• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
5072458
 

5072458

on

  • 1,172 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,172
Views on SlideShare
1,172
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
30
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    5072458 5072458 Presentation Transcript

    • TEORI & MODEL KEPIMPINAN
    • Definition
      • Leadership is a complex process having multiple dimensions.
      • Defined in terms of group processing, personality, behavior and power.
      • An instrument of goal achievement.
      • A process in which an individual influences other individuals to achieve one or more goals.
      • Relationship of leader and followers.
    • Characteristics
      • Innate or inborn traits vs. learned behaviors.
      • Assigned vs. emergent position of leadership.
      • Position power vs. personal power
      • Coercion with threats vs. positive motivation.
      • Leadership vs. management.
    • 5 SOURCES OF POWER
      • REWARD
      • COERCIVE
      • LEGITIMATE
      • REFERENT
      • EXPERT
    • LEADERSHIP VS. MANAGEMENT
      • LEADERSHIP’S PRIMARY FUNCTION IS TO PRODUCE CHANGE/MOVEMENT
      • MANAGEMENT’S PRIMARY FUNCTION IS TO PRODUCE ORDER AND STABILITY
    • Parting Thought………….
      • “ Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing.”
      • ~ Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus
    • Trait Theory
    • OBJECTIVE
      • To identify personality characteristics that can be used to define a leader.
    • Description
      • Early 1900s, leadership traits were studied to determine what made certain people great leaders.
      • ‘ Great man’ theories
      • Focused on innate qualities and characteristics held by great men and women (e.g. Abraham Lincoln & Mahatma Gandhi).
      • Believed that people were born with traits & only great people have them.
      • Mid-1900s, trait approach was challenged.
      • The traits of one leader may not be those of other leaders.
      • Traits such as intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability.
      • Leadership was reconceptualized as a relationship between people in a social situation
      • Personal factors continued to be important but they are to be considered as relative to the requirements of the situation.
      • Traits most valued in one situation may not be valued in other situations.
      • Currently, it has shifted back to reemphasize the critical role of traits in effective leadership.
    • Application
      • Focused exclusively on the leader & not on the followers /the situation – more straight forward that other approaches.
      • Focused on leaders & their traits – what traits & who has them?
      • Having a person with a specific set of traits is crucial to effective leadership.
      • Suggests that organizations work better if managers have designated leadership profiles (e.g. personality assessment instruments).
      • A trait profile is used to determine if a person fits a certain job.
    • Application…
      • Also used for personal awareness & development – managers can determine own strength and weaknesses.
      • People with gifts that can do extraordinary things.
      • Can be open to a subjective selection of personality characteristics
    • Strengths
      • Appealing
      • Century of research as backing
      • Highlights the leader in the leadership process
      • Provides benchmarks of what to look for in leaders
    • Criticisms
      • No definitive list of traits
      • Fails to take situations into account
      • Highly subjective list of “important” leadership traits
      • Failure to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes
      • Not a useful approach for training & development
    • Usefulness
      • Still provides valuable information about leadership
      • Can be used by individuals at all levels & in all types of organizations
      • Does provide direction regarding which traits are good to have if one aspires to take a leadership position.
      • Individuals can gain insight into whether or not they have important select traits
    • Style Approach
    • OBJECTIVE
      • To integrate the two major behavioral aspects of the leader, task and relationship, in order to influence subordinates to reach a predefined goal.
    • Definition
      • Focus is on the behavior of the individual in terms of what leaders do and how they act.
      • Includes the actions of leaders toward subordinates in various contexts.
      • Concentration on 2 general kinds of behaviors:
        • the integration of task (initiating) and
        • relationship (consideration) behavior to influence others to reach their goals.
      • Maximize the impact on the satisfaction and performance of followers.
      • Task behaviors – help group members to achieve objectives
      • Relationship behaviors – help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves & others
      • The main purpose of the style approach – explains how leaders combine these 2 kinds of behaviors to influence subordinates to reach the goal.
    • Research Studies
      • The Ohio State Studies:
      • Task and relationship separate
      • LBDQ-XII developed by Stodgill
      • most widely used
      • Task : organizing, defining responsibilities, scheduling
      • Relationship : respect, trust, camaraderie
    • Research Studies
      • Michigan State Studies : employee orientation/ production orientation
      • Initially viewed as on continuum, then separate, looking for universal theory
      • Employee Orientation : human relations
      • Production Orientation :technical aspects
      • Studies inconclusive
    • Managerial (Leadership) Grid
      • Concern for production/concern for people
      • Joins the two on a grid creating 5 styles
      • Authority-Compliance (9,1): controlling, demanding, hard driving
      • Country Club Management(1,9):
      • agreeable, eager to help, comforting
    • Blake and Mouton Styles
      • Impoverished Management (1,1):
      • resigned, apathetic, indifferent
      • Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)
      • expedient, soft-pedals disagreement
      • Team Management (9,9):
      • open-minded, determined, likes participation, follows through
      • Blake and Mouton Grid
          • 9 1, 9 9,9
          • 8 Country Club Team
          • P 7
          • E 6
          • O 5 5, 5
          • P 4 Middle
          • L 3
          • E 2 Impoverished Authority-Compliance
          • 1 1,1 9,1
          • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
          • R E S U L T S
    • Blake/Mouton Added….
      • Paternalism/Maternalism : “benevolent dictator” uses 1,9 and 9,1
      • Opportunism : combination of 5 styles for purpose of personal advancement
    • Strengths
      • Marked major shift in research
      • Studies validate basic ideas
      • Increased understanding of task/relationship as core to leadership process
      • Hueristic, provides a broad conceptual map to understand complexities of leadership
    • Criticisms
      • Does not adequately show how leader style affects outcomes
      • Failed to find universal style effective in almost every situation
      • Implies that most effective style is high-high, research does not support this conclusion
    • Application
      • Suggests that leaders should modify their behavioral style in order to increase their effectiveness.
      • People sometimes use different styles just to get what they want at that point in time.
      • Trade-off between task and relationship is not the same for all situations.
      • Employee satisfaction is not always the best measurement of leadership.