The Dengue Fever
Is an acute fever producing infectious
Mostly found in the tropics
Complications can be fatal
It is also known as Dengue fever , break-
Complicated forms are DHF and DSS
Causative Agent: The Virus
11000bp which encodes a single large
Other relatives: West-Nile virus, Yellow
fever virus, hepatitis C virus.
Four Serotypes: DEN1-4. 60-80% sequence
homology and also Surface Protein
Aedes Aegypti: Cosmopolitan.
Ae. Albopictus: South-East Asia.
Biting around the ankles and knees close to
the ground in the daytime
Distinct Physical Features.
Dengue cases usually increase during the
The spread of the mosquito is attributed
to poor environmental sanitation
When it rains the water gets stored in any
place such as discarded tires, broken
bottles, and even shoes
Other examples are soda
cans, birdbaths, rain gutters, toys, pool
covers, tree stumps, and garbage cans.
More About the Causative
Male feeds on plant nectar
Female feeds on blood (Human, Animals,
Life Span: 14-21 days.
Lays 300 eggs during her life span.
The mosquito can travel up to 10 km.
No specific vaccine or drug invented.
Can be controlled by limiting
1) Eliminating the Mosquito vector and/or
2) Interrupting Human-vector Contact.
Clothing, that minimize skin exposure must be
Don’t let clear water un-covered for more
than 1 day.
Put the cover on water container along with
If the larvae are seen any where, put
some detergent(surf), wait for some time
and then discard.
Do not leave any source into the water
tanks(over-flow, air source), if left
however, cover with some sort of net or
Focus on neglected areas like water pots
in bird cages etc..
Turn over all unused water containers.
Control of Immature stages:
Vector control: 1. Larviciding with insecticides.
2. Elimination of breeding sites
Only Temephos, Permethrin, Bti, and Pyriproxyfen
are approved by WHO for use in drinking-water.
Bti Toxins: Bacillus thuringiensis var.
israelensis (Bti), Bacillus Sphaericus (Bs).
High larvicidal activity in mosquitoes.
Should be used in Combinations:
[BTi + Insecticide], [BTi + Copepods]: Excellent
Commercial Preparations: Liquid/Granular Preps
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