Recommendations for a European Innovation Strategy
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Recommendations for a European Innovation Strategy Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Recommendations for aEuropean Innovation Strategy International Conference “Innovations for the Ecological Turnaround” Berlin, Germany (9-10 May 2012) Dr Rafael Popper Research Fellow, Manchester Institute of Innovation Research (UK) Innovation Director & CEO, Futures Diamond (Czech Republic)rafael.popper@manchester.ac.uk - rafael.popper@futuresdiamond.com
  • 2. What is on the biographies of the 41 speakers at Innovations for the Ecological Turnaround? (Berlin, 2012) 4 of 41 speakers 1 of 41 speakers 5 of 41 speakers 26 of 41 speakersSource: Short Biographies of Speakers at the International Conference: Innovations for the Ecological Turnaround(Top 70 keywords)
  • 3. What is on the agenda at Innovations for the Ecological Turnaround? (Berlin, 2012)Source: Top 20 keywords of the International Conference programme on Innovations for the Ecological Turnaround(Berlin, May 2012)
  • 4. So what do we know about Innovation Strategies?
  • 5.  The OECD Innovation Strategy is built around five priorities for government action, which together can underpin a strategic and broad-based approach to promoting innovation for the 21st century:  empowering people to innovate;  unleashing innovation in firms;  creating and applying knowledge;  addressing global and social challenges; and  improving the governance and measurement of policies for innovation.
  • 6.  €80 billionfor R&I for 2014-2020, representing 46 percent increase compared to the funding of the EC Multi-annual Financial Framework 2007-2013 (constant 2011 prices) The 5 objectives of the next EU spending programme for research and innovation (R&I) will be to contribute to the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy and to the completion of the European Research Area. 1. Strengthening Europes science base by ▪ (1) improving its performance in frontier research, ▪ (2) stimulating future and emerging technologies, ▪ (3) encouraging cross-border training and career development, and ▪ (4) supporting research infrastructures 2. Boosting Europes industrial leadership and competitiveness through ▪ (1) stimulating leadership in enabling and industrial technologies, ▪ (2) improving access to risk finance, and ▪ (3) stimulating innovation in SMEs 3. Increasing the contribution of R&I to the resolution of key societal challenges 4. Providing customer-driven scientific and technical support to Union policies 5. Helping to better integrate the knowledge triangle – by combining ▪ (1) research, (2) researcher training and (3) innovation
  • 7.  The EU Innovation Strategy is built around 4 priorities:  Delivering growth and jobs through Innovation ▪ Making Europe more robust against the crisis (i.e. resilience) ▪ Reforming national research and innovation systems ▪ More and better EU funding for research and innovation ▪ Working in partnership to address societal challenges ▪ Maximising social and territorial cohesion  Strengthening the knowledge base & reducing fragmentation ▪ Getting top talent for Europe (i.e. education & training systems) ▪ Delivering the European Research Area (e.g. EU Funding Instruments) ▪ European Institute of Innovation and Technology  Getting good ideas to market ▪ Access to finance for innovation companies ▪ Protecting & enhancing the value of intellectual property & boosting creativity ▪ Accelerating and modernising standard-setting ▪ Putting the power of the public purse (i.e. public procurement) to innovation  Leveraging EU policies externally ▪ Pooling forces to achieve breakthroughs: European Innovation Partnerships (e.g. India, China and USA)
  • 8.  Sustainable growth - for a resource efficient, greener and more competitive economy  reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% compared to 1990 levels by 2020 ▪ The EU is prepared to go further and reduce by 30% if other developed countries make similar commitments and developing countries contribute according to their abilities, as part of a comprehensive global agreement  increasing the share of renewables in final energy consumption to 20%  moving towards a 20% increase in energy efficiency
  • 9.  The Eco-Innovation Action Plan is 1 of 32 commitments of the the Innovation Union and includes 7 key aspects:  Using environmental policy and legislation to promote eco-innovation  Supporting demonstration projects and partnering to bring promising, smart and ambitious operational technologies to market  Developing new standards to boost eco-innovation  Mobilising financial instruments and support services for SMEs  Promoting international cooperation  Supporting the development of emerging skills and jobs and related training programmes to match labour market needs  Promoting eco-innovation through European Innovation Partnerships
  • 10. What do we mean by Grand Challenges?
  • 11. 1. Economic challenges  need to engage business through a combination of supply-side measures for promotion of RTD and demand- side measures to create innovation-friendly markets – see Aho Group Report2. Social and environmental challenges  causes and consequences of issues such as climate change, food and energy security and the ageing society  initial drive will have to come from governments3. Science and technology  collective ability to respond to opportunities in frontier research GCs must be relevant, feasible and have research dimension
  • 12. 1. Water security and vulnerability 12. Work-life balance and mental health2. Energy security and vulnerability 13. Science, technology and ethics3. Health, illness and well-being 14. Crime, security and justice4. Sustainability and climate change 15. Governance, democracy and citizenship5. Ageing and demographic issues 16. Coexistence and conflict6. Food security and culture 17. Social pathologies and ethics7. Globalisation and localisation 18. Social exclusion, poverty and affluence8. Social cohesion and diversity9. Technological security, hazard and risk 19. Economic prosperity & growth dynamics10. Consumption and behavioural change 20. Urban and rural dynamics11. Innovation, knowledge& technology dynamics 21. Education and skills dynamics
  • 13. 1. Water security and vulnerability 12. Work-life balance and mental health2. Energy security and vulnerability 13. Science, technology and ethics3. Health, illness and well-being 14. Crime, security and justice4. Sustainability and climate change 15. Governance, democracy and citizenship5. Ageing and demographic issues 16. Coexistence and conflict6. Food security and culture 17. Social pathologies and ethics7. Globalisation and localisation 18. Social exclusion, poverty and affluence8. Social cohesion and diversity9. Technological security, hazard and risk 19. Economic prosperity & growth dynamics10. Consumption and behavioural change 20. Urban and rural dynamics11. Innovation, knowledge& technology dynamics 21. Education and skills dynamics
  • 14.  Need for a broad research agenda  Forward-looking  addressing ‘wicked’ problems  Practices  Players  interconnecting knowledge  Outcomes  resolving conflicts in: ▪ definitions  Robust methodology ▪ methodology  Explanatory ▪ policy responses  Participatory  Exploratory Need for a deep research agenda  Advisory  Addressing grand challenges  Worldviews approach  Addressing grand responses  Conservative  Reformist  Addressing emerging issues  Radical  Addressing knowledge governance  Applying a ‘worldviews’ approach
  • 15. Recommendations for aEuropean Innovation Strategy
  • 16.  Foresight is a  Key/Emerging/Frontier Issues  Environmental Scanning systematic, participatory, prospect  Horizon Scanning ive and policy-oriented process  ART which, with the support of  Anticipating environmental and horizon  Recommending scanning approaches, is aimed to  Transforming actively engage key stakeholders  TEEPSE futures into a wide range of activities  Technological anticipating, recommending and  Economic transforming (ART)  Environmental  Political technological, economic, environm  Social ental, political, social and ethical  Ethical (TEEPSE) futures.
  • 17. S.M.A.R.T.E.R. Policy/Strategy Approach to addressing Grand Challenges (Popper, 2011)4 2 53 1
  • 18. ADDRESSING GRAND CHALLENGES, GRAND RESPONSES, EMERGING ISSUES AND KNOWLEDGE GOVERNANCE INForesight & Horizon Scanning (FHS)
  • 19. 1 consensus about the need to address GCs  Classifying GCs huge amount of information on GCs  Economic  problem of effective knowledge management (e.g. impact  Social & of climate change on cities, consequences of ageing Environmental population for workforce skills, etc.).  Science and technology  problem of interactions between various GCs (e.g. impact of climate change on water and food security, impacts of  Selecting GCs ageing on migration).  Geographical  problem of information overload, with studies at various relevance levels of granularity, and considerable controversy in many  RTD relevance topics.  Socio-economic feasibility  problem that GCs are NOT just “big problems”. They represent agendas for RTD, innovation and the development  Defining GCs space of conducive environments for adoption of innovations.  Strata  problem of classifying GCsin terms of:  Linkages ▪ Geographical relevance  Borders of strata  Control mechanisms ▪ Knowledge domain and RTD relevance ▪ Feasibility as an economic or social investment
  • 20. 2 GRs to GCs will almost certainly require:  Applying multiple  interdisciplinary knowledge development approaches to GRs  multi-stakeholder contributions to and  Interdisciplinary applications of this knowledge base  Multi-stakeholder  a policy mix of actions (developing a policy  Policy mix roadmap that spans several traditionally distinct policy domains).  Promoting stakeholder engagement through: Far too often specific efforts to address GCs –  Delphi surveys such as geoengineering plans, or calls for massive  Expert workshops change in consumer behaviour, smart metering and  Gaming activities carbon taxes (all these in the context of  Scenario building energy/climate change challenges) – are conceptualised in very narrow ways.  Roadmapping  Visualisation tools  The social resistance, technical difficulties, leads and lags in adjustment and transition, are poorly taken  Networking tools into account.  Etc.
  • 21. 3 Applying horizon scanning & issue mapping  Developing a robust Mapping issues against GCs and GRs emerging issues MAP  Monitoringissues  Assessing factors shaping the trajectories of  Analysing issues ▪ GCs  Positioningissues ▪ GRs  Paying particular attention to  Mapping emerging ‘issues’ such as: ▪ Seeds of change (“weak signals”)  Weak Signals and ▪ Potential surprises (“wild cards”) potential Wild cards  Key technologies Using bottom-up approaches such as surveys,  Visions & scenarios  TEEPSE drivers citizen panels and web-based crowdsourcing  SWOT & GCs for the analysis of emerging issues relevant to  Roadmaps GCs &GRs  Models  Etc.
  • 22. 4 Effective knowledge governance (KG) requires:  Overcoming language barriers, cultural  Identifying the right balance of methods differences, competition and fragmentation of knowledge supporting: across disciplines, professions, and localities.  Knowledge push  Exploiting creative environments, commercialisation, standardisation and  Knowledge pull innovations (technological & social)  Using a wide range of Governance involves the codification of knowledge and the KG strategies: development of mechanisms to:  Balancing  Improve access/location interactivity  Promote validation/evaluation  Responding to ‘hot’ & current topics  Assess implications for action (both present and future)  Promoting ‘gaming’ KG must be supported by social technologies: ▪ rating  situating and interconnecting codified knowledge ▪ scoring  situating and interconnecting knowledge communities ▪ user rights  enabling better communication and networking between ▪ badges & titles experts and stakeholders of different types ▪ Etc.
  • 23. 5 Effective use of ‘worldviews’ approach requires interactive/participatory settings capable of:  A worldviews approach can help to identify:  Identifying key features of different worldviews  Key features ▪ using deskwork  Key limitations ▪ using workshops by proponents, or  Key similarities ▪ using experts familiar with the worldviews  Key ‘boundary ▪ enabling direct comparison around specific points objects’  Identifying key limitations in their abilities to grasp major problems and solutions  Worldviews approach  Identifying key points of potential agreements about  Conservative gaps in knowledge (though not necessarily about how  Reformist to most effectively resolve these).  Radical  Identifying key “boundary objects” for potential  Etc. agreement about key features of a phenomenon, and alignment in terms of action without necessarily achieving consensus about many other things
  • 24. How to support“Grand Challenges”-relevant research and innovation?
  • 25. Addressing Grand Challenges 44 requires a multi-method approachMethodology Toolkit
  • 26. iKnow is an Innovation, Foresight and Horizon Scanning System www.iknowfutures.eu
  • 27. The Innovation Systems Companywww.futuresdiamond.com“ Emerging Issues Platform ” An interactive system to map emerging issues, future shakers (wild cards) and shapers (weak signals) of science, technology and innovation in the world. 1 http://bank.iknowfutures.eu
  • 28. The Innovation Systems Companywww.futuresdiamond.com“ Horizon Scanning Platform ” A horizon scanning system on key issues and big picture challenges affecting the future of the health and social care workforce planning in the UK 2 http://www.futuresdiamond.net/cfwi
  • 29. “ What can you do? ”Behavioral change? If so, when? Innovation? If so, how? Research? Is so, what? Thank you!
  • 30. Recommended paper on:The innovation effects of environmental policy instruments — A typical case of the blind men and the elephant? Kemp, R. and Pontoglio, S. (2011) Ecological Economics, 72, pp. 28–36
  • 31.  “…In the OECD, companies have shifted to cleaner production and consequently end-of- pipe solutions are no longer the most important technology for dealing with environmental issues” “…the link between regulator and regulated is not unidirectional and that innovation is affected by multiple policies…. (however) It is being observed that eco-innovation suffers from two market failures — the public good nature of knowledge and non- internalisation of externalities” “… impacts of environmental policy instruments on innovation may depend more on design features than on the type of instrument chosen.” “…there is not one single best instrument to foster innovative response to environmental regulations. According to the theoretical literature, taxes and emissions trading systems are superior in promoting innovation than regulation. This may be true for low-cost improvement innovations but does not appear to be true for radical innovation. There is more evidence of regulation promoting radical innovation…” “…environmental policy can have both a positive and a negative influence on the development and adoption of particular environmental innovations.”
  • 32. [click on the images]