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Pow motivation(10)

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  • People often talk about “purpose”, therefore self-evident that people are motivated by purpose, or goals. Specific goals lead to higher performance, assuming the individual accepts the goals. Specific goals better than “do your best” goals. An important aspect is the feedback loop, from the knowledge of results, which influences the direction, intensity, persistence and strategies.
  • Set a goal (or list of goals) for the forthcoming year
  • Specific – who is involved, what do I want to accomplish, location, time, requirements, constraints.Measureable – Criteria for understanding progress, how much, how many, when,Achieveable – Within ability, but optimistic, Realistic – willing and able to work towards. High and realistic.Timely – what is the time frame – can also stand for tangible.
  • Transcript

    • 1. individuals at work: motivation
      Money, get away
      Get a good job with more pay and your O.K.
      Money, it's a gas
      Grab that cash with both hands and make a stash
      New car, caviar, four star daydream, think I'll buy me a football team
      Money get back,
      I'm all right Jack keep your hands off my stack.
      Money, it's a hit
      Don't give me that do goody good bullshit
      I'm in the hi-fidelity first class travelling set and I think I need a Lear jet
      Money, it's a crime
      Share it fairly but don't take a slice of my pie
      Money, so they say
      Is the root of all evil today
      But if you ask for a rise it's no surprise that they're giving none away
      Pink Floyd (1973)‏
    • 2. Why do we do something and not something else?Why do we put effort into some things and not others?Why do we persist in achieving some things and not others?
    • 3. Three aspects of motivation
      Direction
      what an individual chooses when they have a number of alternatives
      Level
      how much effort they will put into a given action
      Persistence
      how long they will maintain focusing on the action
    • 4. Today
      Content Theories Why people work
      • Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
      • 5. Focuses on why people have different needs at different times
      Process Theories What factors affect motivation
      • Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated
      • 6. Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour
    • Theories of motivation
      Content Theories
      • Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
      • 7. Focuses on why people have different needs at different times
      Process Theories
      • Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated
      • 8. Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • 9. What could organisations do to satisfy each need?
    • 10. Organisational conditions
      Need
      Pay
      Mandatory breakfast or lunch
      Physiological
      Company housing or health benefits
      Company benefits plan
      Pensions
      Life-long employment plans
      Insurance schemes
      Safety / Security
      Coffee breaks
      Sports teams and other extracurricular activities
      Work teams
      Belongingness/Relatedness
      Autonomy on the job
      Responsibility
      Pay (as a symbol of status)‏
      Job Title
      Prestige office location
      Esteem
      Job challenge and skill usage
      Pay
      Leadership positions
      Authority
      Achievement
      Competence
      Power
      Challenge
      Autonomy
      Educational opportunities
      Self-Actualization
      Drawn from Furnham (2005)‏
    • 11. ERG theory
      Developed by Clayton Alderfer.
      Collapses Maslow’s five categories into three categories
      Adds a frustration-regression hypothesis.
      More than one need category may be activated at the same time.
    • 12. ERGTheory
      Needs HierarchyTheory
      Self-
      Actualization
      Growth
      Desire for continued personal growth and development
      Esteem
      Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships
      Social
      Relatedness
      Safety
      Existence
      Desire for physiological and
      material well-being.
      Physiological
    • 13. Satisfaction-Progression
      Frustration-Regression
      Growth
      Relatedness
      Existence
    • 14. ERG theory
      Developed by Clayton Alderfer.
      Collapses Maslow’s five categories into three categories
      Adds a frustration-regression hypothesis.
      More than one need category may be activated at the same time.
      Research evidence on ERG theory.
      Supporting evidence is encouraging.
      Addition of frustration/regression hypothesis is a valuable contribution.
      Offers a more flexible approach to understanding human needs.
    • 15. Herzberg (1966)‏
      Traditional View
      Dissatisfaction
      Satisfaction
      Herzberg's view
      Hygiene Factors
      Dissatisfaction
      No Dissatisfaction
      Motivators
      No Satisfaction
      Satisfaction
    • 16. Herzberg (1966)‏
      Hygiene Factors
      Necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment
      Extrinsic factors; context of work
      Improving hygiene factors prevent people from being dissatisfied but do not contribute to satisfaction.
      Motivators
      Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
      Intrinsic factors; content of work
      Enables people to be satisfied.
      Absence results in low satisfaction, low motivation, and low performance.
    • 17. Herzberg (1966)‏
      Hygiene Factors
      Necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment
      Extrinsic factors; context of work
      Improving hygiene factors prevent people from being dissatisfied but do not contribute to satisfaction.
      Examples
      Pay
      Status
      Job security
      Fringe benefits
      Policies and administrative practices
      Human Relations
    • 18. Herzberg (1966)‏
      Examples
      Meaningful and challenging work
      Recognition for accomplishments
      Feeling of achievement
      Increased responsibility
      Opportunity for growth
      Opportunity for advancement
      Motivators
      Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
      Intrinsic factors; content of work
      Enables people to be satisfied.
      Absence results in low satisfaction, low motivation, and low performance.
    • 19. Source: Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from Frederick Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” Harvard Business Review 81, no. 1 (January 2003), p. 90. Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved.
    • 20. Motivator--Hygiene
      Theory
      ERGTheory
      Needs HierarchyTheory
      Self-
      Actualization
      Growth
      Motivators
      Esteem
      Hygienes
      Belongingness
      Relatedness
      Safety
      Existence
      Physiological
    • 21. McClelland’s Need Theory
      Need for Achievement (n Ach)
      Need for Power (n Pow)‏
      Need for Affiliation (n Aff)‏
    • 22. McClelland’s Need Theory
      Need for Achievement(n Ach)‏
      Want to take personal responsibility for solving problems.
      Goal oriented; set moderate, realistic, attainable goals.
      Seek challenge, excellence, and individuality.
      Take calculated, moderate risk.
      Desire concrete feedback on their performance.
      Willing to work hard.
    • 23. McClelland’s Need Theory
      Need for Power (n Pow)‏
      Want to control the situation.
      Want influence of control over others.
      Enjoy competition and winning; do not like to lose.
      Willing to confront others.
    • 24. McClelland’s Need Theory
      Need for Affiliation (n Aff)‏
      Seek close relationship with others.
      Want to be liked by others.
      Enjoy lots of social activities.
      Seek to belong; join groups and organizations.
    • 25. Content Theories of Motivation
      Motivator--Hygiene
      Theory
      McClelland’s
      Learned Needs
      ERGTheory
      Needs HierarchyTheory
      Self-
      Actualization
      Growth
      Motivators
      Need for
      Achievement
      Esteem
      Need for
      Power
      Hygienes
      Belongingness
      Relatedness
      Need for
      Affiliation
      Safety
      Existence
      Physiological
    • 26. Content Theories of Motivation
      Motivator--Hygiene
      Theory
      ERGTheory
      Needs HierarchyTheory
      McGregor
      Self-
      Actualization
      Growth
      Motivators
      Theory Y
      Esteem
      Hygienes
      Belongingness
      Relatedness
      Theory X
      Safety
      Existence
      Physiological
    • 27. Jahoda’s Latent Needs
    • 28. Jahoda’s Latent Needs
      Psychological distress in unemployed can inform us about needs employment satisfies
    • 29. Jahoda’s (1982) Latent Needs
      Work…
      structures time
      provides regular shared experience
      provides experience of creativity, mastery, purpose
      is a source of identity and personal status
      is a source of activity
    • 30. This week
      Content Theories Why people work
      Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
      Focuses on why people have different needs at different times
      Process Theories What factors affect motivation
      Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated
      Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour
    • 31.
    • 32. Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory
      Drawn from economics
      Rational model of employee
      People strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges
      Perception of fairness affects behaviour
      Requires understanding of inputs and outputs
    • 33. Equitably rewarded
      Inputs and outputs are perceived as being equal
      Satisfied and motivated
      Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory
    • 34. Under-rewarded (angry)
      Efforts to reduce inequity by trying to increase output (get a raise)
      Reducing inputs (working less, absenteeism, etc.)
      Rationalising (creating an explanation for the inequity)
      Changing other’s inputs or outputs
      Leaving
      Changing the object of comparison.
      Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory
    • 35. Over-rewarded (guilty)
      Increasing inputs (working more, longer hours, etc.)
      Reducing output (taking a pay cut)
      Rationalising (I’m worth it)
      Increasing other’s outputs
      Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory
    • 36. Equity Theory
      Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed.
      Procedural Justice: The perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions.
      Interactional Justice: The perceived fairness of the decision maker’s behavior in the process of decision making.
    • 37. Lessons from Equity Theory
      Pay attention to what employees’ perceive to be fair and equitable
      Allow employees to have a “voice”
      Employees should have opportunity to appeal
      Organisational changes, promoting cooperation, etc. can come easier with equitable outcomes
      Failure to achieve equity could be costly
      Climate of justice
    • 38. Direction
      Intensity
      Persistence
      Strategies
      Goal Specificity
      Goal Commitment
      Performance
      Knowledge of Results
      Goal Acceptance
      Ability
      Goal Theory (Locke & Latham, 2002)
    • 39. goal
    • 40. SpecificMeasurable Achievable
      Realistic Timely 
    • 41. What are the next actions required to move you closer?
    • 42.
    • 43. What skills do you have and enjoy participating in those activities that challenge and use those skills?
    • 44. Born in Hungary
      BA and PhD from University of Chicago
      Now at Claremont Graduate University
      Director of Quality of Life Research Centre
      Research:
      Happiness
      Creativity
      Well-being
      “Optimal Experience”
      Flow
      Part of Positive Psychology movement
      Flow
      MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI
    • 45. Study of strengths and virtues
      Focus on development, thriving, flourishing & meaning
      3 main concerns
      Positive Emotions
      Contentment (past)
      Happiness (present)
      Hope (future)
      Positive Individual Traits
      Strengths & Virtues
      E.g. Creativity, Resilience, Courage, etc.
      Positive Institutions
      Focus on tolerance, fairness, ethics, teamwork, engagement, etc.
      In communities & Institutions (e.g., parenting, businesses, etc.)
      Positive Psychology
    • 46. The pleasant life
      (well-being and positive affect)
      The good life
      (identification and celebration on personal strengths & skills)
      The meaningful life
      (participation in activities, greater good)
      Positive Psychology
    • 47. MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI
      (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.
      (1998). Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement With Everyday Life.
      And many more…
    • 48. Most people’s live at two extremes
      anxiety
      Boredom
    • 49. flow
      Being in the zone
      Effortless Action
      In the groove
      Immersion
      At one
      Absorption
    • 50. Flow- A state of optimal experience. Flow activities are done for their own sake and not for extrinsic rewards.
    • 51. Flowis enjoyment, not pleasure.
    • 52. It does not seem to be true that work necessarily needs to be unpleasant. It may always have to be hard, or at least harder than doing nothing at all. But there is ample evidence that work can be enjoyable, and that indeed, it is often the most enjoyable part of life.
      Csikszentmihalyi (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.
    • 53. When?
    • 54. When?
      23% several times a day - 15% Never
      ESM (Experience Sampling Method)
      Occurs during favourite activity
      (e.g., gardening, listening to music, cooking, work, driving, etc.)
      Rarely occurs during passive leisure activities
      (e.g., watching TV, relaxing)
    • 55. Where?
      More often during work than during free time!
      Work: Has goals, feedback, encourages concentration, matches skill (hopefully)
    • 56. What?
      It is not what you do that counts, but how you do it.
      Activities themselves are not intrinsically enjoyable or not, but you can do it in a way that is intrinsically rewarding
    • 57. Anxiety, Boredom and Flow(Csikszentmihalyi 1990 - Dots and text added: van Gorp 2006)
    • 58. harnessing flow
      Attention:
      Focus on task
      Lack of full attention results in
      • lack of appreciation of experience
      • 59. missed opportunities for creativity & development
      Creative favourable circumstances
      Reduce distraction
    • 60. harnessing flow
      9 Components
      Clear goals
      High degree of concentration on limited field of attention
      Loss of self-consciousness, the merging of action and awareness
      A distorted sense of time
      Direct and immediate feedback, behaviour can be adjusted accordingly
      Balance between ability level and challenge
      A sense of personal control over the situation
      Intrinsically rewarding action resulting in effortlessness of action
      Focus of awareness is narrowed down to the activity itself
    • 61. Work Engagement
      Work engagement
      Vigor
      (energy, persistence, effort)
      Dedication
      (enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, challenge)
      Absorbtion
      (engrossed, time passes, flow)
      Schaufeli & Bakker (2004)
      Burnout
      Exhaustion
      (draining of mental energy)
      Cynicism
      (negative attitude to work)
      Reduced professional efficacy
      (belief that one is no longer effective in fulfilling ones job responsibilities)
      Lee & Ashforth (1996)
    • 62. Intrinsic Motivation
      flow fits with Intrinsic Motivation research
      IM related to Job satisfaction
      EM related to depression
      Mastery Goals enhance IM
      Performance Goals reduce IM
    • 63. Summary
      Motivation is complicated
      Competing models – but…
    • 64. “…the recommendations to raise and sustain motivation look alarmingly common-sensical: reinforce performance, create supportive social environments, have clear attainable goals, provide enough resources to do the job, and make sure there is a fit between employee’s and employer’s motives and values.”
      Furnham (2005: 278)‏
    • 65. Strategy 1.
      Remove sources of de-motivation, and treat people fairly
      Strategy 2.
      Ensure an abundance of valued outcomes of work
      Strategy 3.
      Set people goals and objectives
      Strategy 4.
      Give people feedback
      Strategy 5.
      Design jobs in ways that make them rewarding to people
      The science of motivation

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