Language Teaching Approaches


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Un resumen de los métodos y filosofías que han influido en la práctica de la enseñanza de la lengua inglesa. Una visión crítica sobre la pedagogía del lenguaje y su valor histórico

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Language Teaching Approaches

  1. 1. UNIVERSIDAD DE PANAMÁ Language teaching approaches
  2. 2. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>Edward Anthony (1963) </li></ul><ul><li>Defined approach,method, technique </li></ul><ul><li>Approach: A set of assumptions about language teaching which involve the nature of language, learning, teaching </li></ul>
  3. 3. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>Method: The plan selected to present language in a systematic way </li></ul><ul><li>Technique: Specific activities consistent with the method and approach </li></ul>
  4. 4. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>ANTHONY´S HIERARCHY: </li></ul><ul><li>It was a first attempt to define the elements of language pedagogy </li></ul>APPROACH METHOD TECHNIQUE
  5. 5. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>Jack Richards and Theodore Rodgers (1982, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Redefined Anthony´s hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>(approach, method, technique ) to : </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul>
  6. 6. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>Richard and Rodgers´definitions: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Approach: Beliefs, assumptions and theories of learning </li></ul><ul><li>2. Design: Defines the relationship between theory and practice </li></ul><ul><li>3.Procedure: Techniques and practices derived from approach and design </li></ul>
  7. 7. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>WHAT IS A METHOD? </li></ul><ul><li>“ A method according to Richards and Rodgers was an umbrella term for the specification and interrelation between theory and practice” (1984:154) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>Richards and Rodgers´ contributions: </li></ul><ul><li>Their approach brought objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2. Their design brought the need of a syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>3. Their procedure brought activities, roles for teacher and learner and instructional materials </li></ul>syllabus activities Objectives Instructional materials roles
  9. 9. Language teaching approaches Pre- Twentieth Century Trends
  10. 10. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>THE MIDDLE AGES </li></ul><ul><li>Classical languages were lingua francras across the known world </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis was on language use; not its analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Methods were based on direct, aural oral techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Elites were expected to become users of the classical languages </li></ul>
  11. 11. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>Textbooks were not used, so hand-copied manuscripts aided the process </li></ul><ul><li>Only the nobility had access to formal education </li></ul><ul><li>The school based system was inexistent outside monasteries </li></ul>
  12. 12. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>THE RENAISSANCE </li></ul><ul><li>It caused the formal study of classical languages </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis shifted from use to analysis of languages due to universities (Latin- vulgate vs. Classical Latin) </li></ul><ul><li>The printing press led to mass production of books </li></ul>
  13. 13. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>THE 17th CENTURY </li></ul><ul><li>Vernaculars had gained prestige </li></ul><ul><li>The first attempt to establish a method </li></ul><ul><li>The first attempt came from Czech scholar Johann Comenius (1631) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>Comenius´Method </li></ul><ul><li>It was inductive </li></ul><ul><li>It used imitation instead of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Ss repetition was emphasized </li></ul><ul><li>It used limited amounts of vocabulary initially </li></ul><ul><li>It fostered ss practice of reading and speaking </li></ul><ul><li>It used images to make it meaningful </li></ul>
  15. 15. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>THE 19TH CENTURY </li></ul><ul><li>The interest in the analysis of vernaculars (grammars, grammar schools, grammarians) favored one method </li></ul><ul><li>The method of the day was : </li></ul><ul><li>“ GRAMMAR TRANSLATION” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>EARLY 20th CENTURY </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis was back on the “use” of a language rather than on its “analysis” </li></ul><ul><li>The “ direct method” also known as “ the natural method” or “natural approach” gained favor </li></ul>
  17. 17. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>FRANCOIS GOUIN (1880) </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested the “ direct method as the only method possible </li></ul><ul><li>In 1890, a reform movement in language teaching changed the traditional DM and GT because of their focus on oral skills </li></ul>
  18. 18. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>20th CENTURY “APPROACHES” TO LANGUAGE TEACHING </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar translation </li></ul><ul><li>Direct method </li></ul><ul><li>Reading method </li></ul><ul><li>Audiolingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Oral situational (Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Cognitive approach </li></ul><ul><li>Affective- humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension based approach </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative approach </li></ul>
  19. 19. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>MAIN APPROACHES BY INFLUENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative approach: </li></ul><ul><li>Affective – humanistic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension approach </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative approach </li></ul>
  20. 20. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>COGNITIVE APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>Language is rule- governed. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The emphasis is on cognitive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>( not habit formation; Skinner´s cognitive conditioning) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>AFFECTIVE – HUMANISTIC APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>Learning a foreign language is a process of self realization and of relating to other people </li></ul>
  22. 22. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>COMPREHENSION APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquisition occurs if and only if the goal of the language teaching is communication </li></ul>
  23. 23. Language teaching approaches <ul><li>COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of language ( the goal of teaching )is communication </li></ul>
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