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5072458

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  • 1. TEORI & MODEL KEPIMPINAN
  • 2. Definition
    • Leadership is a complex process having multiple dimensions.
    • Defined in terms of group processing, personality, behavior and power.
    • An instrument of goal achievement.
    • A process in which an individual influences other individuals to achieve one or more goals.
    • Relationship of leader and followers.
  • 3. Characteristics
    • Innate or inborn traits vs. learned behaviors.
    • Assigned vs. emergent position of leadership.
    • Position power vs. personal power
    • Coercion with threats vs. positive motivation.
    • Leadership vs. management.
  • 4. 5 SOURCES OF POWER
    • REWARD
    • COERCIVE
    • LEGITIMATE
    • REFERENT
    • EXPERT
  • 5. LEADERSHIP VS. MANAGEMENT
    • LEADERSHIP’S PRIMARY FUNCTION IS TO PRODUCE CHANGE/MOVEMENT
    • MANAGEMENT’S PRIMARY FUNCTION IS TO PRODUCE ORDER AND STABILITY
  • 6. Parting Thought………….
    • “ Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing.”
    • ~ Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus
  • 7. Trait Theory
  • 8. OBJECTIVE
    • To identify personality characteristics that can be used to define a leader.
  • 9. Description
    • Early 1900s, leadership traits were studied to determine what made certain people great leaders.
    • ‘ Great man’ theories
    • Focused on innate qualities and characteristics held by great men and women (e.g. Abraham Lincoln & Mahatma Gandhi).
    • Believed that people were born with traits & only great people have them.
  • 10.
    • Mid-1900s, trait approach was challenged.
    • The traits of one leader may not be those of other leaders.
    • Traits such as intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability.
    • Leadership was reconceptualized as a relationship between people in a social situation
    • Personal factors continued to be important but they are to be considered as relative to the requirements of the situation.
    • Traits most valued in one situation may not be valued in other situations.
    • Currently, it has shifted back to reemphasize the critical role of traits in effective leadership.
  • 11. Application
    • Focused exclusively on the leader & not on the followers /the situation – more straight forward that other approaches.
    • Focused on leaders & their traits – what traits & who has them?
    • Having a person with a specific set of traits is crucial to effective leadership.
    • Suggests that organizations work better if managers have designated leadership profiles (e.g. personality assessment instruments).
    • A trait profile is used to determine if a person fits a certain job.
  • 12. Application…
    • Also used for personal awareness & development – managers can determine own strength and weaknesses.
    • People with gifts that can do extraordinary things.
    • Can be open to a subjective selection of personality characteristics
  • 13. Strengths
    • Appealing
    • Century of research as backing
    • Highlights the leader in the leadership process
    • Provides benchmarks of what to look for in leaders
  • 14. Criticisms
    • No definitive list of traits
    • Fails to take situations into account
    • Highly subjective list of “important” leadership traits
    • Failure to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes
    • Not a useful approach for training & development
  • 15. Usefulness
    • Still provides valuable information about leadership
    • Can be used by individuals at all levels & in all types of organizations
    • Does provide direction regarding which traits are good to have if one aspires to take a leadership position.
    • Individuals can gain insight into whether or not they have important select traits
  • 16. Style Approach
  • 17. OBJECTIVE
    • To integrate the two major behavioral aspects of the leader, task and relationship, in order to influence subordinates to reach a predefined goal.
  • 18. Definition
    • Focus is on the behavior of the individual in terms of what leaders do and how they act.
    • Includes the actions of leaders toward subordinates in various contexts.
    • Concentration on 2 general kinds of behaviors:
      • the integration of task (initiating) and
      • relationship (consideration) behavior to influence others to reach their goals.
    • Maximize the impact on the satisfaction and performance of followers.
  • 19.
    • Task behaviors – help group members to achieve objectives
    • Relationship behaviors – help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves & others
    • The main purpose of the style approach – explains how leaders combine these 2 kinds of behaviors to influence subordinates to reach the goal.
  • 20. Research Studies
    • The Ohio State Studies:
    • Task and relationship separate
    • LBDQ-XII developed by Stodgill
    • most widely used
    • Task : organizing, defining responsibilities, scheduling
    • Relationship : respect, trust, camaraderie
  • 21. Research Studies
    • Michigan State Studies : employee orientation/ production orientation
    • Initially viewed as on continuum, then separate, looking for universal theory
    • Employee Orientation : human relations
    • Production Orientation :technical aspects
    • Studies inconclusive
  • 22. Managerial (Leadership) Grid
    • Concern for production/concern for people
    • Joins the two on a grid creating 5 styles
    • Authority-Compliance (9,1): controlling, demanding, hard driving
    • Country Club Management(1,9):
    • agreeable, eager to help, comforting
  • 23. Blake and Mouton Styles
    • Impoverished Management (1,1):
    • resigned, apathetic, indifferent
    • Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)
    • expedient, soft-pedals disagreement
    • Team Management (9,9):
    • open-minded, determined, likes participation, follows through
  • 24.
    • Blake and Mouton Grid
        • 9 1, 9 9,9
        • 8 Country Club Team
        • P 7
        • E 6
        • O 5 5, 5
        • P 4 Middle
        • L 3
        • E 2 Impoverished Authority-Compliance
        • 1 1,1 9,1
        • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
        • R E S U L T S
  • 25. Blake/Mouton Added….
    • Paternalism/Maternalism : “benevolent dictator” uses 1,9 and 9,1
    • Opportunism : combination of 5 styles for purpose of personal advancement
  • 26. Strengths
    • Marked major shift in research
    • Studies validate basic ideas
    • Increased understanding of task/relationship as core to leadership process
    • Hueristic, provides a broad conceptual map to understand complexities of leadership
  • 27. Criticisms
    • Does not adequately show how leader style affects outcomes
    • Failed to find universal style effective in almost every situation
    • Implies that most effective style is high-high, research does not support this conclusion
  • 28. Application
    • Suggests that leaders should modify their behavioral style in order to increase their effectiveness.
    • People sometimes use different styles just to get what they want at that point in time.
    • Trade-off between task and relationship is not the same for all situations.
    • Employee satisfaction is not always the best measurement of leadership.