompt on Login Select OK. Results To test the configuration, select the Wizard VPN configuration in FortiClient Connect and select Connect. When connected, the status will appear as UP. 344 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 345. Using the FortiGate FortiClient VPN Wizard to set up a VPN to a private network What if it didn’t work? If there are problems connecting, check the event log on the FortiGate unit by going to Log&Report > Log Access > Event Log. The logs will show if the connection was successful. You can also use the CLI diagnose command below to get more details on where the connection attempt failed: diag debug application ike -1 The output can indicate something as simple as a pre-shared key mismatch, caused by the FortiClient user entering the password incorrectly. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 345
  • 346. Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN Problem For reliable communication between two remote networks you want to create a redundant OSFP routing configuration over redundant IPsec VPN tunnels. rt3 po .1.1 20 10. FortiGate 1 .1.1 rt1 po 72.16 1 .1.2 rt1 po 72.16 t2 1 r 1 po .1. FortiGate 2 168 2. t2 2 or 1. 19 p . 68 2.1 19 rt3 po .1.1 21 10. Solution On each FortiGate unit, configure the redundant OSFP network and distance and the redundant IPsec VPN setup. These steps assume that all FortiGate interfaces have been connected and configured for their networks. Add redundant IPsec tunnels to FortiGate 1 First, configure two IPsec VPN tunnels. 1 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE) , select Create Phase 1 and enter the following: Name Remote Gateway Static IP Address IP Address 172.16.1.2 Local Interface port1 Authentication Method Preshared Key Pre-shared Key 346 primary_tunnel primarypassword FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 347. Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN 2 Select Advanced and select Enable IPsec Interface Mode. 3 For Local Gateway IP, select Specify and enter 172.16.1.1. 4 Select OK. 5 Select Create Phase 2 and enter the following: Name P2_primary_tunnel Phase 1 primary_tunnel 6 Select OK. 7 Select Create Phase 1 to configure the second tunnel: Name second_tunnel Remote Gateway Static IP Address IP Address 192.168.1.2 Local Interface port2 Authentication Method Preshared Key Pre-shared Key secondpassword 8 Select Advanced and select Enable IPsec Interface Mode. 9 For Local Gateway IP, select Specify and enter 122.168.1.1. 10 Select OK. 11 Select Create Phase 2 and enter the following: Name P2_secondary_tunnel Phase 1 second_tunnel 12 Select OK. Add IP addresses for the IPsec interfaces on FortiGate 1 This VPN configuration is interface-based. The next step is to configure the interface IP addresses for the tunnels. 1 Go to System > Network > Interface. 2 For port1, select the arrow to expand the list. 3 Select primary_tunnel and select Edit and complete the following: IP Remote IP FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 347
  • 348. Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN 4 Select OK. 5 For port2, select the arrow to expand the list. 6 Select second_tunnel and select Edit and complete the following: IP Remote IP 7 10.2.1.1 10.2.1.2 Select OK. Configure OSPF on FortiGate 1 1 Go to Router > Dynamic > OSPF. 2 Enter a Router ID of 1.1.1.1. 3 In the Networks section, select Create New. 4 For the IP/Netmask, enter 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 and select OK. 5 Repeat the above steps for the following addresses: • 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.255 • 10.20.1.0 255.255.255.255 6 In Interfaces, select Create New and complete the following: Name Interface 7 primary_tunnel primary_tunnel Select OK and select Create New and complete the following: Name second_tunnel Interface second_tunnel 8 Select OK. 9 Finally, configure the cost of both tunnels so that the primary tunnel is the default connection with the secondary tunnel as redundant failover. The cost is set in the CLI: config router ospf config ospf-interface edit primary_tunnel set cost 10 set interface primary_tunnel next edit second_tunnel set cost 100 set interface second_tunnel end end 348 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 349. Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN Add redundant IPsec tunnels to FortiGate 2 First, configure two IPsec VPN tunnels. 1 Go to VPN > IPsec > Auto Key (IKE) , select Create Phase 1 and enter the following: Name primary_tunnel Remote Gateway Static IP Address IP Address 172.16.1.1 Local Interface port1 Authentication Method Preshared Key Pre-shared Key primarypassword 2 Select Advanced and select Enable IPsec Interface Mode. 3 For Local Gateway IP, select Specify and enter 172.16.1.2. 4 Select OK. 5 Select Create Phase 2 and enter the following: Name P2_primary_tunnel Phase 1 primary_tunnel 6 Select OK. 7 Select Create Phase 1 to configure the second tunnel: Name second_tunnel Remote Gateway Static IP Address IP Address 192.168.1.1 Local Interface port2 Authentication Method Preshared Key Pre-shared Key secondpassword 8 Select Advanced and select Enable IPsec Interface Mode. 9 For Local Gateway IP, select Specify and enter 192.168.1.2. 10 Select OK. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 349
  • 350. Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN 11 Select Create Phase 2 and enter the following and select OK: Name P2_second_tunnel Phase 1 second_tunnel 12 Select OK. Add IP addresses for the IPsec interfaces on FortiGate 2 This VPN configuration is interface-based. The next step is to configure the interface IP addresses for the tunnels. 1 Go to System > Network > Interface. 2 For port1, select the arrow to expand the list. 3 Select primary_tunnel and select Edit and complete the following: IP 10.1.1.2 Remote IP 10.1.1.1 4 Select OK. 5 For port2, select the arrow to expand the list. 6 Select second_tunnel and select Edit and complete the following: IP4 Remote IP 7 10.2.1.2 10.2.1.1 Select OK. Configure OSPF on FortiGate 2 1 Go to Router > Dynamic > OSPF. 2 Enter a Router ID of 2.2.2.2. 3 In the Networks section, select Create New. 4 For the IP/Netmask, enter 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.255 and select OK. 5 Repeat the above steps for the following addresses: • 10.2.1.2 255.255.255.255 • 10.21.1.0 255.255.255.255 6 In Interfaces, select Create New and complete the following: Name Interface 350 primary_tunnel primary_tunnel FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 351. Redundant OSPF routing over IPsec VPN 7 Select OK. 8 Select Create New and complete the following: Namet second_tunnel Interface second_tunnel Select OK. 9 Finally, configure the cost of both tunnels so that the primary tunnel is the default connection with the secondary tunnel as redundant failover. The cost is set in the CLI: config router ospf config ospf-interface edit primary_tunnel set cost 10 set interface primary_tunnel next edit second_tunnel set cost 100 set interface second_tunnel end end Results The VPN network between the two OSPF networks will use the primary VPN connection. In the event that the VPN tunnel goes down, the secondary tunnel will be used automatically. Use the CLI commands to view the status and traffic on the network: get router info ospf neighbor get router info routing-table ospf FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 351
  • 352. FortiOS Cookbook Authentication Identifying users and other computers (authentication) is a key part of network security. This chapter describes some basic elements and concepts of authentication. Businesses need to authenticate people who have access to company resources. In the physical world this may be a swipe card to enter the building, or a code to enter a locked door. If a person has this swipe card or code, they have been authenticated as someone allowed in that building or room. Authentication is the act of confirming the identity of a person or other entity. In the context of a private computer network, the identities of users or host computers must be established to ensure that only authorized parties can access the network. The FortiGate unit enables controlled network access and applies authentication to users of security policies and VPN clients. This chapter includes the following authentication examples: • Creating a security policy to identify users • Identify users and restrict access to websites by category • Creating a security policy to identify users, restrict access to certain websites, and control use of applications • Configuring FSSO for single sign-on user access in a Windows AD environment • Adding FortiToken two-factor authentication to a user account • Stopping the “Connection is untrusted” message FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 352
  • 353. Creating a security policy to identify users Creating a security policy to identify users Problem How do you identify the users who are accessing Internet services through your FortiGate unit. This is the first step towards controlling user’s access to resources through the FortiGate unit. Solution Watch the video: http://docs.fortinet.com/cb/auth1.html Enable FortiGate user authentication by creating a user group named Sales and adding a user named wloman to this group. Then add an identity based policy to a security policy that accepts connections from the internal network to the Internet. Add the Sales user group to the identity based policy. Test the configuration by authenticating with the FortiGate unit and viewing the information displayed in the user monitor. This solution describes adding a user to the FortiGate local user database. FortiOS user authentication can also integrate with LDAP, RADIUS, or TACAS+ servers, Windows NTLM, Fortinet single sign on (FSSO), and PKI solutions. 1 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to add a user group with the following settings: Name Type 2 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Sales Firewall Select OK. 353
  • 354. Creating a security policy to identify users 3 Go to User > User > User and select Create New to a user with the following settings: Name wloman Password password Add this user to Groups Sales 4 Select OK. 5 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and Edit a policy that allows users to access the Internet. 6 Select Enable Identity Based Policy and Add an identity-based policy with the following settings: Selected User Groups Selected Services ANY Schedule 7 Sales always Select OK to save the security policy. Results From a web browser on the internal network, attempt to access the Internet. If the session is accepted by the policy that you added the identity based policy to you should be prompted for a user name and password. Enter wloman and password. If authentication is successful you should be able to browse anywhere on the Internet. You can customize the authentication page that users see by going to System > Config > Replacement Message > Authentication > Login page. Form the FortiGate web-based manager go to User > Monitor > Firewall to view the list of authenticated firewall users. An entry similar to the following should appear, If you select De-authenticate All Users or if you select the De-authenticate user icon for Example_user you will have to authenticate with the firewall again to continue browsing the Internet. You can also go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > Event Log to view log messages recorded when the users authenticated. What if it didn’t work? If you do not see an authentication page, verify that the identity based policy has been added to the correct security policy by viewing the Count column in the policy list. If the count is increasing the policy is processing traffic. You can also view policy usage from Policy > Monitor > Policy Monitor. 354 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 355. Identify users and restrict access to websites by category Identify users and restrict access to websites by category Problem How to allow only authorized users to access the Internet and block these users from accessing online shopping and auction websites. WEB FILTERING Solution Block access to shopping and auction websites by adding a web filter profile named Sales_web_filter that blocks shopping and auction websites. Enable web filtering for the identity based policy created in “Creating a security policy to identify users” on page 353 and add the Sales_web_filter profile to it. Test the configuration by authenticating and then attempting to browse to an online shopping web site. This example requires the FortiGate unit to have a valid FortiGuard Web Filtering license. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Web Filter > Profile and select Create New to add a new web filter profile group named Sales_web_filter. 2 Select the FortiGuard Categories > General Interest - Personal > Shopping and Auction category, then select Block as the action for selected categories. 3 Select OK to save the web filter profile. 4 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and Edit the policy that allows users to access the Internet and contains the identity based policy. 5 Edit the identity based policy that includes the Sales user group. 6 Select UTM. 7 Select Enable Web Filter and select the Sales_web_filter profile. 8 Save the changes to the identity based policy and the security policy. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 355
  • 356. Identify users and restrict access to websites by category Results Go to User > Monitor > Firewall and deauthenticate the wloman user. From a web browser on the internal network, attempt to access the Internet. If the session is accepted by the identity based policy you should be prompted for a user name and password. Enter wloman and password. If authentication is successful you should be able to browse the Internet. Attempt to access an online shopping or auction website. FortiGuard Web Filtering web page blocked message appears, blocking access to the website. If you attempt to access an online shopping page before authenticating, the FortiGate unit would ask you to authenticate. After authenticating the FortiGuard web page blocked message appears. You can customize the FortiGuard web filtering page that appears by going to System > Config > Replacement Message > FortiGuard Web Filtering > URL block message. Form the FortiGate web-based manager go to UTM Profiles > Monitor > Web Monitor to view graphs of FortiGuard Web Filtering activity. The graphs should show the Shopping and Auction category has been blocked, What if it didn’t work? If you can access the online shopping site it may not be in the FortiGuard web filtering database. Try another online shopping site to see if it is blocked. You can browse to http://www.fortiguard.com/webfiltering/webfiltering.html and look up the URL to see what category it has been added to. You can also request to have the category changed. All sites will be blocked if the FortiGate unit cannot access the FortiGuard network to get web site ratings. This happens because the Allow Websites When a Rating Error Occurs option under Advanced Filter in the web filter profile is disabled by default. 356 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 357. Creating a security policy to identify users, restrict access to certain websites, and control use of applications Creating a security policy to identify users, restrict access to certain websites, and control use of applications Problem How to allow only authorized users to access the Internet and block these users from accessing online shopping and auction websites, and block them from using any excessive bandwidth consuming applications, including Skype. WEB FILTERING Solution Blocking nuisance applications is common on corporate networks to control bandwidth usage, illegal file sharing, and employee time wasting. Enable web filtering and block access to shopping and auction websites for the identity based policy as described in “Identify users and restrict access to websites by category” on page 355. Then add the Sales_app_sensor profile to it to block excessive bandwidth applications. Test the configuration by authenticating and then attempting to use a blocked application such as bitTorrent, KaZaa, or eDonkey. This example requires the FortiGate unit to have a valid FortiGuard Web Filtering license. 1 Go to UTM Profiles > Application Control > Application Sensor and select Create New to add a new detection list named Sales_app_sensor. 2 Select Create New above the list to create a new application detection entry that blocks all running applications in the instant messaging category. 3 Select OK to save the IM blocking application detection entry. 4 Select Create New to create a new application detection entry that allows Skype. Select Instant Messaging category, and specify the application. Select Filter by Vendor and find Skype Technologies in the list, and select Allow for the action. 5 Select OK to save the application detection entry. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 357
  • 358. Creating a security policy to identify users, restrict access to certain websites, and control use of applications 6 Move the Skype entry above the block all instant messaging. Otherwise, Skype will be blocked with all the other IM applications. 7 Select OK to save the web filter profile. 8 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and Edit the policy that allows users to access the Internet and contains the identity based policy. 9 Edit the identity based policy that includes the Sales user group. 10 Select UTM. 11 Select Enable Web Filter and select the Sales_web_filter profile. 12 Save the changes to the identity based policy and the security policy. Results Go to User > Monitor > Firewall and deauthenticate wloman. From a web browser on the internal network, attempt to access the Internet. If the session is accepted by the policy that you added the identity based policy to, you should be prompted for a user name and password. Enter wloman and password. If authentication is successful you should be able to browse the Internet. Attempt to access an online shopping or auction website. FortiGuard Web Filtering web page blocked message appears, blocking access to the website. Attempt to use one of the blocked high bandwidth applications. It should be blocked through the Application Sensor. If you attempt to access an online shopping page before authenticating, the FortiGate unit would ask you to authenticate. After authenticating the FortiGuard web page blocked message appears. You can customize the FortiGuard web filtering page that appears by going to System > Config > Replacement Message > FortiGuard Web Filtering > URL block message. Form the FortiGate web-based manager go to UTM Profiles > Monitor > Web Monitor to view graphs of FortiGuard Web Filtering activity. The graphs should show the Shopping and Auction category has been blocked, 358 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 359. Creating a security policy to identify users, restrict access to certain websites, and control use of applications If you use the Application Sensor to block games if you are not logged in, the games will not be able to connect and because of that some just will not start up. For example World of Warcraft launcher never appears after you start it when it is blocked like this. Where other games, such as World of Tanks, load their loading application before attempting to connect so you will get an error message with those games. What if it didn’t work? If you can access the online shopping site it may not be in the FortiGuard web filtering database. Try another online shopping site to see if it is blocked. You can browse to http://www.fortiguard.com/webfiltering/webfiltering.html and look up the URL to see what category it has been added to. You can also request to have the category changed. All sites will be blocked if the FortiGate unit cannot access the FortiGuard network to get web site ratings. This happens because the Allow Websites When a Rating Error Occurs option under Advanced Filter in the web filter profile is disabled by default. If the behavior is not what you expect, check the logs. Turning on logging leaves a trail whenever you authenticate or access is blocked. For Authentication entries look in the Event Log, for blocked websites look in Web Filter Log, and for blocked applications look in Application Control log. You can use these log messages or lack of them to find details that will help fix the problem. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 359
  • 360. Configuring FSSO for single sign-on user access in a Windows AD environment Configuring FSSO for single sign-on user access in a Windows AD environment Problem You want users to authenticate using their Windows Active Directory credentials. You are using Windows Active Directory (Windows AD) running on Windows Server 2008. Inte rna p 10 ort .1 10 .1 00 .1 do WInd ma ow in s 10. ad86 cont AD 1.1 4r2 rolle 00. r 131 l ne two p 17 ort 2. 9 16 .2 0 0. 1 rk FortiGate Unit Unit Solution Configure the FortiGate unit to obtain logon information about Windows AD users from the Windows AD domain controller. This information includes each user’s Windows AD user group. Create an identity-based policy to grant access only to users belonging to specific groups. The FortiGate unit obtains logon information about Windows AD users from the FSSO Collector Agent. Configure the FSSO Agent 1 2 3 4 5 6 360 On the Windows AD server, from the Start menu, select Programs > FortiNet > Fortinet Single Sign On Agent > Configure Fortinet Single Sign On Agent. Select Require Authenticated Connection from FortiGate and enter a password, forti123, for example. In the Common Tasks section, select Set Directory Access Information and set AD access mode to Standard. Select OK. In the Common Tasks section, select Set Group Filters, and then select Add to create a new filter. Add the groups “AD864R2/GROUP1” “AD864R2/GROUP2”, “AD864R2/GROUP3”, and “AD864R2/GROUP4”. Select OK. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 361. Configuring FSSO for single sign-on user access in a Windows AD environment Figure 1: Configuring the FSSO agent Configure the FortiGate unit to access the FSSO Agent Go to User > Single Sign-On > FSSO Agent and select Create New to add the FSSO agent: 1 Name AD-server FSSO Agent IP/Name 10.1.100.131 Port 8000 Password forti123 Select OK. 2 Get user group information from the Windows AD server Enter the following CLI command to refresh user group information from the Windows AD server using the Fortinet Single Sign On (FSSO) agent: execute fsso refresh Add user groups to the FortiGate unit 1 Go to User > User Group > User Group and select Create New to enter the following user group configuration: Name Type FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Fortinet Single-Sign-On (FSSO) Members 2 AD Add AD864R2/GROUP1, AD864R2/GROUP2, AD864R2/GROUP3, and AD864R2/GROUP4 from the Available Members list. Select OK. 361
  • 362. Configuring FSSO for single sign-on user access in a Windows AD environment Configure an identity-based firewall policy 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add an identity-based policy that requires authentication for connections from port10 to port9. 2 Enter: Source Interface/Zone port10 Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone port9 Destination Address all Action ACCEPT Enable NAT Select. Enable Identity Based Policy Select. Fortinet Single Sign-On Select. NTLM Authentication Select. 3 Select Enable Identity Based Policy. 4 Select Fortinet SIngle Sign-On (FSSO). 5 Select NTLM Authentication. 6 Select Add and add the AD user group to the identity-based policy: User Group Service ANY Schedule 7 AD always Select OK to save the authentication rule and then select OK to save the policy. Results Windows AD users in the selected Windows AD user groups who have already logged into the Windows AD network can access the Internet without being asked by the FortiGate unit to enter their logon credentials again. 362 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 363. Authenticating with FortiAuthenticator Authenticating with FortiAuthenticator Problem Your organization has opened a second office and purchased a FortiGate unit to protect its network. Users must authenticate to access the Internet. The authentication database must be the same at both offices. r Inte l rna inte rna l ne po rt3 to ica ent uth unit rtiA Fo two rk FortiGate FortiGate Unit G Solution Set up a FortiAuthenticator unit as a RADIUS server that multiple FortiGate units can use for authentication. On the FortiAuthenticator unit, you need to create a user account for each employee. Register each FortiGate unit on the FortiAuthenticator unit as a Network Access Server (NAS) so that it can request user authentication. Create user accounts on the FortiAuthenticator unit 1 Go to Authentication > Users > Users and select Create New to create a user account: Username Password my_secure_pwd Password confirmation FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ wloman my_secure_pwd 363
  • 364. Authenticating with FortiAuthenticator 2 Select Allow RADIUS authentication and then select OK. On this page you can also • enter additional information about the user • configure password recovery by email or security question • add the user to user groups 3 Create additional user accounts as needed, one for each employee. Register each FortiGate unit as a NAS on the FortiAuthenticator unit 1 Go to Authentication > NAS > NAS and select Create New. Enter the following information about the FortiGate unit: Name Server Name / IP 172.20.120.132 Secret 2 FortiGate1 hardtoguess You will also enter this Secret on the FortiWiFi unit. Repeat for each FortiGate unit. Configure the FortiGate unit to use FortiAuthenticator as a RADIUS server 1 Go to User > Remote > RADIUS and select Create New to add the FortiAuthenticator unit as a RADIUS server. Name Type Query Primary Server Name/IP 172.20.120.53 Primary Server Secret 2 facRADIUS hardtoguess This is the same Secret that you entered on the FortiAuthenticator unit. Go to User > User Group > User Group and create a user group with facRADIUS as its only member: Name Type 364 wifi-user-grp Firewall FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 365. Authenticating with FortiAuthenticator 3 Select Add to add facRADIUS: Remote Server facRADIUS Group Name Any Create the identity-based policy 1 Go to Policy > Policy > Policy and select Create New to add a Office-to-Internet policy that allows users to access the Internet. Source Interface/Zone Source Address all Destination Interface/Zone wan1 Destination Address 2 wifi all Select Enable Identity Based Policy, select Add, and enter the following information: User Group wifi-user-grp Service ANY Schedule always 3 Select Enable NAT and Use Destination Interface Address. 4 Select OK. Results On your a computer connected to the internal network, attempt to connect to a web site on the Internet. You should be asked for your user name and password. After entering valid credentials, you should have access to the web site. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 365
  • 366. Adding FortiToken two-factor authentication to a user account Adding FortiToken two-factor authentication to a user account Problem How do you add a FortiToken to a user account. FortiToken User FortiGate Unit Solution Two-factor authentication is fast becoming an industry requirement. FortiToken is a cost effective solution. With its combination of information you know (your username and password) and something you have (the FortiToken device), it improves your network security with little extra work for administrators. FortiToken is a one-time password generator that users must carry with them. It generates a six-digit token that the user enters in addition to username and password at logon as an extra factor of security. It serves a similar purpose to RSA’s SecureID tokens. To add a new FortiToken to a user, the FortiToken must first be added to the FortiGate unit, verified by the FortiGuard system, and FortiGate and FortiToken time must be synchronized. Then the FortiToken can be applied to the user account. Test the configuration by the user logging in and being prompted for the FortiToken generated code. This solution assumes you have a FortiToken, the user account wloman is already created, and is part of a user group that is used in an identity-based security policy. FortiTokens and other two-factor authentication can be added to local or remote users or administrators. This applies to FortiToken-200, with other models having minor variations. 1 366 Get your FortiToken and make sure it is working. Press the button. It should display a six-digit number and to the left a stack of up to six bars. These represent the time until the code changes, one bar for each 10 seconds. After a few seconds the display should turn off to save power. Turn FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 367. Adding FortiToken two-factor authentication to a user account the FortiToken over and verify there is a serial number. It is 16-digits long and starts with FTK. For this example the token serial number is FTK2000BHV1KRZCC. 1 Go to User > FortiToken > FortiToken and select Create New. 2 Enter the serial number and select OK. Serial Number #1 FTK2000BHV1KRZCC Automatically Send Activate Request to FortiGuard Select You may have problems entering the serial number. If any of the characters are wrong it will be invalid. If you already entered this serial number, it will be invalid. If it is the wrong length, it will be invalid. For security reasons there is no hint of what is wrong — you must determine that by yourself. 3 Wait for the FortiGuard system to validate your FortiToken’s serial number. When you first enter the serial number its status is listed as New. Once FortiGuard validates the serial number, the status will change to Active. 4 Go to User > FortiToken > FortiToken, select the FortiToken serial number you just added, and select Synchronization. The FortiToken Synchronization window appears. 5 Press the button on your FortiToken, and enter the resulting six-digit number in the First Code field. The bars displayed on the left size of the FortiToken display are a count down to when the code changes. When the displayed code changes, press the FortiToken button again, and enter that code in the Second Code field. 6 Go to User > User > User and edit the user account. Select Enable Two-factor Authentication, under Deliver Token Code by ensure FortiToken is selected, and choose your serial number from the drop-down list. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 367
  • 368. Adding FortiToken two-factor authentication to a user account If there are no FortiTokens listed in the drop-down list on the user edit page, go to User > FortiToken > FortiToken and verify the status of the entry. If it does not say Active, it is not available to be associated with a user’s account. Generally the FortiGuard system will verify the FortiToken serial number after a short period of time. If this does not happen, ensure you have a valid connection to the FortiGuard network. See (FortiGuard Troubleshooting section). 7 Select OK to save the user. Results To verify the user has two-factor authentication configured, go to User > User > User. On the list of users that is displayed wloman will have a green check under two-factor authentication. This verifies that some form of two-factor authentication is associated with this account. To verify the user has FortiToken two-factor authentication properly configured, go to User > FortiToken > FortiToken. On the list of FortiToken serial numbers, the one associated with the wloman account will have wloman displayed in the User column. You can also go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > Event Log to view log messages recorded while registering the FortiToken, and changing the user account: Best Practices If you are assigning an administrator a FortiToken, ensure there is another administrator account configured as a backdoor in if there are problems authenticating. Otherwise you will be unable to logon. On a regular basis, check all FortiTokens for drift. To do this take the token in your hand, go to User > FortiToken > FortiToken, and select Synchronize. When you enter the 2 codes, you are updating the FortiGate unit clock with any drift in the FortiToken clock that might have happened. This prevents logon issues due to drift. 368 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 369. Stopping the “Connection is untrusted” message Stopping the “Connection is untrusted” message Problem When you first connect to a FortiGate unit with your web browser, a message may appear questioning the connection’s security. How do you prevent this? CERTIFICATE Solution When you see a “Connection is untrusted” type message, it means there is a problem with the certificate for the website you are connecting to. Anytime you browse a website, you are using either HTTP or HTTPS. The difference between them is that HTTPS has security. This security is in the form of certificates that identify the source as being legitimate. Without a valid certificate, the customer does not know if it is really the true website, or if a hacker hijacked their connection with malicious intent. With FortiGate units, this message occurs for two reasons — because the default certificate used by the FortiGate unit is a self-signed certificate, and because the certificate is valid only for the FortiGate unit. To be trusted, a certificate must be signed by a known certificate authority (CA) that the web browser can verify. For example if Fred’s certificate is signed by Bob, and Bob’s certificate is signed by Peter, then anytime someone check’s Fred’s certificate they must be able to trace it back to Peter and verify that Peter is trustworthy. Any break in that chain, and Fred’s certificate is seen as untrustworthy. Contact your ISP or other online services provider to get a trusted intermediate CA certificate for your FortiGate unit. When you are giving them the information, make sure it is clear where you will be using this certificate: on an internal network, a public facing website, or across your enterprise. Ensure it is a CA certificate as this allows you to sign certificates for local users for applications such as VPN. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 369
  • 370. Stopping the “Connection is untrusted” message Generally online services providers include a form for you to fill out to create your certificate when you are paying for it on their website. However another common method is to generate a certificate signing request (CSR) with an application like openssl. This is a request that is sent to the certificate authority providing you with your certificate. They process the request, usually automatically, and return a certificate to the email address provided based on the information in the CSR. The certificate from the CA is a text file that contains the information you included in the CSR as well as details about the CA who issued the certificate, when it was issued and when it expires, and the “fingerprints” or encryption associated with it. To install a CA certificate from your computer to the FortiGate unit you go to System > Certificates > CA Certificates and select Import. After you browse to the certificate file, which is usually a .cer or .p12 format text file, and select it will be installed on your FortiGate unit. You can verify this by refreshing the display to see the new certificate. It will be displayed by name and subject, and you can select it for more in-depth details if you need to verify it. Now when you are using HTTPS or other SSL connection, your FortiGate unit will not generate “untrusted” certificate-based error messages. 370 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 371. FortiOS Cookbook Logging and Reporting You can use FortiGate logging to record all traffic passing through the FortiGate unit and record all events such as when application activity, virus events, attacks and so on. In security policies you can also enable traffic logging to record log messages for all of the traffic accepted by security policies. On FortiGate units with hard disks, all of the information captured by logging is compiled into the weekly activity report. You can view this report at any time to see details of the activity captured by FortiGate logging. Included in the report is bandwidth and application data, web usage data, email usage data, threats intercepted, and VPN usage. In addition to real time viewing you can view historical versions of the report which is recorded each week. You can also view the actual log messages recorded by the FortiGate unit. Viewing log messages supplies more details about specific events recorded by the FortiGate unit and can be used to trace activity and diagnose problems. FortiGate units without hard disks support a port of these logging and reporting features. On any FortiGate unit you can send log messages to a FortiAnalyzer unit or remote syslog server and use these devices to report on FortiGate activity recorded by log messages. Throughout the web-based manager you can find monitor pages that display real time information about that part of the product. For example, in the policy section of the web-based manager you can view the list of active sessions being processed by the FortiGate unit and view a graph of the most active security policies. In the UTM profiles section of the web-based manager monitoring pages are available for most UTM functions, including application usage, intrusion monitoring, and endpoint monitoring. Many of the reporting and monitoring functions include drill down options to view more details or different views of the information on the monitor or report page. This chapter includes the following logging and reporting examples: • Understanding log messages • Creating a backup log solution • Alert email notification of SSL VPN login failures • Modifying the default FortiOS UTM report • Testing the log configuration FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 371
  • 372. Understanding log messages Understanding log messages Problem There are several application control log messages with the message “web: HTTP.BROWSER”. What does this mean? I 172ntern .16 al ne .12 tw 0.1 ork 0-1 00 t uni 01 ate 0.2 rtiG.16.12 Fo 72 1 172 FortiA .16 nal .12 yze 0.1 r u 54 nit Solution Find out what these log messages mean by understanding each part of the log message. The parts of the log message, called log fields, contain specific information. For example, the date log field contains information about the day, month and year of when the log message was recorded. You can look at log messages as puzzles — each piece of the log message is a piece of a puzzle, and when those pieces are put together, they show the whole picture. Log messages provide valuable insight into how to better protect the network traffic against attacks, misuse and abuse. 1 Go to Log&Report > Log & Archive Access > UTM Log. The application control log messages appear on the page. Even though you can view the individual fields from the log viewer table, not all log fields are visible. You should always download a log file so that you can clearly see all log fields. A text editor, such as jEdit, can help to better display the log messages when viewing them from your computer. 372 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 373. Understanding log messages 2 Download the UTM log file by selecting Download Raw Log. The log messages saved to your computer are in a format called Raw. This format is how the log messages appear in the log file on the FortiGate unit. When viewing the log messages in the webbased manager, you are viewing them in the format called Format. This view allows you to customize what information you see on the page, where in Raw format you cannot. 3 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ On your computer, open the file up and scroll down to locate the application control log messages with the message “web: HTTP.BROWSER”. 373
  • 374. Understanding log messages 4 Since these log messages are the same, pick one and break it into the two groups that make up a log message: the log header and log body. The first group is what will be looked at first, the log header. 2011-08-17 13:40:20 log_id=28704 type=app-ctrl subtype=app-ctrl-all pri=information vd=root date=2011-08-17 The year, month and day of when the event occurred in yyyymm-dd format. time=13:40:20 The hour, minute and second of when the event occurred in the format hh:mm:ss. log_id=28704 A five-digit unique identification number. The number represents that log message and is unique to that log message. This five-digit number helps to identify the log message. type=app-crtl The section of system where the event occurred. subtype=app-crtl-all The subtype category of the log message. pri=information The severity level of the event. In this log message, this means that there is general system information. vd=root The name of the virtual domain where the action/event occurred in. If no virtual domains exist, this field is always root. Now we know the first part of the what the log message is saying — an application control event occurred on August 17, 2011 at 1:40 pm and this is just general system information. Next, understanding the rest of the log message from the log body. 5 The log body contains the following information: attack_id=15893 src="10.10.20.3" src_port=52315 src_int="internal" dst="67.69.176.57" dst_port=80 dst_int="wan1" src_name="10.10.20.3" dst_name="67.69.176.57" proto=6 service="http" policyid=1 serial=20596 app_list="default" app_type="web" app="HTTP.BROWSER" action="pass" count=1 msg="web: HTTP.BROWSER" attack_id=15893 src=10.10.20.3 The source IP address. In this case, it is the internal interface that is used with the IP address of 10.10.20.3 src_port=52315 The source port number. Usually a random number that keeps track of sessions. src_int= “internal” The source interface is the internal interface. dst=67.69.176.57 The destination IP address. dst_port=80 374 The identification number of the IM (IPS) log message. The destination port number. Port 80 is typically HTTP. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 375. Understanding log messages dst_int=wan1 The destination interface is wan1. src_name=10.10.20.3 The source name. The source name is usually the source IP address. dst_name=67.69.176.57 The destination name. This is usually the same as the destination IP address. proto=6 The protocol number that applies to the session or packet. This is the protocol number in the packet header that identifies the next level protocol. Protocol numbers are assigned by the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA). Protocol 6 is TCP. Another common protocol is UDP (proto=17). For more information on protocol numbers see RFC 1700. service=http The IP network service that applies to the session or packet. The services displayed correspond to the services configured in the security policy. Since the firewall configuration for the FortiGate unit includes the service “ANY”, this also means “all services” to the FortiGate unit so it chooses the service that applies to the session or packet, which in this case, is HTTP. policyid=1 The ID number of the security policy that applies to the session or packet. Any policy that is automatically added by the FortiGate will have an index number of zero. serial=20596 The serial number of the firewall session where the event happened. app_list=default The application control list applied to the security policy and used during the scanning process. msg=web:HTTP.BROWSER The log information. This is usually a sentence and explains the activity and/or action taken. In this message it states that access to a page on the Internet occurred (web) and that the application that was used was HTTP.BROWSER. From the log body, we now know the traffic that was flowing through wan1 (the external interface on the FortiGate unit) was scanned by the FortiGate unit using the security policy 1, which had the default application control profile applied to it. From those rules, the FortiGate unit matched the traffic. The user (internal=10.10.20.3) was accessing the Internet and was using the application HTTP.BROWSER. Knowing the application was HTTP.BROWSER, we can lookup exactly what this application is by going to the FortiGuard Center. 6 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ In the web-based manager, go to UTM Profiles > Application Control > Application List. 375
  • 376. Understanding log messages 7 In the search field, enter HTTP.BROWSER; when it appears in the list on the page, select its name. You are automatically redirected to the FortiGuard Center page that contains all the information you need to know about the application, HTTP.BROWSER. 8 The description for this log message on the FortiGuard Center page says this application only has a medium risk, and indicates that an HTTP client request attempted to contact with a HTTP server, which usually listens on port 80. This is not an attack or an exploit. You can use the FortiGate Log Message Reference to understand log messages. It contains an explanation of each log field for each log message. 376 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 377. Creating a backup log solution Creating a backup log solution Problem al rn te In Sy sl og Se rv er Lo th gs e b th F e e or in Sy tiG g sl a se og te nt se un fro rv it t m er o You have recently setup a FortiAnalyzer unit and need a backup solution. Before integrating the FortiGate unit into your network, you were using a Syslog server, which you would like to use again. Lo g un s b it ei to ng th s e en Fo t rti fro An m al th yz e er Fo un rtiG it a te k or w et N err y yz a al An rrtii Fo itt u un Solution Configure the FortiAnayzer and Syslog server first, and then configure the FortiGate unit to send logs to both log devices. The FortiAnalyzer unit, a Fortinet log device, can help you provide another storage location for storing logs. The FortiAnalyzer unit can log all FortiGate activity that is available for logging, including archival of log files. The FortiAnalyzer unit has many features, for example managing multiple FortiGate units’ logging requirements, as well as creating FortiAnalyzer customized reports that organize and monitor FortiAnalyzer unit information. The following steps begin immediately after you have set up the FortiAnalyzer unit on your network. Before configuring the FortiGate unit, ensure both the FortiGate unit and the FortiAnalyzer unit have the same firmware version and maintenance release. If both do not have the same firmware version and maintenance release, issues may arise, such as being unable to send logs to the FortiAnalyzer unit. 1 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ Update your third party Syslog server software, and verify that it is up and running properly. 377
  • 378. Creating a backup log solution 2 On the FortiGate unit, use the CLI command execute ping to ping the FortiAnalyzer unit and then do the same for your Syslog server. If there is 100 percent packet loss, troubleshoot the networking problem before proceeding. 3 4 On the FortiGate unit, go to Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting and verify that you are currently logging to the FortiGate unit’s local disk. Enter the following CLI command to add the FortiAnalyzer unit: config log fortianalyzer setting set status enable set address-mode static set server 172.20.120.138 set upload-option realtime end 5 Enter the following CLI command to add the syslog server: config log syslogd setting set status enable set server 10.10.20.4 set facility local1 end 6 Test the connection between the FortiGate unit and FortiAnalyzer unit. On your FortiGate unit go to Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting, select Upload logs remotely, and then select Test Connectivity. By selecting Test Connectivity, you can see if there are any issues with the settings. For example, if Connection Status in the FortiAnalyzer Connection Summary window has Logs not received, this means that there is an issue about sending the logs to the FortiAnalyzer unit. You can troubleshoot the problem by checking the FortiGate and FortiAnalyzer configurations and verifying that network connections between the two devices are possible. If the Connection Status has a green checkmark, you are able to successfully log to the first FortiAnalyzer. 7 On the same page, select Apply to enable uploading of logs to the FortiAnalyzer units. 8 To upload the logs to the FortiAnalyzer unit at a scheduled time, select Change beside FortiAnalyzer (Daily at 00:60), to change the daily upload time to 22:00. 9 Verify that the log options you require are enabled. If there are no log options enabled, then there will be no logs recorded. By default, the FortiGate unit enables all SQL logs. You must enable UTM as well if you want to log UTM features. 378 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 379. Creating a backup log solution Results On the FortiAnalyzer unit, you should now see logs appearing on each unit, in Log & Archive > Log Access. You should also be seeing logs appear on the Syslog server. If you are not seeing any logs on the FortiAnalyzer unit, verify that the device has been included in the Devices menu list. Check with the FortiAnalyzer documentation to help troubleshoot any FortiAnalyzer problems that appear. There is no command to verify the FortiGate unit’s connection with the Syslog server. If you are having issues between the Syslog server and FortiGate unit, you should verify that you can ping to the Syslog server through your FortiGate unit. You should test that logs can be sent to the FortiAnalyzer units to ensure log messages are being sent. By testing the connection, you can easily and quickly resolve any issues that may occur, such as logs not being sent or an issue that is on the FortiAnalyzer side, such as the device is not appearing on the FortiAnalyzer unit’s Devices list. To test that the FortiGate unit can send logs to the FortiAnalyzer unit, use the diag log test to generate logs and view them from the FortiAnalyzer unit to verify that they were sent. diag log test generating generating generating generating generating generating generating generating generating generating generating generating generating generating FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ a system event message with level – warning an infected virus message with level – warning a blocked virus message with level – warning a URL block message with level – warning a DLP message with level – warning an attack detection message with level – warning an application control IM message with level – information an antispam message with level – notification an allowed traffic message with level – notice a wanopt traffic log message with level – notification a HA event message with level – warning netscan log messages with level – notice a VOIP event message with level – information authentication event messages 379
  • 380. Alert email notification of SSL VPN login failures Alert email notification of SSL VPN login failures Problem You need to be immediately notified when an SSL VPN login failure occurs so that you can quickly fix the problem, regardless of where you are. For tiG ate uni t in L SS ser Nu VP dm rk a two Ne Solution Create an alert email to notify you that an SSL VPN login failure occurred. The following assumes that you have already set up logging and that event logging has been enabled. For this example, turn off all event logging before you start to prevent other possible nonSSL VPN log messages from confusing things. Event logging must be enabled (in Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting) so that this alert email can be sent. SSL VPN events are one of the event types logged to the event log and therefore must be enabled in Event Logging. When entering the email addresses for the alert email configuration, you need to enter two email addresses. The first email address is for the sender of the alert email and the second is for receiver of the alert email. The sender can be any email address that helps to identify that the email has been sent from the FortiGate unit. In this solution, we use fortigate@example.com to help identify that the alert email is sent by the FortiGate unit. The email that you receive is your email address, and in this solution it is referred to as myemail@example.com 1 2 380 Go to Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting. Under Event Logging, select SSL VPN user authentication so that all SSL VPN authentication events are logged. FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 381. Alert email notification of SSL VPN login failures 3 Go to Log&Report > Log Config > Alert E-mail and configure the following: SMTP server Email from fortigate@example.com Email to 4 mail.example.com myemail@example.com Select Authentication and provide the following authentication log in credentials for the SMTP server. SMTP user Password 5 myemail !eMa1L9 Verify that all information is correct and then select Test Connectivity. When you select Test Connectivity, the FortiGate unit generates a test alert email message and sends it to your email address. If you do not receive an email, you need to troubleshoot the problem. An email log message is only recorded if the SMTP server name is misspelled. If you accidently have a typo is in the SMTP server field it appears as follows: 2010-04-05 13:34:31 log_id=01000200003 type=event subtype=system vd=root pri=notice user=system ui=system action=alert-email status=failure count=5 msg=“Failed to send alert email from mail.exmpl.com to myemailaddress@example.com” In the above log message, highlighted in bold, you can see that mail.example.com has been misspelled. To fix the problem, make the spelling correction and select Test Connectivity again. 6 Select SSL VPN login failure in Send alert email for the following. 7 Select Apply to save the alert email configuration. Results When an SSL VPN user attempts to authenticate using the SSL VPN tunnel, and they are unsuccessful, this event is logged by the FortiGate unit and you receive an alert email in your inbox. The body of the email contains the event log message. Alert email can be sent for any configured event logging events such as DHCP event, IPsec event, or quarantine event. The complete list of available events can be found at Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting. Select only specific alert email notification options that you require. Otherwise your inbox could be flooded with unwanted email messages. a FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 381
  • 382. Alert email notification of SSL VPN login failures To test that you can receive an alert email notification, on the Alert E-Mail page, select Administrator login/logout and then select Apply. Log out of the web-based manager and then log back in again. Check your inbox; an alert email message should be there, with the subject line “Message meets Alert condition” that should be similar to the following: 382 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 383. Modifying the default FortiOS UTM report Modifying the default FortiOS UTM report Problem You want to create a custom report that includes the information you found after viewing a list of the web sites your users have visited. Solution Modify the default FortiOS UTM report so that it has exactly what you need. Modifying this report is easy and less time consuming than creating a new custom report. You can create a custom report but its a complex task done entirely from the CLI. After creating your modified version of the default FortiOS UTM report, you can restore the report back to its default settings which includes all pages and charts. 1 2 Go to Log&Report > Report Access > Cover Page and select Edit to change the cover page information. Change the following information: FortiGate UTM Weekly Activity Report 3 4 Top Web Sites Employees Visit Report of August 30, 2011 Remove the FortiGate Host Name and FortiGate Serial Number text boxes. Remove the The FortiGate Advantage text box. 5 Select Save to save the changes to the cover page. The page automatically goes back to its unedited view when you save the page, regardless of which page you are modifying. 6 Select Edit and then select Options. FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ 383
  • 384. Modifying the default FortiOS UTM report 7 8 Under Sections, select VPN Usage, Threats, Emails, and Bandwidth and Application Usage and then select Delete. Under Report Schedule, select Demand from the Schedule Type list. When you select Demand, you are creating an on-demand report which is available for generating whenever you want. 9 Select OK. 10 Select Save to save the changes. 11 Go to Log&Report > Report Access > Web Usage and then select Edit. 12 Scroll down until you locate the chart Top Search Phrases; remove the chart and its text boxes. 13 Select Save to save the changes. If you have been logging web usage for a while, you may see information in some of the charts. 14 Select Run to immediately generate the report. The report may take a while, depending on how much information has been gathered from the logs. Results A generated report should appear in the list on the Historical Reports page. The following shows a page of the report in a PDF. You can view the generated report either as a HTML report, by select the report’s name in the Report File column, or as a PDF, by selecting PDF in the Other Formats column. The PDF can be easily downloaded to your computer and then distributed in an email to others. 384 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 385. Testing the log configuration Testing the log configuration Problem How do I test my log configuration? I 172ntern .16 al ne .12 tw 0.1 ork 0-1 00 t uni 01 ate 120.2 tiG . For 72.16 1 172 FortiA .16 nal .12 yze 0.1 r u 54 nit Solution Test the configuration by using Test Connectivity, as well as the diag log test command. Testing connections between a FortiGate unit and a WebTrends server or Syslog server are not available. Testing between the FortiGuard Analysis server and the FortiGate unit is also supported. The test involves using both the CLI and web-based manager. 1 In the web-based manager, go to Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting. 2 Under Logging and Archiving, select Test Connectivity. The FortiAnalyzer Connection Summary window appears. You should have all green check marks for the Privileges and Connection Status. If there is a caution icon with the words Logs not received in Connection Status, you will need to troubleshoot the issue. You may have to troubleshoot both the FortiGate unit and the FortiAnalyzer unit. 3 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ To test the connection other than using the web-based manager, in the CLI use diag log test command. 385
  • 386. Testing the log configuration This command sends logs to the FortiAnalyzer unit. 4 To verify the number of logs sent, failed, dropped or buffered to the FortiAnalyzer unit, use the diag fortianalyzer-log mgstats show command. 5 Go to the FortiAnalyzer unit, and under Log & Archive, view the logs that you just sent from your FortiGate device. 6 To check the connectivity between your FortiGate and the FortiGuard Analysis server, in Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting, under Logging and Archiving, select Test Connectivity for the FortiGuard Analysis & Management Service. The FortiGuard Connection Summary window appears, showing the expiry date, disk quota and daily volume, and whether or not you are sending DLP archives to the server. Results You should be seeing successful results, where logging is being sent to the log device, either a FortiGuard Analysis server or a FortiAnalyzer unit. 386 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 387. FortiOS Cookbook Index A access point, 146 Active Directory, 174, 360 admin idle timeout, 116 trusted location, 115 admin profile custom, 110 super_admin, 41 administrative port port administrative, 116 administrator creating, 41, 110 administrator profile custom, 110 alert email, 380 alert notification email for SSL VPN login failures, 380 antivirus changing the maximum file size, 258 flow-based, 262 software, 315 application control, 282, 357 adding a sensor to a policy, 282 blocking access to social media, 285 blocking instant messaging, 284 blocking peer to peer file sharing, 286 troubleshooting, 282 application monitor, 283 drill down, 283 applications bandwidth use, 263, 282, 285, 286, 318, 323, 330, 336, 341, 369, 372, 377 blocking, 357 debugging, 143 visualizing, 282 ARP packet sniffer, 132 assigning IP addresses, 120 authenticate web filtering, 266 authentication debugging, 141 two-factor, 366 authoritative dns, 118 B backup configuration, 35, 96 backup Internet connection, 45, 53 backup log solution, 377 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ bandwidth application use, 263, 282, 285, 286, 318, 323, 330, 336, 341, 369, 372, 377 bandwidth consuming web filtering, 263 Bing safe search, 267 bridge table, 33 C CA Authority, 174 caching web, 88 captive portal WiFi, 162 capture packet, 125 central NAT table, 231 certification, 11 Cisco UNITY client, 330 cloak HTTP headers, 117 cluster, 90 connecting an HA cluster, 92 configuration backup, 35, 96 connecting a FortiGate HA cluster, 92 count, 196 policy, 196 security policy, 282 customer service, 11 D Data Leak Prevention, 295, 297 DCHP server, 170 debug application, 143 authentication, 141 diagnose command, 139 flow, 143, 195, 199 info, 144 IPsec VPN, 141 packet flow, 142 SSL VPN, 140 URL filtering, 142 debugging FortiGate configurations, 139 default route failover, 50, 57 demilitarized zone network, 61 denial of service protection, 292 deny policy count column, 203 verifying, 200 387
  • 388. Index destination NAT, 234, 237, 240, 243, 247 DHCP, 18 IP reservation, 120 DHCP relay WiFi, 170 diag debug flow, 199 diag log test, 379 diagnose quick reference, 143 diagnose debug, 139 diagnose debug flow, 195 DLP, 295, 297 flow-based, 262 DMZ network, 61 DNAT, 234, 237, 240, 243, 247 web server, 63 DNS creating a local DNS server, 118 verifying the configuration, 25, 32 dns authoritative, 118 database, 118 documentation, 11 Fortinet, 11 domain name service, 118 DoS policy, 292 protection, 292 sensor, 292 drift FortiToken, 144 dual internet connections, 58 dynamic SNAT, 225 dynamic source address translation, 225 central NAT table, 231 E ECMP route priority, 51 routing, 51, 58 spillover, 58 usage-based, 58 email filtering, 294 FortiGuard, 39 enterprise security wireless, 155 equal cost multipath routing, 51, 58 ESP packet sniffer, 132 event log, 380 explicit web proxy UTM, 87 extended virus database, 256 extreme virus database, 256 F facebook, 185 388 failover default route, 50, 57 FAQ, 10 file size antivirus maximum, 258 filter packet capture, 135 packet sniffer, 130 firewall excluding users from UTM, 193 limiting employees’ Internet access, 185 ordering policies, 201 restricting all DNS queries to a selected DNS server, 204, 208 restricting Internet access per IP address, 189 using geographic addresses, 220 verifying that traffic is hitting a security policy, 196 firewall statistics diag, 144 firmware download from Fortinet support, 34 TFTP upgrade, 36 upgrading, 34, 95 version, 34, 95 flow debug, 143 diag debug, 199 diagnose debug flow, 195 flow-based antivirus, 261 DLP, 261 UTM, 261 web filtering, 261 FortiAnalyzer, 377 FortiAnalyzer unit, 377 testing sending logs, 379 FortiAP, 146, 150, 170 FortiAP, troubleshooting, 153 FortiASIC, 300 FortiAuthenticator, 363 with FortiWiFi, 158 FortiClient SSL VPN, 310 FortiClient SSL VPN, 306 FortiGate security, 113 FortiGuard Antivirus, 10 email filtering lookups, 39 overriding web filtering, 265 ports used, 39 server list, 40 services, 10 setup, 37 transparent mode, 33 troubleshooting, 37 web filtering category, 268 web filtering lookups, 39 FortiGuard Centre, 268 FortiGuard web filtering, 263 check IP addresses, 278 images, 280 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 389. Index Fortinet customer service, 11 Knowledge Base, 10 Knowledge Center, 10 MIB, 123 SSL VPN clients, 300 Technical Documentation, 11 Technical Support, 11 Technical Support, registering with, 10 Technical Support, web site, 10 Training Services, 11 Fortinet documentation, 11 Fortitoken drift, 144 FortiToken device using with FortiOS, 366 FortiWiFi, 146, 147, 155, 163, 174 IP masquerading, 222 IP Phone traffic shaping, 216 IP reservation, 120 IPS fail closed, 291 failover, 291 ips urlfilter status diagnose, 144 IPsec VPN debugging, 141 G HA, 90 firmware upgrade, 95 hardware configuration, 90 split brain, 91 hardware certificate diagnose, 144 hardware deviceinfo disk diagnose, 144 hardware deviceinfo nic eth0 diagnose, 144 high availability, 90 host checking, 315 how-to, 10 HTTP headers, 117 legacy viruses protecting your network from, 256 license information dashboard widget, 37 local disk, 378 local DNS server, 118 local server, 118 local-in policy, 123 location access, 115 location specific login, 115 log messages, 173, 372 DCHCPREQUEST, 173 DHCPACK, 173 DHCPDISCOVER, 173 DHCPOFFER, 173 log to disk, 378 logging alert notification email for SSL VPN login failures, 380 backup log solution, 377 FortiAnalyzer unit, 377 log message body, 374 log message header, 374 Log Message Reference, 376 testing log configuration, 385 testing sending logs to a FortiAnalyzer unit, 379 understanding log messages, 372 login alternate port, 116 specific address, 115 I M idle timeout, 116 images web filtering, 280 inactivity timeout, 116 info debug, 144 instant messaging blocking, 284 introduction Fortinet mac address IP reservation, 120 Managed FortiAP, 152 management local-in policy, 123 many-to-one NAT, 222 max password attempts, 117 MIB Fortinet, 123 mobile devices, 146 mode-cfg, 333 modem interface, 53, 55 MS-CHAP-v2, 175 multicast forwarding, 208 general security policy, 193 geographic addresses, firewall, 220 get system status, 34, 95 glossary, 10 Google safe search, 267 GRE packet sniffer, 132 greyware, 255 guest network, 146 H documentation, 11 IP address private network, 7 IP addresses assigning, 120 web filtering, 278 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ K Knowledge Center, 10 L N NAPT, 222 389
  • 390. Index NAT destination NAT, 234, 237, 240, 243, 247 dynamic SNAT, 225 IP masquerading, 222 many-to-one, 222 NAPT, 222 one-to-one, 228 PAT, 222 SNAT, 222 NAT overload, 222 netlink brctl list diagnose, 144 network visualizing applications on, 282 network address and port translation, 222 Network Policy Server., 174 networking WiFi, 147, 150, 155, 170 O one-to-one NAT, 228 open port 113, 117 override web filtering, 265 override internal DNS DHCP, 21 oversized email, 260 oversized file, 260 P packet sniffer, 126 packet capture, 130, 135 filters, 135 packet flow debugging, 142 packet sniffer filters, 130 protocols, 132 packet sniffing, 125, 135 password attempts, 117 lockout, 117 wait time , 117 PAT, 222 pcap packet capture file, 135 PEAP, 177 PEAP authentication, 174 peer-to-peer file sharing blocking, 286 ping server, 50 policy adding an application control sensor, 282 count, 196 DoS, 292 local-in, 123 policy monitor, 197 port alternate login, 116 port 113, 117 port address translation, 222 port forwarding, 234, 237, 240, 243, 247 web server, 63 390 port mapping, 234, 237, 240, 243, 247 port pairing transparent mode, 77 portal WiFi, 162 preshared key, 169, 172 Primary Internet connection, 53 primary Internet connection, 45 priority route, 51 product registration, 10 protecting your network from viruses, 252 protocol options, 260 R RADIUS WiFi, 158 RADIUS (NPS), 174 rating error, 26, 32 web filtering, 26, 32 recursive DNS server mode, 119 recursive dns, 118 redundant Internet connections, 45 registering with Fortinet Technical Support, 10 release notes, 34 remote Internet access, 306 replacement message virus message, 75, 254 reporting FortiOS UTM report, 383 modifying default report, 383 RFC 1918, 7 route priority, 51 route failover, 50, 57 route mode, 81 security policy, 64 routing ECMP, 51, 58 equal cost multipath, 51, 58 S safe search web filtering, 267 security, 113 security policies excluding users from UTM filtering, 193 ordering, 201 restricting all DNS queries to a selected DNS server, 204, 208 restricting employee’s Internet access, 185 using geographic addresses, 220 security policy, 196 adding an application control sensor, 282 count column, 282 general, 193 restricting Internet access per IP address, 189 verifying traffic, 196 sensitive information blocking, 295, 297 sensor DoS, 292 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 391. Index service multiple, 64 shared shapers, 216 SNAT, 222, 225, 231 sniffer packet diagnose, 144 sniffing packet, 125 social media blocking, 285 software switch WiFi, 166 source address translation, 222 spam filtering, 294 spillover ECMP, 58 split tunnel, 309 split tunneling SSL VPN, 310 split-brain HA, 91 SSID, 166, 170 SSL VPN, 301 access email server, 301 debugging, 140 endpoint security, 300 FortiClient, 310 portal, 301 remote user, 315 split tunneling, 310 Subsession, 309 tunnel mode, 300 virtual desktop, 300 ssl.root, 307, 312 ssl.root interface, 309 static SNAT, 222 storage location, 377 streaming media blocking, 273 suggest a URL category web filtering, 269 super_admin administrator profile, 41 sys session full-stat diagnose, 144 Syslog server, 377 T TCP 113, 117 technical documentation, 11 notes, 10 support, 11 technical support, 11 test log diagnose, 144 test update info diagnose, 144 TFTP, 36 thin AP, 146 threshold oversized file/email, 260 timeout idle, 116 traceroute, 39 FortiOS 4.0 MR3 http://docs.fortinet.com/ traffic shaping shared shapers, 216 VoIP, 216 Training Services, 11 Transparent mode, 33 transparent mode port pairing, 77 protecting a server, 69 troubleshooting, 31 transport-mode, 329 troubleshooting DHCP, 20 FortiGuard, 37 ISP connection, 20 NAT configuration, 20 packet sniffing, 125, 130 transparent mode, 31 verifying that traffic is hitting a security policy, 196 trusted host, 115 Tunnel Mode, 306 U unity-support, 333 upgrade firmware, 34 HA cluster firmware, 95 uploading logs, 378 URL FortiGuard web filtering category, 268 URL filtering debugging, 142 usage-based ECMP, 58 USB modem, 55 users identifying, 353 monitoring, 353 UTM, 252 explicit web proxy, 87 web proxy, 87 V VDOM, 103 VIP web server firewall VIP, 63 virtual domain, 103 virtual FortiOS instances, 103 virtual interface, 166 virtual LANs, 98 virus legacy, 256 virus database extended, 256 extreme, 256 viruses protecting your network from, 252 visual applications, 282 VLANs, 98 configuring, 98 VoIP traffic shaping, 216 391
  • 392. Index VPN Cisco UNITY client, 330 Dialup, 324 L2TP, 329 SSL, 301 vpn tunnel list diagnose, 144 VPN, IPsec from FortiClient PC, 323 from iPhone, 330, 336 overview, 317 vulnerability scanner, 298 W web browsing blocking web sites by category, 355 web caching, 88 web filter blocking streaming media, 273 record websites, 270 safe search, 267 whitelist, 276 Web filtering correct a URL category, 269 web filtering, 26, 32, 263 authenticate, 266 errors, 26 flow-based, 262 FortiGuard, 39, 263, 355 suggest a URL category, 269 web monitoring, 356 web portal, 301 web proxy UTM, 87 392 web server port forwarding, 63 web sites users have visited, 270 websites blocking, 355 whitelist web filter, 276 WiFi captive portal, 162 DHCP relay, 170 RADIUS, 158 software switch, 166 WiFi access, 147, 150, 155, 170 WiFi access point, 146 WiFi Controller, 149 WiFi controller feature, 146 Windows AD, 174, 360 Windows Security Health Validator, 177 Windows Server 2008, 174, 360 wireless WPA/WPA2 enterprise security, 155 WPA2 security, 147 WPA/WPA2 enterprise security wireless security, 155 WPA2 wireless security, 147 WPA2-Personal, 150, 170 WPA-Enterprise, 174 Y Yahoo safe search, 267 youtube, 185 FortiGate Cookbook  http://docs.fortinet.com/
  • 393. FortiGate Network Protection The FortiGate Cookbook is designed to help new FortiGate users solve problems on their networks by implementing FortiGate features such as UTM, WiFi, and VPN. The cookbook contains sections (recipes) that describe step-by-step solutions for solving problems and verifying the results of the solution. Many recipes also contain troubleshooting information, best practices and additional details. Scattered throughout this document you will also find dedicated troubleshooting sections and details about using the FortiGate packet sniffer and diagnose debug commands. The FortiGate Cookbook is compatible with most FortiOS 4.0 MR3 firmware versions. Fortinet Knowledge Base - http://kb.fortinet.com Technical Documentation - http://docs.fortinet.com Training Services - http://campus.training.fortinet.com Technical Support - http://support.fortinet.com You can report errors or omissions in this or any Fortinet technical document to techdoc@fortinet.com. © 2012 Fortinet, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Fortinet and the Fortinet logo are trademarks of Fortinet, Inc. 01-432-153797-20120601

×