Ugc net-tourism-ch-04transportintourism-130522073732-phpapp01


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Ugc net-tourism-ch-04transportintourism-130522073732-phpapp01

  1. 1. Transport in Tourism ©Ramakrishna Kongalla
  2. 2. Transportation • Vital relationship between transport and tourism development • For tourism development adequate and efficient transportation is needed • Access to generating market • “the means to reach the destination and also the means of movement in the destination” (Burkart & Medlik) • For geographical distribution world travelers and domestic travelers • Get from home to tourist destination • Links tourist generation area with tourist destination R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 2
  3. 3. Dynamically changing needs and means • Ancient times – – – – Horse Horse carriage Hand driven carriage Boat • Modern times – – – – – Motor cars Railways Buses Airways Private automobiles • Many transport facilities used to transfer soldiers during wars now used for general purposes and tourism • Technological advancement • Modern replaced the old R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 3
  4. 4. Land marks in Transport sector • • • • • • • • • • • Great eastern ship in 19th century by Isambard Kingdom Brunel First Airplane was invented by wright brothers in 1903 Grand trunk road was constructed in 1540-45 by Shershah suri First steamship invented in 1775 by JC pierrier Cook transported 570 passengers from leicester to Loughborough in 1841 In 1841 Henry wells started as a Shipper for tourists – Wells Fargo Mass excursion started by Thomas Cook 1845 tourists travelled to Liverpool by train Cook executed a tour to Europe in 1862 In 1894, first turbiane ship called Turbinia was developed by Charies Parsons Luxury sea liner Titanic sank on Apr16, 1912, 1600 died First ever single rotor Helicopter was made in 1939 by Igor Sikorsky - Russia R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 4
  5. 5. • First flight Imperial airways from Delhi to Cairo was made on jan8, 1927 • First air station was constructed in Delhi in 1927 • First flying club at Delhi at 1928 • Full fledged airport at Delhi in 1939-45 • In 1910, first ever powered seaplane made by Henri Fabre • World’s longest sea vehicle is Arctic Snow Train belongs to US army • First Trans-Alantic mail had bag of 192 letters in 1919 • First train from Mubai –thane in 1953, 32km • 1984 Rakesh sharma on moon • Ashok leyland designed , EXUBA, vehicle 1912 based in 2002 • 2002 nedumbassery, first private international airport in India R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 5
  6. 6. • History Airlines – In December 1903, Wright Brothers - flew the first plane with a person – In 1908 Wright Brothers - airborne for 1½ hours. – In 1909 Wright Brothers - contract - US military, to build the first military plane. – In 1911 first flight across the United States, from Sheepshead Bay (New York) to Long Beach (California), was made by Calbriath Rodgers. – November 16, 1909 DELAG, was the world's first airline - government assistance - operated airships Mfg by Zeppelin Corporation headquarters were in Frankfurt – The 5 oldest airlines that still exist are Netherlands'KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, Czech Republic's Czech Airlines,Mexico's Mexicana. – KLM first flew in May 1920. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 6
  7. 7. Types of Airlines • Trunk carriers The large airlines with long distances routes were designed as trunk carriers • Regional carriers It served large areas with in a certain part of the country • Commuter airlines Commuter airlines serve the many smaller communities that large airlines can’t service economically, linking small airports with major hubs • Charter airlines A charter flight operates under rules different from those governing scheduled flights. Planes may be chartered from airlines that offer scheduled service or from a company that operates charters only.
  8. 8. Regulations • Warsaw convention – Originally signed in 1929 in Warsaw (hence the name), it was amended in 1955 at The Hague and in 1975 in Montreal – Intergovernmental Agreement – It defines the legal responsibility of a carrier to its passengers – Governs the airline’s liability for • Death and injury to passengers – – – – • Loss, damage or delay to baggage and Cargo A limit is set for the liability The information is included in the passenger’s ticket Additional protection can be obtained by purchasing travel insurance Liability not governed by the convention is printed on ticket as ‘ Conditions of Contract’ • limits a carrier's liability to at most: – 250,000 Francs or 16,600 Special Drawing Rights (SDR) for personal injury; – 17 SDR per kilogram for checked luggage and cargo, – 5,000 Francs or 332 SDR for the hand luggage of a traveller. • Special Drawing Rights – International financing instrument created in 1970 by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to coincide with the disfavour of the US dollar as the principal currency of the world trade. – At present, one SDR is the sum of 0.6320 US Dollars, 0.4100 euro, 18.4 Japanese yen and 0.0903 pound sterling R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 8
  9. 9. • CHICAGO CONVENTION – Chicago convention on International Civil Aviation was concluded at a meeting between governments in 1944 – In 1947, the convention created a permanent international authority-ICAO – Convention also draws a distinction between scheduled and no scheduled services – Scheduled international air services may be operated by agreement between the two countries concerned- bilateral Agreement – For non- scheduled services each country may impose such regulations and conditions as it may consider desirable – Convention governs relations between state on both technical and commercial matters which include • Flying over territories of contracting states (Air services, customs, rules of the air) • Nationality of aircraft, facilitation (Customs, accident investigation etc,) • Documents (Recognition of certificates and licenses) • International standards and practices including those for the carriage of dangerous goods • Financial and technical assistance R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 9
  10. 10. Bermuda convention • GOVERNMENT OF THE USA , GOVERNMENT OF UK OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, • conclude an Agreement for the purpose of promoting direct air communications as soon as possible between their respective territories • With 14 articles of agreement R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 10
  11. 11. ICAO The aims and objectives of the Organization are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation and to foster the planning and development of international air transport so as to: • Insure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world; • Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes; • Encourage the development of airways, airports, and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation; • Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical air transport; • Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition; • Insure that the rights of contracting States are fully respected and that every contracting State has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines; • Avoid discrimination between contracting States; • Promote safety of flight in international air navigation; • Promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 11
  12. 12. Bilateral Agreement • The agreements specify the rights that the designated carrier may enjoy in the other country • Eg. A foreign carrier may be permitted to import the spare parts and supplies free of duty, but under customs bond for use in maintaining and supplying their aircraft • It specifies the cities that may be served by the designated airlines • Include Freedoms of Air • Freedoms of Air – The freedoms of the air are a set of commercial aviation rights granting a country's airline(s) the privilege to enter and land in another country's airspace. – Formulated as a result of disagreements over the extent of aviation liberalisation in the Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944, (known as the Chicago Convention). R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 12
  13. 13. • • • • • Fifth freedom – This freedom is also sometimes referred to as 'beyond – The first freedom is the right to fly over a foreign rights'. country without landing – It is the right of an airline from one country to land in a – It is also known as the technical freedom second country, to then pick up passengers and fly on to – It grants the privilege to fly over the territory of a a third country where the passengers then deplane. treaty country without landing. – An example would be a flight by American Airlines from – Member states of the International Air Services the US to England that is going on to France. Traffic could Transit Agreement grant this freedom (as well as the second freedom) to other member be picked up in England and taken to France. states, subject to the transiting aircraft using • Sixth freedom designated air routes. – The right to carry traffic from one state through the home Second freedom country to a third state. – The second freedom allows technical stops – Example: traffic from England coming to the US on a US without the enplaning or deplaning of passengers or cargo. airline and then going on to Canada on the same airline – It is the right to stop in one country solely for • Seventh freedom refueling or other maintenance on the way to – The right to carry traffic from one state to another state another country. without going through the home country. Third freedom – Example would be traffic from England going to Canada – The third freedom is the right to carry passengers on a US airline flight that does not stop in the US on the or cargo from one's own country to another way – The third freedom was the first commercial • Eighth freedom freedom – This is also called cabotage and almost no country Fourth freedom permits it. – The right to carry passengers or cargo from • Airline cabotage is the carriage of air traffic that another country to one's own originates and terminates within the boundaries of – Third and fourth freedom rights are almost always a given country by an air carrier of another granted simultaneously in bilateral agreements country. between countries. – The unofficial eighth freedom is the right to carry – The right of an airline from one country to land in passengers or cargo between two or more points in one a different country and board passengers foreign country travelling to the airline’s own country. • European Union, which has granted such rights between all of its member states. • Single Aviation Market (SAM) established between Australia and New Zealand in 1996 R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 13 First freedom
  14. 14. Open sky policy • Open skies refers to a bilateral (and sometimes multilateral) Air Transport Agreement • liberalizes the rules for international aviation markets and minimizes government intervention • The U.S. began pursuing Open Skies agreements in 1979 and, by 1982, it had signed twenty-three bilateral air service agreements worldwide, mainly with smaller nations. • That was followed in the 1990s by agreements with some individual European states. • Open sky's provisions – – – – – – Free market competition: No restrictions on international route rights; number of designated airlines; capacity; frequencies; and types of aircraft. Pricing determined by market forces: Fair and equal opportunity to compete: Cooperative marketing arrangements Designated airlines may enter into code-sharing or leasing arrangements with airlines of either country, or with those of third countries, subject to usual regulations. An optional provision authorizes code-sharing between airlines and surface transportation companies. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 14
  15. 15. • IATA is a global trade organisation, with its head office at Montreal, Canada. It provides standards and recommended practices for airline operations. • Over 60 years, IATA has developed the commercial standards that built a global industry. • Today, IATA’s mission is to represent, lead and serve the airline industry. • Its members comprise some 230 airlines - the world’s leading passenger and cargo airlines among them - representing 93 percent of scheduled international air traffic. • Scope of IATA • The scope of IATA encompasses all Air Transport activities. • IATA only controls International flights. However because they must comply with the IATA processes the involved parties tend to apply the same processes to domestic flights. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 15
  16. 16. For the benefit of all parties involved: • • • • • • • • • For consumers, IATA simplifies the travel and shipping processes, while keeping costs down. Passengers can make one telephone call to reserve a ticket, pay in one currency and then use the ticket on several airlines in several countries. IATA allows airlines to operate safely, securely, efficiently and economically under clearly defined rules. IATA serves as an intermediary between airlines and passenger as well as cargo agents via neutrally applied agency service standards and centralised financial systems. A large network of industry suppliers and service providers gathered by IATA provides solid expertise to airlines in a variety of industry solutions. For governments, IATA seeks to ensure they are well informed about the complexities of the aviation industry to ensure better, long-term decisions. IATA's Industry Priorities for 2008 Safety – Implement IATA Safety Audit for Ground Operations (ISAGO), conducting at least 60 station audits and 8 headquarters audits – Develop plan to address future airline training and qualification requirements Environment – Achieve a reduction of at least 6 million tones of CO2 from operations and infrastructure – Implement a strategy to reach carbon neutral growth – Develop standards and guidelines for an industry carbon offset programme and pilot it with at least 6 airlines in four different regions Simplifying the Business – Achieve 100% E-Ticketing penetration in IATA Billing and Settlement Plan (BSP) – Ensure 130 airports offer Common Use Self-Service (CUSS) facilities by end 2008 and that 200 airlines are Bar Coded Boarding Pass (BCBP)-enabled Implement e-freight pilots at 8 additional locations (14 total) by end 2008 Financial – Achieve savings/cost avoidance of $1.5 billion in industry taxes, charges and fuel fees, including at least $800 million in real cost reduction – R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University Launch four new initiatives to reduce airline costs and improve service. 16
  17. 17. Functions and Duties of IATA • • 1. 2. • The main organisation companies competition prices. objective of the is to assist airline to achieve lawful and uniformity in IATA has two functions: Trade Association (technical, legal, financial, traffic services and most agency matters); Tariff Coordination (passenger fares and cargo rates, agents' commissions). IATA assigns 3-letter IATA Airport Codes and 2-letter IATA Airline Designators, which are commonly used worldwide. • ICAO also assigns airport and airline codes. For Rail&Fly systems IATA also assigns IATA train station codes. • For fare calculations IATA has divided the world in three regions –TC1, TC2, TC3. • IATA teamed with Sita for an electronic ticketing solution • IATA is pivotal in the worldwide accreditation of travel agents although for practical purposes this, and giving permission to sell airline tickets from the participating carriers, is achieved through national member organisations. • They also regulate the shipping of dangerous goods and publish the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations manual, a globally accepted field source reference for airlines shipping hazardous materials. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 17
  18. 18. • History India – K. M. Mathen, was the first Indian Pilot to fly a Boeing 747 in 1970. he is "First Indian Jumbo Pilot". India's first lady Pilot was Sarla Thakral, first solo flight at the age of 21 in the year 1936. – In 1912 - first flight - Karachi to Delhi started by Indian State Air Services and Imperial Airways UK collaboration, just an extension of the London-Karachi flight – Tata Airline by JRD Tata in 1932, the first Indian to get an A-License. In 1946, Tata Airlines - into Air India. At the dawn of independence, India had 9 air transport companies providing both cargo and passenger services. – In 1953, nationalized all - formed Indian Airline Corporation for domestic and Air India International for international – Till 1991, private airlines -'air taxi scheme', they could operate chartered and nonscheduled to uplift of Indian tourism. – In 1994, air corporation act - private airline companies obtained permission. – In 2003, Air Deccan - budget flying lowering to 17% foll0wed by Spice Jet, Go Airways and Kingfisher Air, All-business class airline, Paramount Airlines. – These budget airlines - major Indian Aviation Industry market share, newer trends. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 18
  19. 19. • Airlines in India – Aviation Industry & airlines are managed by Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India. – All are supposed to obtain license from the ministry. – 10 Airlines =FIA (Federation of Indian Airlines) to deal Aviation Industry challenges in domestic segment and newer trends. • Airports in India – standards in operational, terminal and cargo services, the International AAI + National AAI=Airports Authority of India (AAI). responsible for infrastructure, aviation industry market tasks. – Airports in India are managed AAI • But the entry of private Airlines and their various schemes have reduced airfare drastically. The recent tax relaxation on air fuel and such sops will further make air travel within the reach of a greater section of the Indian Populace. • The domestic scene is now dotted with private airlines as the government has now very wisely ended the monopoly of Indian Airlines. • Today, though India has many airlines - domestic as well as international like SpiceJet, IndiGo, Kingfisher, Deccan, Sahara, Jet Airways and many more. And not until 1994, Air India and Indian Airlines were the only popularly known airlines of India. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 19
  20. 20. • About DGCA – Directorate General of Civil Aviation is an attached office of the Ministry of Civil Aviation. – The DGCA is the regulatory body in the field of Civil Aviation primarily dealing with safety issues. – It is responsible for regulation of air transport services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations, air safety and airworthiness standards. The headquarters are located in New Delhi with regional offices in the various parts of India. There are 14 (fourteen) Regional Airworthiness Offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hydera bad, Trivandrum, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Bhubanes hwar, Kanpur, Guwahati and Patiala. • DGCA is responsible for registration of all civil aircraft in India. Rule 30 of the Aircraft Rules, 1937 empowers the DGCA to register aircraft and to grant certificate of registration in India. • The procedure for registration and de-registration of an aircraft is given in Civil Aviation Requirements • • Wide range of Authorities of DGCA Certificate of Airworthiness • Special Flight Permits • Safety Oversight • Examination for Pilots and Engineers • Flight Crew Licenses • Aircraft Maintenance Engineers Training Schools It also co-ordinates all regulatory functions with International Civil Aviation Organisation. – Aircraft Certification & Registration DGCA under Rule 49 of the Aircraft Rules, 1937, is empowered to issue Type certificate of aircraft and its engines/ propellers manufactured in India and also revalidate the Type Certificate issued to an aircraft by foreign airworthiness authority. • – • • – – – Apart from the Regional Airworthiness Offices, there are 5 (five) Regional Air Safety offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad, the Regional Research and Development Office located at Bangalore and the Gliding Centre at Pune. The regulations are in the forms of the Aircraft Act, 1934, the Aircraft Rules, the Civil Aviation Requirements, the Aeronautical Information Circulars. • Recognition of Foreign Licenses R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 20
  21. 21. DGCA Duties & Functions 1. Registration of civil aircraft; 2. Formulation of standards of airworthiness for civil aircraft registered in India and grant of certificates of airworthiness to such aircraft; 3. Licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers and flight engineers, and conducting examinations and checks for that purpose; 4. Licensing of air traffic controllers; 5. Maintaining a check on the proficiency of flight crew, and also of other operational personnel such as flight dispatchers and cabin crew; Coordination of ICAO matters with all agencies and sending replies to State Letters, and taking all necessary action arising out of the Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) of ICAO; 9. 10. 9. Granting approval to aircraft maintenance, repair and manufacturing organizations and their continued oversight; 10. To act as a nodal agency for implementing Annex 9 provisions in India and for coordinating matters relating to facilitation at Indian airports including holding meetings of the National Facilitation Committee; 13. Coordination at national level for flexi-use of air space by civil and military air traffic agencies and interaction with ICAO for provision of more air routes for civil use through Indian air space; 14. Keeping a check on aircraft noise and engine emissions in accordance with ICAO Annex 16 and collaborating with the environmental authorities in this matter, if required; 15. Promoting indigenous design and manufacture of aircraft and aircraft components by acting as a catalytic agent; Supervision of the institutes/clubs/schools 16. Approving training programmes of operators engaged in flying training including for carriage of dangerous goods, issuing simulator training, or any other training related with aviation, with R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry authorizations for carriage of dangerous a view to University 21 ensuring a high quality of training; goods, etc.
  22. 22. Airports Authority of India • • • • • • The Airports Authority of India (AAI) was formed on • Consultancy Services by AAI 1st April 1995 by merging the International Airports • Airport Feasibility Authority of India and the National Airports Authority • Airport Commercial Viability /Airport Audit Services with a view to accelerate the integrated development, • Airport Master Planning expansion and modernization of the operational, • Designing & Construction of: terminal and cargo facilities at the airports in the – Air Passenger Terminals/Air Cargo Terminals country conforming to international standards. – Airport Pavements AAI manages 126 airports, which include 11 – Design of Aircraft Hangars and Supporting Infrastructure international airports, 89 domestic airports and 26 – Airport Electrical Installations/Approach and Night civil enclaves at Defence airfields. Landing Facilities – Remodeling, Modernisation of Airports AAI also provides Air Traffic Management Services over entire Indian Air Space and adjoining oceanic • Planning, Installation, Operation & Maintenance of: areas with ground installations at all airports and 25 – Radars, Navigational Aids, Visual & Non-Visual Landing Aids and Communication facilities. other locations to ensure safety of aircraft operations. • Air Space & Air Traffic Management, Air Route Re-Structuring AAI's endeavour in enhanced focus on 'customer's expectations' has evinced enthusiastic response to • Airport Management independent agency organised customer satisfaction • Flight Calibration of Airport Ground Facilities surveys at 30 busy airports. • Commissioning & routine flight check of RADAR System, etc. AAI's proposal to lease out, on global tender basis, the • Computerisation four most profitable jewels in its crown viz. Delhi, – Cargo Handling Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai airports primarily aims – Passenger Information System – Airport Terminal Information System to upgrade these to emulate the world standards. – Air Traffic Management and Airlines Billing AAI's successful implementation of Automatic • Training Dependence Surveillance system, using indigenous – Air Traffic Controllers technology, at Calcutta and Chennai Air Traffic Control – Airport Air Side Management (Ground Flight Safety) Centres, gave India the distinction of being the first – Radar & Nav. Aids & Communication Equipment – Engineers country to use this advanced technology in the South – Airport Terminal Management East Asian region enabling effective Air Traffic Control – Airport Fire Services R'tist@Tourism, 22 over oceanic areas using satellite mode ofPondicherry University communication.
  23. 23. AIR CORPORATIONS (TRANSFER OF UNDERTAKINGS AND, REPEAL) ACT, 1994 • An act to provide for the transfer and vesting of the undertakings of Indian Airlines and Air India respectively to and in the companies formed and registered as Indian Airlines Limited and Air India Limited • repeal the Air Corporations Act, 1953.BE it enacted by Parliament in the 45 Year of the Republic R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 23
  24. 24. INDIAN CARRIERS • Jet Airways • Air India – is India’s national carrier, and after merging with Indian Airlines, is the only government owned airline in India offering domestic flights in India. – Air India was initially founded in 1932 as Tata Airlines. – Air India’s primary hubs in India are Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in Mumbai and Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi. – is based in Mumbai, and offers over 370 daily flights across 44 domestic destinations. Jet Airways also operates numerous international flights to destinations like the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Thailand, and Nepal. – Jet Airways became the first Indian carrier to offer internet check-in facilities for its passengers. – Jet Airways offers youth discount (25%) for those under 29 years of age, and Senior Citizen discounts for those 65 years and older. To get the discount rates for domestic flights in India, the airline requires you to fax over credit card as well as pass port ID details. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 24
  25. 25. • Kingfisher Airlines Limited – is based in Bangalore, and was established in May 2005. It operates over 200 domestic Indian flights a day across 37 destinations in India. Its primary hub is in Bangalore International Airport. – Although Kingfisher only operates flights in India, the airline has plans to expand into the international market by adding the Unted States as a possible destination. – Check-in baggage rules for domestic India flights: Kingfisher Class 20 kg, Kingfigher First - 35 kg. • JetLite, – formerly known as Air Sahara, is one of the older privatelyowned airlines in India. – It was founded in September, 1991, is has bases in Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi, Begumpet Airport in Hyderabad, Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport in Mumbai, Chennai International Airport in Chennai, and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport in Kolkata. – JetLite covers domestic flights all over India, as well as travel between Delhi and Chicago through a code share with American Airlines. Check-in baggage for domestic flights in India (per person): 20 kg. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 25
  26. 26. • GoAir • Deccan, – formerly known as Air Deccan, is India’s first low cost airline carrier. It was founded in August 2003, " with the vision to empower every Indian to fly by providing the lowest airfares and connectivity to unconnected towns and cities". Deccan is based in Bangalore, with another hub in Chennai. – Deccan does not differentiate in fares between NRI, tourists, and locals for Indian domestic flights. Check-in baggage rules for domestic India flights (per person): 15 kg (Rs 70/kg for excess check-in luggage) – is another low-cost carrier, and is a relative new-comer for Indian domestic flights, having been established in June 2004. It is based in Mumbai. – GoAir does not differentiate in fares between NRI, tourists, and residents, and flies between Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Coimbatore ad Goa. – GoAir offers 10,000 Free Tickets Per Month. Check-in baggage rules for domestic India flights: 15 kg (Rs 70/kg for excess check-in luggage) R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 26
  27. 27. • Indigo Air – began its flight operations for domestic Indian flights in August 2006, and currently links Agartala, Ahmedabad, Bang alore, Bhubaneswar, Chenna i, Goa, Guwahati, Hyderabad , Imphal, Jaipur, Kochi, Kolka ta, Mumbai, Nagpur, New Delhi, Pune, Udaipur, and Vadodara. This low cost Indian flight carrier’s main hub is in Delhi. – Indigo Air does not differentiate between NRI, tourist, and local fares for domestic Indian flight tickets. • Paramount Airlines’ – primary focus is on the business traveler, and flies between Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. Some of its Indian domestic flight destinations include Bangalore, Chennai, Kochi (Cochin), Hyderabad and Madurai. – It is based in Madurai India, with its primary hub located in Chennai International Airport. The airline started operating in October 2005. Click here for a schedule of Paramount Airways flights. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 27
  28. 28. • SpiceJet – was voted the best low-cost carrier in Central Asia by SkyTrax in 2007. It is based in New Delhi, with its main hub in Mumbai and an additional hub in Ahmedabad. SpiceJet also offers service to Bangalore, Chennai, Goa, Hy derabad, Kolkata, and Varanasi. – SpiceJet offers online booking services, and has no differentiation in fares between NRI, tourists, and locals. Check-in baggage rules for domestic flights in India: 20kg. • Jagson Airline, – established in November 1991, is India’s first private airline. It is based primarily in Delhi. Jagson Airlines currently operates DelhiKullu and Delhi-Shimla routes, as well as ShirdiMumbai and Shirdi-Pune flights. Jagson airlines has offices in Mumbai, Shirdi, Manali, Kullu, Shimla, with good connects for the DelhiRajasthan sector – Jagson airlines does offer internet booking facilities for domestic Indian flight tickets through their online booking site. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 28
  29. 29. • Indus Air – no longer exists as a carrier, having gone out of business few months after its launch. It was originally based in Ghaziabad, with its main hub in Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi. The airline started its domestic Indian flight operations in December 2006. International Airlines in India There are a number of India international airlines. The main international airlines of India are given below: • • – Indus Air was a regional carrier, and operated flights between Amritsar, Chandigarh, De lhi, and Mumbai. • Air India: – The government of India owns air India. This national flag carrier airline of India has its main base in Mumbai. The other hubs of Air India are New Delhi and Chennai. It also provides cargo services worldwide. It is one of the two stateowned airlines in the country, the other one is Indian Airlines. Indian Airlines: Indian Airlines is the second state owned airline. It is primarily a domestic airline. But, it operates internationally also. It is based in New Delhi. Jet Airways: Jet Airways is another privately owned airline operating in the international sector also. This airline also got international flying rights some time back only. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 29
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  32. 32. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF AIR INDIA • Political Factors : - Excise Duty and Sales Tax on Aviation Turbine Fuel - Modernization of Airports - The government does not allow any domestic airline operator to operate international flights unless they have served minimum of 5 years in the domestic market. This acts as deterrent for the other operators to enter the industry. AI also has to deal with Safety Regulatory Authorities (DGCA,FAA etc.). • Technological Factors : - Growth of Electronic Ticketing Systems - Satellite based Navigation Systems for aircrafts - Time and speed of delivery being of special importance in the aviation industry, AI has rolled out the ORACLE supply chain solution, a module of ORACLE ERP application. • Demographic Factors : * India has a wide demographic reach and hence at times it becomes difficult for AI to operate on this hug scale. Also the expectations of customers across regions is very varied. • Marketing strategies like low cost carriers, Indian food services etc…. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 32
  33. 33. ROAD TRANSPORT IN INDIA • National Highways connecting all the major cities and state capitals • economic backbone of the country • India has a total of 66,590 km (41,377 mi) of National Highways, of which 200 km (124 mi) are classified as expressways • National Highways Development Project (NHDP) • plan to convert some stretches of these roads to six lanes • As per the National Highways Authority of India, about 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic is carried by the roads • National Highways carry about 40% of total road traffic, though only about 2% of the road network is covered by these roads • Average growth of the number of vehicles has been around 10.16% per annum over recent years • All national highways are metalled, but very few are constructed of concrete, the most notable being the Mumbai-Pune Expressway • Golden Quadrilateral and NorthSouth and East-West Corridors which link the largest cities • around 40% of villages in India lacked access to all-weather roads and remained isolated during the monsoon season R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 33
  34. 34. • To improve rural connectivity, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (Prime Minister's Rural Road Program), a project funded by the Central Government with the help of World Bank, was launched in 2000 to build all-weather roads to connect all habitations with a population of 500 or above (250 or above for hilly areas • As per 2009 estimates, the total road length in India is 3,320,410 km (2,063,210 mi); making the Indian road network the third largest road network in the world. • At 0.66 km of highway per square kilometre of land the density of India’s highway network is higher than that of the United States (0.65) and far higher than that of China's (0.16) or Brazil's (0.20) Expressways • 650 km National Highways • 66,590 km State Highways • 131,899 km Major District Roads • 467,763 km Rural and Other Roads • 2,650,000 km Total Length • 3,300,000 km • Buses are an important means of public transport • predominantly owned and operated by public agencies • State Road Transport Corporations introduced during 1960-70s connecting villages and towns across the country R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 34
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  37. 37. TRAVEL AGENTS & TOUR OPERATORS OF INDIA • International travel agencies and tour operators – – – – – • Online travel agencies Thomas Cook Cox&Kings American Express Kuoni Orbitz • National travel agents and tour operators – – – – – Sita Chetak Southern Travels Kesineni Travels Rao Travels etc – – – – – – – – – – – – – Expedia,, Travelocity, Orbitz, CheapTickets, Priceline, CheapOair, Expedia WorldHotel-Link TripAdvisor SideStep R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 37
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  39. 39. RAILWAY SYSTEM OF INDIA • first introduced in 1853 • transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million tonnes of freight daily across one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world • 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit • Indian Railways is divided into sixteen zones, which are further sub-divided into sixty seven divisions, each having a divisional headquarters • covering 6,909 stations over a total route length of around 63,465 km • world's largest commercial or utility employer, with more than 1.4 million employees • owns over 200,000 (freight) wagons, 50,000 coaches and 8,000 locomotives • owns locomotive and coach produc tion facilities • operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multigauge network of broad, metre and narrow gauges , and is in the process of converting all the metre gauge (14,406 km (8,951 mi)) into broad gauge in a project called Project Unigauge • The Rajdhani trains introduced in 1969 provides connectivity between the national capital, Delhi and capitals of the states • Shatabdi Express provides connectivity between centres of tourism, pilgrimage or business • The Shatabdi Express trains run over short to medium distances while the Rajdhani Expresses run over longer distances R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 39
  40. 40. • Bhopal Shatabdi express, however, runs at a peak speed of 161 km/h (100 mph), which makes it the fastest train in India • Duronto provides non-stop point to point rail services, Garib Rath aims to provide comfortable rail travel at an economical rate • luxury trains which cater to various tourist circuits – Palace on Wheels serves the Rajasthan circuit – The Golden Chariot serves the Karnataka and Goa – Deccan Odyssey - Konkan route – Fairy Queen - New Delhi to Alwar – Maharajas' Express - Delhi-Taj – Royal Orient Train Gujarat and Rajasthan – Royal Rajasthan on Wheels • Two UNESCO World Heritage Sites — the Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Mountain railways of India – Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a narrow gauge railway in West Bengal. – Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a metre gauge railway in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu – The Kalka-Shimla Railway, a narrow gauge railway in the Shivalik mountains in Himachal Pradesh. – The Maharaja Railways (Gwalior Light Railway), a narrow gauge line of just 0.6m width from Gwalior to Sheopur of 198 km. in length is world's longestnarrow gauge railway line is in the UNESCO world heritage tentative list. – The Neral-Matheran Railway, a narrow gauge railway connecting Matheran is also a historic line. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 40
  41. 41. • Kashmir Railway is the second highest in the world • In 1999, the Konkan Railway Corporation introduced the Roll On Roll Off (RORO) service, between Kolad in Maharashtra and Verna in Goa extended up to Surathkal in Karnataka • The RORO service, the first of its kind in India, transported on flatbed trailers. highly popular, carrying about 1,10,000 trucks and bringing in about 74 crore worth of earnings • Two trains operate to Pakistan – Samjhauta Express between Delhi and Lahore – Thar Express between Jodhpur and Karachi. • Bangladesh is connected by a bi-weekly train, the Maitree Express. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 41
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  43. 43. MAJOR RAILWAY SYSTEMS OF THE WORLD British Railways (BR) • from 1965 traded as British Rail • formed from the nationalisation of the "Big Four" British railway companies • 1997, British Rail was privatised • with the trunk routes of the West Coast Main Line, East Coast Main Line, Great Western Main Line and Midland Main Line Eurorail • informally known as Eurail • Netherlands-based company, registered in Luxembourg • sells passes and tickets for European railroads • Eurail pass covers 21 countries, as of 2009: – Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Fran ce, Germany, Greece, Hungary, It aly, Luxembourg, Netherlands, N orway, Portugal, Republic of Ireland, Romania, Slovenia, Spai n, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turk R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 43 ey
  44. 44. Amtrak • National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak • government-owned corporation • provide intercity passenger train service in the United States • "Amtrak" is combination of "America" and "track“ • headquartered at Union Station in Washington • employs nearly 19,000 people • 21,000 miles (34,000 km) • connecting 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces • 15 busiest routes in the Amtrak system • Covers – west coast , midwest, northeast, east/southeast INDRAIL PASS • special railway pass available to foreign nationals created along the lines of the Eurail Pass for unlimited travel without reservation of a ticket on the Indian Railways network. • special time period from half a day to 90 days. • It is only available to: – Foreign Tourists – Indian Nationals residing abroad travelling on valid passport – Indian spouse of a foreign tourist – A guide accompanying foreign tourists • Its validity period starts from the date of the first train journey and ends on the midnight of the last journey. • Payment may only be made in US dollars or pounds sterling or euro currencies. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 44
  45. 45. LUXURY TRAINS OF INDIA Deccan Odyssey • to boost tourism on the Konkan route of the Indian Railways. • starts in Mumbai and travels to Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Goa, Belgaum, Kolhapur, Pu ne, Nashik, Aurangabad,Ajanta-Ellora • It is a venture of the Maharashtra Government • complete 5-star hotel on wheels, with two restaurants and a bar, a sauna, business centre • The duration of the tour is 7 nights, starting every Wednesday from Mumbai • In 1943, the locomotive was shifted to the Railway Zonal Training School at Chandausi, where it served as a curiosity object for many of the students based there. • In 1972, the Indian government bequeathed heritage status to the engine, rendering it a national treasure. • The locomotive was spruced up and given a special spot in the newly built National Rail Museum, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi. • In 1997, return to commercial service on July 18. The two-day excursion sees the train Fairy Queen, plying from New Delhi to Alwar to the Sariska • built in 1855, is the world's oldest steam locomotive in regular operation today, plying Tiger Reserve. between New Delhi to Alwar . • The train pulled by this locomotive can • The locomotive was certified by the Guinness Book accommodate 38 passengers and the ticket is of Records to be the oldest operational locomotive priced at Rs. 7,500 for adults and Rs. 3,750 for after the Rajasthan government invoked it in 2004 to children. lug a deluxe train in order to boost tourism in the area. The Fairy Queen is run on the lines of the Palace • It was built in 1855 by Kitson, Thompson, & on Wheels Hewitson, (Leeds, UK). Previously it was • constructed in Leeds, England in 1855 AND SERVED locomotive No. 22 on the East Indian TILL 1909 Railway, R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University and used on the Howrah-Raniganj 45 line and then in Bihar
  46. 46. Golden Chariot • Karnataka and Goa. It is named after the Stone Chariot • The 19 coaches on the train are coloured purple and gold, and sport the logo of a mythological animal with the head of an elephant and a body of a lion. • operates weekly and had its maiden commercial run on March 10, 2008. • with accommodations, spa treatments and dining. • Karnataka State Tourism Development Corporation • 7-day/8-night tour of Bangalore, Kabini, Mysore, Hassan, Hospet, Ba dami and Goa • COVERS Nagarhole National Park, Mysore Palace, Srirangapatna forts, Hoysaleswara Temple, Gomateshwara and the Badami Cave Temples • 44 cabins in 11 coaches that are named after dynasties Kadamba, Hoysala,Rashtrakuta, Ganga, Chalukya, Bahamani, Adil Shahi, Sangama, Satavahana, Yadukula and Vijaya nagar. • HAS two restaurants, a lounge bar, and conference, gym and spa facilities • only train in India to have onboard Wi-Fi • accommodate 88 passengers • • • • • • • • • Maharajas' Express from early 2010. It is a joint venture between irctc and Cox and Kings India Ltd The all-inclusive costs begin at $800 (£535 or INR 40000)per person per day, and can climb to $2,500 (£1,670 or INR 125000)per person per day. four itineraries, all of which either begin or end in Delhi and include a visit to the Taj Mahal Each morning, the train arrives at a different station for off-rail excursions, including visits to monuments, heritage sites, shopping, palaces, forts, and hotels. The trains include a 23-guest carriage train, designed to recreate the personal state carriages used by the Maharajas of India. Facilities include two ornate restaurants with decorative arched ceilings, an observation lounge and souvenir shop, and 43 cabins and suites starting at roughly 110 square feet in size most expensive luxury train in India 24 carriages, 14 guest carriages – 88 passengers – – Royal India (8 Days / 7 Nights): Delhi - Agra Ranthambore - Jaipur - Bikaner - Jodhpur - Udaipur Vadodara - Mumbai Classical India (7 Days / 6 Nights): Delhi - Agra Gwalior - Khajuraho - Bandhavgarh - Varanasi Lucknow - Delhi R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 46
  47. 47. Palace on Wheels promote tourism in Rajasthan • relaunched in August 2009 with a new decor, itinerary and cuisine • started on January 26, India's Republic Day, in 1982 • 14 coaches, a bar, • two restaurants, The Mahārāja and The Mahārāni • Each coach has four cabins with twin beds • wall-to-wall carpeting, airconditioning, DTH satellite television, channel music, intercom, attached toilets, running hot and cold water, with personal attendants. • Covers Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, S awai Madhopur, Chittaurgarh, Udaipur, B haratpur, and Agra. Royal Orient Train • between Gujarat and Rajasthan • taste of royal luxury while "showcasing the best of Indian culture and heritage“ • 13 coaches, five-star hotel comforts • offer Rajasthani, Gujarati, Indian, Chinese and continental cuisine • bar on board, intercom, channel music, TV, DVD system and a massage-cum-beauty parlor • offers a 7-day/8-night package Chittorgarh,Jaipur, Udaipur, Ahme dabad, Mehsana, Junagarh, Veraval, Sasangi, Ahmedpur, Mandvi, Palita na and Sarkhej • Covering - Qutub Minar, Red Fort and Jama Masjid in Delhi, Chittorgarh Fort and Rani Padmini's Palace in Chittorgarh, Sabarmati Ashram, lake palace, Gir sanctuary, Hawamahal & Jantar mantar R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 47
  48. 48. Royal Rajasthan on Wheels • modelled on the Palace on Wheels, and follows a similar route through Rajasthan. • 7-day/8-night tour through Rajasthan • starts from New Delhi's Safdarjung railway station • attractions covered are the Hawa Mahal (Palace of Winds), Moti Mahal, Sheesh Mahal, Ranthambhor National Park, Chittaurgarh Fort, Jag Niwas (Lake Palace), Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Agra Fort and finally the Taj Mahal R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 48
  49. 49. Reservation procedures AIRLINE RESERVATION • Computer Reservation systems, later called Global Distribution Systems (GDS), were created by Airlines to allow Travel Agents to make online bookings. • Started in 1960; accepted in 1970 • Huge transactional systems that process around 5000 requests per second from 40000 to 50000 terminals. • Allow making booking on airlines that accept to pay a booking fee. • Are more and more independent of their founding companies. • Used to store, retrieve information, contact, transactions etc., designed by airlines • STAGE I- Manual to automatic reservation • Way back in 1950-1974 • Then came SABER (Semi Automated Business Environmental Research)- The fore father of modern GDS- developed for American Airlines STAGE II- The True CRS • Between 1974- 1984 • Installation of terminals in Travel agency and Tour Operation companies. STAGE III- From CRS to GDS • 1984 it came into existence • Got spread to hospitality industry too Can accept reservations and bookings from more than 60,000 tour operators and travel agents. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 49
  50. 50. • Features AMADEUS – Global perspective – Automatic rate and inventory control – Full reservation functionality – Created by Air France, KLM, Siberian Air, Lufthansa., – Group block features – Used by online travel agencies- ebookers, expedia etc., – Sales flow control – Over 400 individual airlines and – Multi air craft’s rate availability – Over 800 travel agencies GALILEO – Efficient searching – Owned by Air Lingus, Air Canada, British Airways, Swiss Air, United Air – Reports and Logs • Main Roles and Functions – Provision of up-to-date, accurate information – Fully integrated reservation system allowing confirmation – Allowing changes and amendments – Issuing tickets and related documents SABRE – Owned by Nippon Airlines, American Airlines, Cathay Pacific Airlines WORLD SPAM – Owned by Delta, North west and Trans West Airlines – Provision of travel info, routings and the like R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 50
  51. 51. • BUS RESERVATIONS – State owned websites – Affliated service providers – Travel agents and commission basis • RAILWAY RESERVATIONS – CRS – Travel agents on commission basis – Common sale R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 51
  52. 52. WATER TRANSPORT IN INDIA • National Waterway 1 - Allahabad Haldia stretch of the Ganges Bhagirathi - Hooghly river system with a total length of 1,620 km in 1986 • National Waterway 2 - Saidiya Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra river system with a total length of 891 km in 1988. • National Waterway 3 - Kollam Kottapuram stretch of the West Coast Canal along with Champakara and Udyogmandal canals, with a total length of 205 km in 1993. • National Waterway 4 - Bhadrachalam Rajahmundry and Wazirabad Vijaywada stretch of the Krishna Godavari river system along with the Kakinada -Puducherry canal network, with a total length of 1,095 km in 2007 • National Waterway 5 - Mangalgadi Paradeep and Talcher Dhamara stretch of the Mahanadi Brahmani river system along with the East Coast Canal, with a total length 52 of R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 623 km in 2007 • extensive network of inland waterways in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and cre eks • navigable length is 14,500 Km, out of which about 5,200 km of river and 485 km of canals • Freight transport by waterways is highly underutilised in India compared to other large countries • cargo moved by inland waterways is just 0.15% of the total inland traffic compared to the corresponding figures of 20% for Germany and 32% for Bangladesh • Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is the statutory authority
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  55. 55. Thank you R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 55