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  • People often talk about “purpose”, therefore self-evident that people are motivated by purpose, or goals. Specific goals lead to higher performance, assuming the individual accepts the goals. Specific goals better than “do your best” goals. An important aspect is the feedback loop, from the knowledge of results, which influences the direction, intensity, persistence and strategies.
  • Set a goal (or list of goals) for the forthcoming year
  • Specific – who is involved, what do I want to accomplish, location, time, requirements, constraints.Measureable – Criteria for understanding progress, how much, how many, when,Achieveable – Within ability, but optimistic, Realistic – willing and able to work towards. High and realistic.Timely – what is the time frame – can also stand for tangible.

Pow motivation(10) Pow motivation(10) Presentation Transcript

  • individuals at work: motivation
    Money, get away
    Get a good job with more pay and your O.K.
    Money, it's a gas
    Grab that cash with both hands and make a stash
    New car, caviar, four star daydream, think I'll buy me a football team
    Money get back,
    I'm all right Jack keep your hands off my stack.
    Money, it's a hit
    Don't give me that do goody good bullshit
    I'm in the hi-fidelity first class travelling set and I think I need a Lear jet
    Money, it's a crime
    Share it fairly but don't take a slice of my pie
    Money, so they say
    Is the root of all evil today
    But if you ask for a rise it's no surprise that they're giving none away
    Pink Floyd (1973)‏
  • Why do we do something and not something else?Why do we put effort into some things and not others?Why do we persist in achieving some things and not others?
  • Three aspects of motivation
    Direction
    what an individual chooses when they have a number of alternatives
    Level
    how much effort they will put into a given action
    Persistence
    how long they will maintain focusing on the action
  • Today
    Content Theories Why people work
    • Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
    • Focuses on why people have different needs at different times
    Process Theories What factors affect motivation
    • Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated
    • Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour
  • Theories of motivation
    Content Theories
    • Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
    • Focuses on why people have different needs at different times
    Process Theories
    • Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated
    • Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • What could organisations do to satisfy each need?
  • Organisational conditions
    Need
    Pay
    Mandatory breakfast or lunch
    Physiological
    Company housing or health benefits
    Company benefits plan
    Pensions
    Life-long employment plans
    Insurance schemes
    Safety / Security
    Coffee breaks
    Sports teams and other extracurricular activities
    Work teams
    Belongingness/Relatedness
    Autonomy on the job
    Responsibility
    Pay (as a symbol of status)‏
    Job Title
    Prestige office location
    Esteem
    Job challenge and skill usage
    Pay
    Leadership positions
    Authority
    Achievement
    Competence
    Power
    Challenge
    Autonomy
    Educational opportunities
    Self-Actualization
    Drawn from Furnham (2005)‏
  • ERG theory
    Developed by Clayton Alderfer.
    Collapses Maslow’s five categories into three categories
    Adds a frustration-regression hypothesis.
    More than one need category may be activated at the same time.
  • ERGTheory
    Needs HierarchyTheory
    Self-
    Actualization
    Growth
    Desire for continued personal growth and development
    Esteem
    Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships
    Social
    Relatedness
    Safety
    Existence
    Desire for physiological and
    material well-being.
    Physiological
  • Satisfaction-Progression
    Frustration-Regression
    Growth
    Relatedness
    Existence
  • ERG theory
    Developed by Clayton Alderfer.
    Collapses Maslow’s five categories into three categories
    Adds a frustration-regression hypothesis.
    More than one need category may be activated at the same time.
    Research evidence on ERG theory.
    Supporting evidence is encouraging.
    Addition of frustration/regression hypothesis is a valuable contribution.
    Offers a more flexible approach to understanding human needs.
  • Herzberg (1966)‏
    Traditional View
    Dissatisfaction
    Satisfaction
    Herzberg's view
    Hygiene Factors
    Dissatisfaction
    No Dissatisfaction
    Motivators
    No Satisfaction
    Satisfaction
  • Herzberg (1966)‏
    Hygiene Factors
    Necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment
    Extrinsic factors; context of work
    Improving hygiene factors prevent people from being dissatisfied but do not contribute to satisfaction.
    Motivators
    Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
    Intrinsic factors; content of work
    Enables people to be satisfied.
    Absence results in low satisfaction, low motivation, and low performance.
  • Herzberg (1966)‏
    Hygiene Factors
    Necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment
    Extrinsic factors; context of work
    Improving hygiene factors prevent people from being dissatisfied but do not contribute to satisfaction.
    Examples
    Pay
    Status
    Job security
    Fringe benefits
    Policies and administrative practices
    Human Relations
  • Herzberg (1966)‏
    Examples
    Meaningful and challenging work
    Recognition for accomplishments
    Feeling of achievement
    Increased responsibility
    Opportunity for growth
    Opportunity for advancement
    Motivators
    Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
    Intrinsic factors; content of work
    Enables people to be satisfied.
    Absence results in low satisfaction, low motivation, and low performance.
  • Source: Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from Frederick Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” Harvard Business Review 81, no. 1 (January 2003), p. 90. Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved.
  • Motivator--Hygiene
    Theory
    ERGTheory
    Needs HierarchyTheory
    Self-
    Actualization
    Growth
    Motivators
    Esteem
    Hygienes
    Belongingness
    Relatedness
    Safety
    Existence
    Physiological
  • McClelland’s Need Theory
    Need for Achievement (n Ach)
    Need for Power (n Pow)‏
    Need for Affiliation (n Aff)‏
  • McClelland’s Need Theory
    Need for Achievement(n Ach)‏
    Want to take personal responsibility for solving problems.
    Goal oriented; set moderate, realistic, attainable goals.
    Seek challenge, excellence, and individuality.
    Take calculated, moderate risk.
    Desire concrete feedback on their performance.
    Willing to work hard.
  • McClelland’s Need Theory
    Need for Power (n Pow)‏
    Want to control the situation.
    Want influence of control over others.
    Enjoy competition and winning; do not like to lose.
    Willing to confront others.
  • McClelland’s Need Theory
    Need for Affiliation (n Aff)‏
    Seek close relationship with others.
    Want to be liked by others.
    Enjoy lots of social activities.
    Seek to belong; join groups and organizations.
  • Content Theories of Motivation
    Motivator--Hygiene
    Theory
    McClelland’s
    Learned Needs
    ERGTheory
    Needs HierarchyTheory
    Self-
    Actualization
    Growth
    Motivators
    Need for
    Achievement
    Esteem
    Need for
    Power
    Hygienes
    Belongingness
    Relatedness
    Need for
    Affiliation
    Safety
    Existence
    Physiological
  • Content Theories of Motivation
    Motivator--Hygiene
    Theory
    ERGTheory
    Needs HierarchyTheory
    McGregor
    Self-
    Actualization
    Growth
    Motivators
    Theory Y
    Esteem
    Hygienes
    Belongingness
    Relatedness
    Theory X
    Safety
    Existence
    Physiological
  • Jahoda’s Latent Needs
  • Jahoda’s Latent Needs
    Psychological distress in unemployed can inform us about needs employment satisfies
  • Jahoda’s (1982) Latent Needs
    Work…
    structures time
    provides regular shared experience
    provides experience of creativity, mastery, purpose
    is a source of identity and personal status
    is a source of activity
  • This week
    Content Theories Why people work
    Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
    Focuses on why people have different needs at different times
    Process Theories What factors affect motivation
    Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated
    Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour
  • Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory
    Drawn from economics
    Rational model of employee
    People strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges
    Perception of fairness affects behaviour
    Requires understanding of inputs and outputs
  • Equitably rewarded
    Inputs and outputs are perceived as being equal
    Satisfied and motivated
    Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory
  • Under-rewarded (angry)
    Efforts to reduce inequity by trying to increase output (get a raise)
    Reducing inputs (working less, absenteeism, etc.)
    Rationalising (creating an explanation for the inequity)
    Changing other’s inputs or outputs
    Leaving
    Changing the object of comparison.
    Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory
  • Over-rewarded (guilty)
    Increasing inputs (working more, longer hours, etc.)
    Reducing output (taking a pay cut)
    Rationalising (I’m worth it)
    Increasing other’s outputs
    Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory
  • Equity Theory
    Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed.
    Procedural Justice: The perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions.
    Interactional Justice: The perceived fairness of the decision maker’s behavior in the process of decision making.
  • Lessons from Equity Theory
    Pay attention to what employees’ perceive to be fair and equitable
    Allow employees to have a “voice”
    Employees should have opportunity to appeal
    Organisational changes, promoting cooperation, etc. can come easier with equitable outcomes
    Failure to achieve equity could be costly
    Climate of justice
  • Direction
    Intensity
    Persistence
    Strategies
    Goal Specificity
    Goal Commitment
    Performance
    Knowledge of Results
    Goal Acceptance
    Ability
    Goal Theory (Locke & Latham, 2002)
  • goal
  • SpecificMeasurable Achievable
    Realistic Timely 
  • What are the next actions required to move you closer?
  • What skills do you have and enjoy participating in those activities that challenge and use those skills?
  • Born in Hungary
    BA and PhD from University of Chicago
    Now at Claremont Graduate University
    Director of Quality of Life Research Centre
    Research:
    Happiness
    Creativity
    Well-being
    “Optimal Experience”
    Flow
    Part of Positive Psychology movement
    Flow
    MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI
  • Study of strengths and virtues
    Focus on development, thriving, flourishing & meaning
    3 main concerns
    Positive Emotions
    Contentment (past)
    Happiness (present)
    Hope (future)
    Positive Individual Traits
    Strengths & Virtues
    E.g. Creativity, Resilience, Courage, etc.
    Positive Institutions
    Focus on tolerance, fairness, ethics, teamwork, engagement, etc.
    In communities & Institutions (e.g., parenting, businesses, etc.)
    Positive Psychology
  • The pleasant life
    (well-being and positive affect)
    The good life
    (identification and celebration on personal strengths & skills)
    The meaningful life
    (participation in activities, greater good)
    Positive Psychology
  • MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI
    (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.
    (1998). Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement With Everyday Life.
    And many more…
  • Most people’s live at two extremes
    anxiety
    Boredom
  • flow
    Being in the zone
    Effortless Action
    In the groove
    Immersion
    At one
    Absorption
  • Flow- A state of optimal experience. Flow activities are done for their own sake and not for extrinsic rewards.
  • Flowis enjoyment, not pleasure.
  • It does not seem to be true that work necessarily needs to be unpleasant. It may always have to be hard, or at least harder than doing nothing at all. But there is ample evidence that work can be enjoyable, and that indeed, it is often the most enjoyable part of life.
    Csikszentmihalyi (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.
  • When?
  • When?
    23% several times a day - 15% Never
    ESM (Experience Sampling Method)
    Occurs during favourite activity
    (e.g., gardening, listening to music, cooking, work, driving, etc.)
    Rarely occurs during passive leisure activities
    (e.g., watching TV, relaxing)
  • Where?
    More often during work than during free time!
    Work: Has goals, feedback, encourages concentration, matches skill (hopefully)
  • What?
    It is not what you do that counts, but how you do it.
    Activities themselves are not intrinsically enjoyable or not, but you can do it in a way that is intrinsically rewarding
  • Anxiety, Boredom and Flow(Csikszentmihalyi 1990 - Dots and text added: van Gorp 2006)
  • harnessing flow
    Attention:
    Focus on task
    Lack of full attention results in
    • lack of appreciation of experience
    • missed opportunities for creativity & development
    Creative favourable circumstances
    Reduce distraction
  • harnessing flow
    9 Components
    Clear goals
    High degree of concentration on limited field of attention
    Loss of self-consciousness, the merging of action and awareness
    A distorted sense of time
    Direct and immediate feedback, behaviour can be adjusted accordingly
    Balance between ability level and challenge
    A sense of personal control over the situation
    Intrinsically rewarding action resulting in effortlessness of action
    Focus of awareness is narrowed down to the activity itself
  • Work Engagement
    Work engagement
    Vigor
    (energy, persistence, effort)
    Dedication
    (enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, challenge)
    Absorbtion
    (engrossed, time passes, flow)
    Schaufeli & Bakker (2004)
    Burnout
    Exhaustion
    (draining of mental energy)
    Cynicism
    (negative attitude to work)
    Reduced professional efficacy
    (belief that one is no longer effective in fulfilling ones job responsibilities)
    Lee & Ashforth (1996)
  • Intrinsic Motivation
    flow fits with Intrinsic Motivation research
    IM related to Job satisfaction
    EM related to depression
    Mastery Goals enhance IM
    Performance Goals reduce IM
  • Summary
    Motivation is complicated
    Competing models – but…
  • “…the recommendations to raise and sustain motivation look alarmingly common-sensical: reinforce performance, create supportive social environments, have clear attainable goals, provide enough resources to do the job, and make sure there is a fit between employee’s and employer’s motives and values.”
    Furnham (2005: 278)‏
  • Strategy 1.
    Remove sources of de-motivation, and treat people fairly
    Strategy 2.
    Ensure an abundance of valued outcomes of work
    Strategy 3.
    Set people goals and objectives
    Strategy 4.
    Give people feedback
    Strategy 5.
    Design jobs in ways that make them rewarding to people
    The science of motivation