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# 3. geom proses struktural

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Geomorfologi, Struktural.

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### 3. geom proses struktural

1. 1. stress stress Fold Tekanan pada perlapisan batuan sedimen menghasilkan relief bergelombang Rocks can bend or fold under stress. B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
2. 2. Fold terminology: limbs, axis (hinge), axial plane B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
3. 3. Dip – Strike Lipatan/fold yang telah tersingkap oleh proses erosi akan menunjukkan perlapisan batuan sedimennya. Arah lipatan dapat direkonstruksi melalui pengukuran Dip - Strike B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
4. 4. Fold classifications: 1. Klasifikasi berdasar posisi relatif lapisan berumur tua dan muda a. Antiklinal B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
5. 5. Fold classifications: 1. Klasifikasi berdasar posisi relatif lapisan berumur tua dan muda b. sinklinal B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
6. 6. Fold classifications: 2. Klasifikasi berdasar bentuk a. Synform : Arah dip di kedua sisi berlawanan menuju lembah/fold center B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
7. 7. Fold classifications: 2. Klasifikasi berdasar bentuk b. Antiform : Arah dip di kedua sisi berlawanan menjauhi puncak/fold center B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
8. 8. Fold classifications: 2. Klasifikasi berdasar bentuk c. Other form (Contoh : homoklinal) B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
9. 9. Fold classifications: 2. Klasifikasi berdasar bentuk c. Other form (Contoh : monoklinal) B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
10. 10. Fold classifications: 3. Klasifikasi berdasar kemiringan axial plane a. upright--vertical B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
11. 11. Fold classifications: 3. Klasifikasi berdasar kemiringan axial plane b. inclined--inclined inclined fold B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
12. 12. Fold classifications: 3. Klasifikasi berdasar kemiringan axial plane c. recumbent--near horizontal B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
13. 13. Fold classifications: 4. Klasifikasi berdasar perbandingan relatif antara dip di kedua limb : symmetrical , asymmetrical, overturned B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
14. 14. Plunging fold B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
15. 15. B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L Lembah sinklinal
16. 16. B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L Hog back When rocks are uplifted by mountain building processes, erosion of the softer, less resistant rock occurs leaving a ridge of the more resistant rock.
17. 17. Cuesta, broken fault Escarpment face of a cuesta, broken by a fault. Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
18. 18. Pola aliran yang terbentuk pada zone lipatan adalah trellis. B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
19. 19. Struktur minor pada batuan sedimen dalam perlapisan horisontal Interstate road cut through limestone and shale strata in eastern Tennessee B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
20. 20. Struktur minor pada batuan sedimen dalam perlapisan horisontal 1. Perlapisan silang siur (Cross bedded) / 2. Riple marks 3. Mud marks 4. Concretions B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
21. 21. Fault Terminology: 1. strike and dip 2. hanging wall/headwall 3. footwall B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
22. 22. Fault Terminology: 1. hanging wall/headwall 2. footwall B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
23. 23. Fault Terminology: fault scarps (tectonic) faultline scarps (erosional: structurally controlled by not tectonic) Aspy Valley: faultline scarp, lowland, and plateau truncated spurs/triangular facet (also produced by glaciation) wineglass valley (Death Valley) B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
24. 24. Fault Terminology: fault scarps (tectonic) B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
25. 25. Fault Terminology: Escarpments B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
26. 26. Fault Terminology: Linier valley (erosional: structurally controlled by not tectonic) B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
27. 27. Tipe Fault Dip Slip Faults Normal Reverse Strike Slip Faults left lateral right lateral Pull-apart Basins and transverse Mountains: form where a transform fault bends B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
28. 28. Tipe Fault B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
29. 29. Tipe Fault Tekanan kuat pada perlapisan batuan mengakibatkan patahnya perlapisan, menghasilkan fault Normal faults Reverse faults B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
30. 30. Tipe Fault Tekanan kuat pada perlapisan batuan mengakibatkan patahnya perlapisan, menghasilkan fault A graben fault is produced when tensional stresses result in the subsidence of a block of rock. On a large scale these features are known as Rift Valleys B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
31. 31. Tipe Fault Tekanan kuat pada perlapisan batuan mengakibatkan patahnya perlapisan, menghasilkan fault A horst fault is the development of two reverse faults causing a block of rock to be pushed up B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
32. 32. Kerak bumi dengan posisi yang lebih rendah diantara dua blok yang lain disebut Graben. Sedangkan kerak bumi yang mengalami kenaikan elevasi disebut Horst. Tipe Fault B E N T U K L A H A N S T R U K T U R A L
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