WORD ORDER:ADVERBS AND VERBSUsing adverbs expressing certainty andfrequency with verbs
Using adverbs with verbs Adverbs with the verbs: Expressing frequency Daily Weekly Yearly Expressing certainty Definitely Certainly Probably Undoubtedly SurelyAlwaysUsuallyFrequentlyOftenSometimesOccasionallyRarelySeldomHardly everNever100%50%0%
Using adverbs of certainty withverbs Adverbs of certainty go before the main verbbut after the verb „to be‟: He definitely left the house this morning. He is probably in the park. With other auxiliary verb, these adverbs gobetween the auxiliary and the main verb: He has certainly forgotten the meeting. He will probably remember tomorrow.
Using adverbs of certainty withverbs Sometimes these adverbs can be placed atthe beginning of the sentence: Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a greatpolitician. Surely. When it is placed at the beginning ofthe sentence, it means the speaker thinkssomething is true, but is looking forconfirmation: Surely youve got a car? In negation clauses adverbs of certainty comebefore the auxiliary verb:
Using adverbs of certainty withverbs But what if we had uncontracted negation? He certainly will not lose his job. He will certainly not lose his job?Both are possible. But the 2nd is much morecommon: He certainly will not lose his job. He will certainly not lose his job.it shows more stress on the certainty ofthe fact
Using adverbs of certainty withverbs Exercise: put the adverb of frequency on theright place.1. Her boyfriend will buy her some flowers.(probably)2. My uncle is moving to Stockholm soon. (definitely)3. Pete got angry with you. (undoubtedly)4. Ramon will not go with us. (certainly)5. John fell off the bike. (surely)1. Her boyfriend will probably buy her someflowers.2. My uncle is definitely moving to Stockholmsoon.3. Pete undoubtedly got angry with you.4. Ramon will certainly not go with us.5. Surely John fell off the bike.
Using adverbs of frequency withverbs Adverbs of frequency are put directly beforethe main verb. If the verb „to be‟ is the mainverb and there is no auxiliary verb, adverbs offrequency are put behind the verb „to be‟. Isthere an auxiliary verb, however, adverbs offrequency are put before the verb „to be‟.SUBJECTAUXILIARY /BEADVERB MAIN VERBOBJECT,PLACE ORTIMEI often go swimming in theevenings.He doesn‟t always play tennis.We are usually here in
Using adverbs of frequency withverbs Exercise: put the adverb of frequency on theright place.1. He listens to the radio. (often)2. They read a book. (sometimes)3. Pete gets angry. (never)4. Tom is very friendly. (usually)5. I take sugar in my coffee. (sometimes)6. Ramon is hungry. (often)7. My grandmother goes for a walk in the evening.(always)1. He often listens to the radio.2. They sometimes read a book.3. Pete never gets angry.4. Tom is usually very friendly.5. I sometimes take sugar in my coffee.6. Ramon is often hungry.7. My grandmother always goes for a walk in theevening.
THE USE OF „BE‟Using „be‟ to talk about physycal characteristicsand conditions.
The use of „be‟ We use „be‟ to talk about physycalcharacteristics and conditions: Age Height Weight Size Physical conditionsWe don‟t “have” someage, height, weight, size or physicalcondition... we “ARE” all of these!
The use of „be‟ Exercise: make sentences using thosephysical characteristics and conditions.1. Tall2. Thirsty3. Cold4. Afraid5. Wrong6. Kilos considered a physical condition. right, lucky, ashamed... we “ARE”also.
MODAL AUXILIARYVERBSUsing should have, could have and other modalauxiliary verbs
At first, what modals are? Can, could, may, might,must, ought to, shall, should, will, would andneed („need‟ can be a full verb, too). We can swim. We are able to swim. We could swim. We have/had the possibility to swim. We may swim. We are allowed to swim. We might swim. We are supposed to swim. We must swim. We have to swim. We mustnt swim. We are not allowed to swim. We neednt swim. We don‟t have to swim. We ought to swim. We are to swim. We shall swim. We are supposed to swim. We should swim. We are expected to swim. We will swim. We are going to swim. We would swim. We were going to swim.Using modal auxiliary verbs
Note:1. Do not use modals for things which happen definitely(The sun rises in the East.)2. They do not have an -s in the 3rd person singular (Hecan play football)3. Questions are formed without do/does/did (Can hespeak Spanish?)4. It follows a full verb in the infinitive (They must readthe book)5. There are no past forms, except could and would (Hewas allowed to watch the film)6. When you use the past particple, you tell about thingswhich did not happen in the past (You should havetold me)Using modal auxiliary verbs
Using modal auxiliary verbs Lets focus in what „could‟ and „should‟ mean:USE of COULD EXAMPLESAbility to do something in the past(substitute form: to be able to)I could speak English.Permission to do something in thepast (substitute form: to be allowedto)I could go to the cinema.Polite question Could I go to the cinema, please?Polite request Could you wait a moment, please?Polite offer I could lend you my car till tomorrow.Polite suggestionCould we visit Grandma at theweekend?Possibility It could get very hot in Brasília.USE of SHOULD EXAMPLESAdviceYou should drive carefully in badweather.
Using modal auxiliary verbs When we use them with the auxiliary „have‟ +„past participle‟, we are talking about “unreal”past situations that are the opposite of whatreally happened: I could have spoken English. I could have went to the cinema. Could I have gone to the cinema? Could you have waited a moment? I could have lent you my car till tomorrow. Could we have visited Grandma at theweekend? You should have driven carefully in bad
Using modal auxiliary verbs We can use should have to talk about pastevents that did not happen. I should have let her know what was happening but Iforgot. We can also use should have to speculate aboutevents that may or may not have happened. She should have got the letter this morning. I expectshell give us a call about it later. We can use should not have to speculatenegatively about what may or may not havehappened. She shouldnt have left work yet. Ill call her office. We can also use should not have to regret pastactions.
Using modal auxiliary verbs Exercise: put the sentences in right order.1. should/I/you/told/have2. explained/have/better/should/he/it3. have/it/we/bought/should4. everybody/reminder/should/a/he/sent5. here/been/they/ten/have/at/should6. should/there/I/been/have1. I should have told you.2. He should have explained it better3. We should have bought it.4. He should have sent everybody a reminder.5. They should have been here at ten.6. I should have been there.
Using modal auxiliary verbs We can use could have to talk about somethingsomebody was capable of doing but didnt do. I could have gone to Oxford University but I preferredHarvard. Often, there is a sense of criticism. You could have phoned me to let me know. We can use couldnt have to talk aboutsomething we were not capable of doing. I couldnt have managed without you. We can use could have to speculate about whathas happened. (We can also use „may have‟ or„might have‟ in these situations.) She could have taken the earlier train.
Using modal auxiliary verbs We can also use could have to speculate about whathas happened but only in questions and negativesentences and with words such as „hardly‟, „never‟and „only‟. Could she have forgotten about our meeting? He couldnt have seen us. We can also use could have to speculate aboutsomething that didnt happen. You could have broken your neck, jumping out the windowlike that. You can also use could have to talk about possiblepresent situations that have not happened. I could have been earning a lot as an accountant but thework was just too boring.
Using modal auxiliary verbs Exercise: put the sentences in the right order.1. could/it/you/better/have/done2. called/have/tell/could/me/to/you3. have/he/apologised/could4. hand/given/could/a/they/me/have5. the/taken/you/bus/have/could6. could/more/I/helped/have/him1. You could have done it better.2. You could have called to tell me.3. He could have apologised.4. They could have given me a hand.5. You could have taken the bus.6. I could have helped him more.
FUTURE WITH „GOINGTO‟Expressing future using „going to‟
Using going to to express future There is no „future tense‟ in English. But, thereare 4 forms, all to express future.Past Present Future Differences:WILLpredictions,assumptions, promises,and when we dosomethingspontaneously, withoutGOING TOplanned actions.
Using going to to express future We use going to when we want to talk about aplan for the future. Im going to see him later today.Note: this plan does not haveto be for the near future. When I retire Im going to go back to Barbados to live. We use going to when we want to make aprediction based on evidence we can see now. Look out! That cup is going to fall off. We can replace going to go by just going. Im going out later. Shes going to the exhibition tomorrow.
Using going to to express future Exercise: complete the sentences using goingto/going with the verbs in brackets. Watch thepunctuation and do not forget to put in the subjectin each sentence.1. We are not going to buy sweets. (we/not/to buy)2. Arent the boys going to check the computer? (theboys/not/to check)3. The teacher isn‟t going to use a pencil. (theteacher/not/to use)4. Are you going to water the flowers? (you/to water)5. Jane is going to go / is going to the office. (Jane/togo)
PAST PERFECT TENSEUsing past perfect tense to talk about the“past”
Using past perfect tenseAttention:Past Perfect - Simple Past The match had started when he arrived.Simple Past - Simple Past The match started when he arrived.AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE QUESTIONSI had played hockey.Id played hockey.I had not played hockey.Id not played hockey.I hadnt played hockey.Had you played hockey?
Using past perfect tense We use the past perfect to talk about whathappened before a point in the past. It looks backfrom a point in the past to further in the past. I hadnt known the bad news when I spoke to him. I checked with the supplier and they still hadntreceived the contract. She had already told him before I got a chance to givehim my version.action which was completed beforea special point of time in the pastPast Present Future
Using past perfect tense The past perfect is often used when we reportwhat people had said/thought/believed. He told me they had already paid the bill. He said he believed that John had moved to Italy. We often use the Past Perfect together withthe Simple Past. The action which wascompleted before the other action began is putinto Past Perfect.Past Present Future
Using going to to express future Exercise: complete the sentences using PastPerfect Tense with the verbs in brackets. Watchthe punctuation.1. When I arrived at the restaurant, Victoria had alreadyordered a glass of water. (already/to order)2. He noticed that Peter hadn‟t painted the old chair.(not/to paint)3. Before Emma laid the table, she had had a talk withher mother. (to have)4. It hadn‟t rained for three weeks, so the land was dry.(not/to rain)5. Linda had never been to a magic show beforeyesterday evening. (never/to be)6. She told me that Frank hadn‟t tidied his room. (not/totidy)
“ESPECIAL” USE OFGERUNDUsing to + verbs with ...ing form
Using to + verb + ...ing General rule:verb+…ing is called gerund if it serves as anoun: “run” / “running” I like cats, I like dogs, I likerunning. Our focus here:There are a few cases where you usto+verb+…ing: If the to is part of a phrasal verb or verb + prepositioncombination: "look forward to“ "confess to”In this case, the "to" is part of the verb itself. Someexamples are:I am looking forward to attending the party
Using to + verb + ...ing General rule: verb+…ing is called gerund if itserves as a noun: I like cats, I like dogs, I likerunning. Verbs with prepositions followed by the gerund:feel likeforgive forgive upinsist onkeep onlook forwardtowarn againstcarry oncomplainaboutuse forcongratulate onconsist ofcope withdecide againstdecide fordepend ondie ofdream about /ofget used toaccuse ofadjust toagree withapologizeforapprove ofask aboutget roundtoask forbegin bypay forprevent sb.fromprotect fromput offobject torely onspend moneyonspend time ontake part inblame forcare forsucceed insuspect ofescape fromtalk about / ofthank forbe used toconcentrateonworry about
Using to + verb + ...ingLook forward toGet used toAdjust toObject toBe used to When to is a preposition, it can be followedeither by a noun or by the -ing form of theverb.Cases where you use toTO can be an infinitivemarker, but it can alsobe a preposition.
Using to + verb + ...ing If the to is part of a phrasal verb orverb+preposition combination: in this case, theto is part of the verb itself. I am looking forward to attending the party. I am committed to supporting the classes atSenac.Compare: what is the difference? I look forward to hearing from you. I hope to hear from you.Remember : use the verb as a noun is the keyto undestand this case of gerund.
Using to + verb + ...ing If the to is part of an adjective+prepositioncombination: A lot of women aren‟t accustomed to beingtreated so well! I am opposed to increasing taxes.Note:The word accustomed can be considered asan adjective in this case, because there is aform of the verb „to be‟, so you “are” anadjective.
Using to + verb + ...ing If the to is part of a noun+prepositioncombination: His addiction to gambling has caused a lot ofstress for his family. Her great dedication to teaching inspires herstudents.
Using to + verb + ...ing Exercise: choose the best explanation of eachexpression.1. I look forward to seeing you.a) It gives me pleasure to think that I will see you.b) I know I will see you.c) I hope I will see you.2. I‟m used to driving in Brasília.a) I drive in Brasília regularly.b) In the past, I drove in Brasília regularly.c) I have driven in Brasília so often that it seems easy andnatural.3. I object to paying good money for badly madeproducts.a) This often happens to me.b) I am not pleased when this happens.c) I try to stop this happening.