13 principles of learning

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13 principles of learning

  1. 1. 13 Principles of13 Principles of LearningLearning An OverviewAn Overview
  2. 2. 3 Groupings of the3 Groupings of the PrinciplesPrinciples  Principles of LearningPrinciples of Learning – Principles 1 – 5Principles 1 – 5  Principles of TeachingPrinciples of Teaching – Principles 6-10Principles 6-10  Principles of CurriculumPrinciples of Curriculum – Principles 11-13Principles 11-13
  3. 3. 1.1. Effort ProducesEffort Produces AchievementAchievement  Debunks that inherited intelligenceDebunks that inherited intelligence mainly determines academicmainly determines academic achievementachievement  Amount of effort the student makesAmount of effort the student makes has much more to do with academichas much more to do with academic achievementachievement  Given the right conditions and support,Given the right conditions and support, almost everyone can achieve at highalmost everyone can achieve at high levelslevels
  4. 4. 2.2. Learning is AboutLearning is About Making ConnectionsMaking Connections  We learn by adding new knowledge toWe learn by adding new knowledge to the knowledge we already havethe knowledge we already have  We must organize our existingWe must organize our existing knowledge into some sort of structureknowledge into some sort of structure  Either the new knowledge fits theEither the new knowledge fits the existing structures, or we alter theexisting structures, or we alter the structure to accommodate the newstructure to accommodate the new  This is a “creative” and active processThis is a “creative” and active process that requires a great deal of interactionthat requires a great deal of interaction
  5. 5. 3.3. We Learn With andWe Learn With and Through OthersThrough Others  We teach one another, exchangeWe teach one another, exchange ideas, reinforce concepts, solveideas, reinforce concepts, solve problems, debate ideas, and challengeproblems, debate ideas, and challenge assertions with othersassertions with others  Student learning is enhanced with theyStudent learning is enhanced with they understand and accept theunderstand and accept the conventions that structure such socialconventions that structure such social interactionsinteractions
  6. 6. 4.4. Learning Takes TimeLearning Takes Time  How much we can learn is a functionHow much we can learn is a function of how much time we have to learn itof how much time we have to learn it  A given task will be learned only if theA given task will be learned only if the learner spends the amount of timelearner spends the amount of time needed to learn itneeded to learn it  Students need different amounts ofStudents need different amounts of time in order to learn the same thingstime in order to learn the same things
  7. 7. 5.5. Motivation MattersMotivation Matters  Students are best motivated by:Students are best motivated by: – Seeing a connection between their wantsSeeing a connection between their wants and what they are being asked to learnand what they are being asked to learn – Believing in their abilities to succeedBelieving in their abilities to succeed – Feeling good about themselves as learnersFeeling good about themselves as learners  Motivation includes deep understandingMotivation includes deep understanding (mastery), demonstrating what they(mastery), demonstrating what they know to others, and meeting a highknow to others, and meeting a high standard of accomplishmentstandard of accomplishment
  8. 8. 6.6. The Teacher MattersThe Teacher Matters  How much a student learns dependsHow much a student learns depends much more on which teacher withinmuch more on which teacher within the school the student gets than whatthe school the student gets than what school he or she goes toschool he or she goes to  Improving the quality of teaching is theImproving the quality of teaching is the key to school improvementkey to school improvement
  9. 9. 7.7. Focused Teaching PromotesFocused Teaching Promotes Accelerated LearningAccelerated Learning  The key to accelerated learning lies inThe key to accelerated learning lies in matching instruction to the level of thematching instruction to the level of the learnerlearner  The teacher’s role is to “scaffold” theThe teacher’s role is to “scaffold” the learning of the new task, revealing to thelearning of the new task, revealing to the learner how to move from what he orlearner how to move from what he or she can currently do independently to ashe can currently do independently to a higher level of cognitive functioninghigher level of cognitive functioning
  10. 10. 8.8. Clear Expectations andClear Expectations and Continuous Feedback ActivateContinuous Feedback Activate learninglearning  Students achieve at higher levels whenStudents achieve at higher levels when they have a clear image of what isthey have a clear image of what is expected of themexpected of them – Give example of work that meets standardGive example of work that meets standard – Access to clear criteria for judging theAccess to clear criteria for judging the quality of their workquality of their work – Access to continuous feedback on theirAccess to continuous feedback on their work so they know how to bring it up towork so they know how to bring it up to standardstandard
  11. 11. 9.9. Good Teaching Builds onGood Teaching Builds on Students’ Strengths andStudents’ Strengths and Respects Individual’sRespects Individual’s DifferencesDifferences  Each child has a unique mix ofEach child has a unique mix of strengths and weaknessesstrengths and weaknesses  Students find if easier to learn using aStudents find if easier to learn using a particular ability or adopting aparticular ability or adopting a particular styleparticular style  Abilities and styles are capable ofAbilities and styles are capable of being developed in schoolbeing developed in school
  12. 12. 10.10. Good Teaching InvolvesGood Teaching Involves Modeling What Students ShouldModeling What Students Should LearnLearn  Much of what the student needs knowMuch of what the student needs know and do are best learned by apprenticingand do are best learned by apprenticing to an expert – the teacherto an expert – the teacher  The teacher models the behavior theThe teacher models the behavior the students is being asked to demonstratestudents is being asked to demonstrate  Through continuous monitoring andThrough continuous monitoring and feedback the teacher graduallyfeedback the teacher gradually increases the difficulty of the learningincreases the difficulty of the learning
  13. 13. 11.11. The Curriculum ShouldThe Curriculum Should Focus on PowerfulFocus on Powerful KnowledgeKnowledge  Knowledge is powerful when it providesKnowledge is powerful when it provides a basis for further learning and when ita basis for further learning and when it concerns important and validatedconcerns important and validated knowledgeknowledge – The new basics (higher levels of reading,The new basics (higher levels of reading, math, problem-solving, communications,math, problem-solving, communications, etc.etc. – Discipline-based subjectsDiscipline-based subjects – Skills, strategies, and attitudes that supportSkills, strategies, and attitudes that support independent, purposeful learning andindependent, purposeful learning and problem solvingproblem solving
  14. 14. 12.12. All Students should ExperienceAll Students should Experience a “Thinking Curriculum”a “Thinking Curriculum”  Students can be taught to manageStudents can be taught to manage their own thinking and learningtheir own thinking and learning processesprocesses  Challenging tasks that support deepChallenging tasks that support deep thinking will stimulate intelligentthinking will stimulate intelligent behavior, as will explicit teaching ofbehavior, as will explicit teaching of cognitive and metacognitive strategiescognitive and metacognitive strategies  The learning of basic skills and higher-The learning of basic skills and higher- order thinking should go hand in handorder thinking should go hand in hand
  15. 15. 13.13. The Best Results Come FromThe Best Results Come From Having an Aligned InstructionalHaving an Aligned Instructional  The best results are obtained with theThe best results are obtained with the assessments, curriculum framework,assessments, curriculum framework, instructional materials and teachinginstructional materials and teaching are in full alignment with the standardsare in full alignment with the standards and with one anotherand with one another

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