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individuals at work: motivation<br />Money, get away <br />Get a good job with more pay and your O.K. <br />Money, it's a ...
Why do we do something and not something else?Why do we put effort into some things and not others?Why do we persist in ac...
Three aspects of motivation<br />Direction <br />what an individual chooses when they have a number of alternatives<br />L...
 Today<br />Content Theories Why people work<br /><ul><li>Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
 Focuses on why people have different needs at different times</li></ul>Process Theories What factors affect motivation<br...
 Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour</li></li></ul><li> Theories of motivation<br />Co...
 Focuses on why people have different needs at different times</li></ul>Process Theories<br /><ul><li>Focus on understandi...
 Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour</li></li></ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />
What could organisations do to satisfy each need?<br />
Organisational conditions<br />Need<br />Pay<br />Mandatory breakfast or lunch<br />Physiological<br />Company housing or ...
ERG theory<br />Developed by Clayton Alderfer.<br />Collapses Maslow’s five categories into three categories<br />Adds a f...
ERGTheory<br />Needs HierarchyTheory<br />Self-<br />Actualization<br />Growth<br />Desire for continued personal growth a...
Satisfaction-Progression<br />Frustration-Regression<br />Growth<br />Relatedness<br />Existence<br />
ERG theory<br />Developed by Clayton Alderfer.<br />Collapses Maslow’s five categories into three categories<br />Adds a f...
Herzberg (1966)‏<br />Traditional View<br />Dissatisfaction<br />Satisfaction<br />Herzberg's view<br />Hygiene Factors<br...
Herzberg (1966)‏<br />Hygiene Factors<br />Necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment <br />Extrinsic factors; ...
Herzberg (1966)‏<br />Hygiene Factors<br />Necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment <br />Extrinsic factors; ...
Herzberg (1966)‏<br />Examples<br />Meaningful and challenging work<br />Recognition for accomplishments<br />Feeling of a...
Source: Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from Frederick Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” Harva...
Motivator--Hygiene<br />Theory<br />ERGTheory<br />Needs HierarchyTheory<br />Self-<br />Actualization<br />Growth<br />Mo...
McClelland’s Need Theory<br />Need for Achievement  (n Ach) <br />Need for Power (n Pow)‏<br />Need for Affiliation (n Aff...
McClelland’s Need Theory<br />Need for Achievement(n Ach)‏<br />Want to take personal responsibility for solving problems....
McClelland’s Need Theory<br />Need for Power (n Pow)‏<br />Want to control the situation.<br />Want influence of control o...
McClelland’s Need Theory<br />Need for Affiliation (n Aff)‏<br />Seek close relationship with others.<br />Want to be like...
Content Theories of Motivation<br />Motivator--Hygiene<br />Theory<br />McClelland’s<br />Learned Needs<br />ERGTheory<br ...
Content Theories of Motivation<br />Motivator--Hygiene<br />Theory<br />ERGTheory<br />Needs HierarchyTheory<br />McGregor...
Jahoda’s Latent Needs<br />
Jahoda’s Latent Needs<br />	Psychological distress in unemployed can inform us about needs employment satisfies<br />
Jahoda’s (1982) Latent Needs<br />Work…<br />structures time<br />provides regular shared experience<br />provides experie...
 This week<br />Content Theories Why people work<br />Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates<br /> Focuses on...
Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory<br />Drawn from economics<br />Rational model of employee<br />People strive for fairness and ...
Equitably rewarded<br /> Inputs and outputs are perceived as being equal<br /> Satisfied and motivated<br />Adams’ (1965) ...
Under-rewarded (angry)<br /> Efforts to reduce inequity by trying to increase output (get a raise)<br /> Reducing inputs (...
Over-rewarded (guilty)<br />Increasing inputs (working more, longer hours, etc.)<br />Reducing output (taking a pay cut)<b...
Equity Theory<br />Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed.<br />Procedu...
Lessons from Equity Theory<br />Pay attention to what employees’ perceive to be fair and equitable<br />Allow employees to...
Direction<br />Intensity<br />Persistence<br />Strategies<br />Goal Specificity<br />Goal Commitment<br />Performance<br /...
goal<br />
SpecificMeasurable Achievable<br />Realistic Timely <br />
What are the next actions required to move you closer?<br />
What skills do you have and enjoy participating in those activities that challenge and use those skills?<br />
 Born in Hungary<br /> BA and PhD from University of Chicago<br /> Now at Claremont Graduate University<br /> Director of ...
 Study of strengths and virtues<br /> Focus on development, thriving, flourishing & meaning<br /> 3 main concerns<br />Pos...
The pleasant life<br />(well-being and positive affect)<br />The good life <br />(identification and celebration on person...
MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI<br />(1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. <br />(1998). Finding Flow: The Psycholog...
Most people’s live at two extremes<br />anxiety<br />Boredom<br />
flow<br />Being in the zone<br />Effortless Action<br />In the groove<br />Immersion<br />At one<br />Absorption<br />
Flow- A state of optimal experience. Flow activities are done for their own sake and not for extrinsic rewards.<br />
Flowis enjoyment, not pleasure.<br />
It does not seem to be true that work necessarily needs to be unpleasant. It may always have to be hard, or at least harde...
When?<br />
When?<br />23% several times a day - 15% Never<br />ESM (Experience Sampling Method)<br />Occurs during favourite activity...
Where?<br />More often during work than during free time!<br />Work: Has goals, feedback, encourages concentration, matche...
What?<br />It is not what you do that counts, but how you do it.<br />Activities themselves are not intrinsically enjoyabl...
Anxiety, Boredom and Flow(Csikszentmihalyi 1990 - Dots and text added: van Gorp 2006)<br />
 harnessing flow<br />Attention:<br />Focus on task<br />Lack of full attention results in<br /><ul><li> lack of appreciat...
 missed opportunities for creativity & development</li></ul>Creative favourable circumstances<br />Reduce distraction<br />
 harnessing flow<br />9 Components<br />Clear goals<br />High degree of concentration on limited field of attention<br />L...
Work Engagement<br />Work engagement<br />Vigor<br />	(energy, persistence, effort)<br />Dedication<br />	(enthusiasm, ins...
Intrinsic Motivation<br />flow fits with Intrinsic Motivation research<br />IM related to Job satisfaction<br />EM related...
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Pow motivation(10)

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  • People often talk about “purpose”, therefore self-evident that people are motivated by purpose, or goals. Specific goals lead to higher performance, assuming the individual accepts the goals. Specific goals better than “do your best” goals. An important aspect is the feedback loop, from the knowledge of results, which influences the direction, intensity, persistence and strategies.
  • Set a goal (or list of goals) for the forthcoming year
  • Specific – who is involved, what do I want to accomplish, location, time, requirements, constraints.Measureable – Criteria for understanding progress, how much, how many, when,Achieveable – Within ability, but optimistic, Realistic – willing and able to work towards. High and realistic.Timely – what is the time frame – can also stand for tangible.
  • Transcript of "Pow motivation(10)"

    1. 1. individuals at work: motivation<br />Money, get away <br />Get a good job with more pay and your O.K. <br />Money, it's a gas <br />Grab that cash with both hands and make a stash <br />New car, caviar, four star daydream, think I'll buy me a football team <br />Money get back,<br />I'm all right Jack keep your hands off my stack. <br />Money, it's a hit <br />Don't give me that do goody good bullshit <br />I'm in the hi-fidelity first class travelling set and I think I need a Lear jet <br />Money, it's a crime <br />Share it fairly but don't take a slice of my pie <br />Money, so they say<br />Is the root of all evil today <br />But if you ask for a rise it's no surprise that they're giving none away <br />Pink Floyd (1973)‏<br />
    2. 2. Why do we do something and not something else?Why do we put effort into some things and not others?Why do we persist in achieving some things and not others?<br />
    3. 3. Three aspects of motivation<br />Direction <br />what an individual chooses when they have a number of alternatives<br />Level<br />how much effort they will put into a given action<br />Persistence<br />how long they will maintain focusing on the action<br />
    4. 4. Today<br />Content Theories Why people work<br /><ul><li>Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
    5. 5. Focuses on why people have different needs at different times</li></ul>Process Theories What factors affect motivation<br /><ul><li>Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated
    6. 6. Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour</li></li></ul><li> Theories of motivation<br />Content Theories<br /><ul><li>Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates
    7. 7. Focuses on why people have different needs at different times</li></ul>Process Theories<br /><ul><li>Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated
    8. 8. Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour</li></li></ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />
    9. 9. What could organisations do to satisfy each need?<br />
    10. 10. Organisational conditions<br />Need<br />Pay<br />Mandatory breakfast or lunch<br />Physiological<br />Company housing or health benefits<br />Company benefits plan<br />Pensions<br />Life-long employment plans<br />Insurance schemes<br />Safety / Security<br />Coffee breaks<br />Sports teams and other extracurricular activities<br />Work teams<br />Belongingness/Relatedness<br />Autonomy on the job<br />Responsibility<br />Pay (as a symbol of status)‏<br />Job Title<br />Prestige office location<br />Esteem<br />Job challenge and skill usage<br />Pay<br />Leadership positions<br />Authority<br />Achievement<br />Competence<br />Power<br />Challenge<br />Autonomy<br />Educational opportunities<br />Self-Actualization<br />Drawn from Furnham (2005)‏<br />
    11. 11. ERG theory<br />Developed by Clayton Alderfer.<br />Collapses Maslow’s five categories into three categories<br />Adds a frustration-regression hypothesis. <br />More than one need category may be activated at the same time.<br />
    12. 12. ERGTheory<br />Needs HierarchyTheory<br />Self-<br />Actualization<br />Growth<br />Desire for continued personal growth and development<br />Esteem<br />Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships<br />Social<br />Relatedness<br />Safety<br />Existence<br />Desire for physiological and <br />material well-being.<br />Physiological<br />
    13. 13. Satisfaction-Progression<br />Frustration-Regression<br />Growth<br />Relatedness<br />Existence<br />
    14. 14. ERG theory<br />Developed by Clayton Alderfer.<br />Collapses Maslow’s five categories into three categories<br />Adds a frustration-regression hypothesis. <br />More than one need category may be activated at the same time.<br />Research evidence on ERG theory.<br />Supporting evidence is encouraging.<br />Addition of frustration/regression hypothesis is a valuable contribution.<br />Offers a more flexible approach to understanding human needs.<br />
    15. 15. Herzberg (1966)‏<br />Traditional View<br />Dissatisfaction<br />Satisfaction<br />Herzberg's view<br />Hygiene Factors<br />Dissatisfaction<br />No Dissatisfaction<br />Motivators<br />No Satisfaction<br />Satisfaction<br />
    16. 16. Herzberg (1966)‏<br />Hygiene Factors<br />Necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment <br />Extrinsic factors; context of work<br />Improving hygiene factors prevent people from being dissatisfied but do not contribute to satisfaction.<br />Motivators<br />Motivators - the sources of satisfaction <br />Intrinsic factors; content of work<br />Enables people to be satisfied.<br />Absence results in low satisfaction, low motivation, and low performance.<br />
    17. 17. Herzberg (1966)‏<br />Hygiene Factors<br />Necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment <br />Extrinsic factors; context of work<br />Improving hygiene factors prevent people from being dissatisfied but do not contribute to satisfaction.<br />Examples<br />Pay<br />Status<br />Job security<br />Fringe benefits<br />Policies and administrative practices<br />Human Relations<br />
    18. 18. Herzberg (1966)‏<br />Examples<br />Meaningful and challenging work<br />Recognition for accomplishments<br />Feeling of achievement<br />Increased responsibility<br />Opportunity for growth<br />Opportunity for advancement<br />Motivators<br />Motivators - the sources of satisfaction <br />Intrinsic factors; content of work<br />Enables people to be satisfied.<br />Absence results in low satisfaction, low motivation, and low performance.<br />
    19. 19. Source: Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from Frederick Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” Harvard Business Review 81, no. 1 (January 2003), p. 90. Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved. <br />
    20. 20. Motivator--Hygiene<br />Theory<br />ERGTheory<br />Needs HierarchyTheory<br />Self-<br />Actualization<br />Growth<br />Motivators<br />Esteem<br />Hygienes<br />Belongingness<br />Relatedness<br />Safety<br />Existence<br />Physiological<br />
    21. 21. McClelland’s Need Theory<br />Need for Achievement (n Ach) <br />Need for Power (n Pow)‏<br />Need for Affiliation (n Aff)‏<br />
    22. 22. McClelland’s Need Theory<br />Need for Achievement(n Ach)‏<br />Want to take personal responsibility for solving problems.<br />Goal oriented; set moderate, realistic, attainable goals.<br />Seek challenge, excellence, and individuality.<br />Take calculated, moderate risk.<br />Desire concrete feedback on their performance.<br />Willing to work hard.<br />
    23. 23. McClelland’s Need Theory<br />Need for Power (n Pow)‏<br />Want to control the situation.<br />Want influence of control over others.<br />Enjoy competition and winning; do not like to lose.<br />Willing to confront others.<br />
    24. 24. McClelland’s Need Theory<br />Need for Affiliation (n Aff)‏<br />Seek close relationship with others.<br />Want to be liked by others.<br />Enjoy lots of social activities.<br />Seek to belong; join groups and organizations.<br />
    25. 25. Content Theories of Motivation<br />Motivator--Hygiene<br />Theory<br />McClelland’s<br />Learned Needs<br />ERGTheory<br />Needs HierarchyTheory<br />Self-<br />Actualization<br />Growth<br />Motivators<br />Need for<br />Achievement<br />Esteem<br />Need for<br />Power<br />Hygienes<br />Belongingness<br />Relatedness<br />Need for<br />Affiliation<br />Safety<br />Existence<br />Physiological<br />
    26. 26. Content Theories of Motivation<br />Motivator--Hygiene<br />Theory<br />ERGTheory<br />Needs HierarchyTheory<br />McGregor<br />Self-<br />Actualization<br />Growth<br />Motivators<br />Theory Y<br />Esteem<br />Hygienes<br />Belongingness<br />Relatedness<br />Theory X<br />Safety<br />Existence<br />Physiological<br />
    27. 27. Jahoda’s Latent Needs<br />
    28. 28. Jahoda’s Latent Needs<br /> Psychological distress in unemployed can inform us about needs employment satisfies<br />
    29. 29. Jahoda’s (1982) Latent Needs<br />Work…<br />structures time<br />provides regular shared experience<br />provides experience of creativity, mastery, purpose<br />is a source of identity and personal status<br />is a source of activity<br />
    30. 30. This week<br />Content Theories Why people work<br />Focus on peoples needs to understand what motivates<br /> Focuses on why people have different needs at different times<br />Process Theories What factors affect motivation<br />Focus on understanding how and why people are motivated<br /> Describes the process through which needs are translated into behaviour<br />
    31. 31.
    32. 32. Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory<br />Drawn from economics<br />Rational model of employee<br />People strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges<br />Perception of fairness affects behaviour<br />Requires understanding of inputs and outputs<br />
    33. 33. Equitably rewarded<br /> Inputs and outputs are perceived as being equal<br /> Satisfied and motivated<br />Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory<br />
    34. 34. Under-rewarded (angry)<br /> Efforts to reduce inequity by trying to increase output (get a raise)<br /> Reducing inputs (working less, absenteeism, etc.)<br /> Rationalising (creating an explanation for the inequity)<br /> Changing other’s inputs or outputs<br /> Leaving<br /> Changing the object of comparison.<br />Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory<br />
    35. 35. Over-rewarded (guilty)<br />Increasing inputs (working more, longer hours, etc.)<br />Reducing output (taking a pay cut)<br />Rationalising (I’m worth it)<br />Increasing other’s outputs<br />Adams’ (1965) Equity Theory<br />
    36. 36. Equity Theory<br />Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed.<br />Procedural Justice: The perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions.<br />Interactional Justice: The perceived fairness of the decision maker’s behavior in the process of decision making.<br />
    37. 37. Lessons from Equity Theory<br />Pay attention to what employees’ perceive to be fair and equitable<br />Allow employees to have a “voice”<br />Employees should have opportunity to appeal<br />Organisational changes, promoting cooperation, etc. can come easier with equitable outcomes<br />Failure to achieve equity could be costly<br />Climate of justice<br />
    38. 38. Direction<br />Intensity<br />Persistence<br />Strategies<br />Goal Specificity<br />Goal Commitment<br />Performance<br />Knowledge of Results<br />Goal Acceptance<br />Ability<br />Goal Theory (Locke & Latham, 2002)<br />
    39. 39. goal<br />
    40. 40. SpecificMeasurable Achievable<br />Realistic Timely <br />
    41. 41. What are the next actions required to move you closer?<br />
    42. 42.
    43. 43. What skills do you have and enjoy participating in those activities that challenge and use those skills?<br />
    44. 44. Born in Hungary<br /> BA and PhD from University of Chicago<br /> Now at Claremont Graduate University<br /> Director of Quality of Life Research Centre<br /> Research:<br />Happiness<br />Creativity<br />Well-being<br />“Optimal Experience”<br />Flow<br />Part of Positive Psychology movement<br />Flow<br />MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI<br />
    45. 45. Study of strengths and virtues<br /> Focus on development, thriving, flourishing & meaning<br /> 3 main concerns<br />Positive Emotions<br />Contentment (past)<br />Happiness (present)<br />Hope (future)<br />Positive Individual Traits<br />Strengths & Virtues<br />E.g. Creativity, Resilience, Courage, etc.<br />Positive Institutions<br />Focus on tolerance, fairness, ethics, teamwork, engagement, etc. <br />In communities & Institutions (e.g., parenting, businesses, etc.)<br />Positive Psychology<br />
    46. 46. The pleasant life<br />(well-being and positive affect)<br />The good life <br />(identification and celebration on personal strengths & skills)<br />The meaningful life <br />(participation in activities, greater good)<br />Positive Psychology<br />
    47. 47. MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI<br />(1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. <br />(1998). Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement With Everyday Life. <br />And many more…<br />
    48. 48. Most people’s live at two extremes<br />anxiety<br />Boredom<br />
    49. 49. flow<br />Being in the zone<br />Effortless Action<br />In the groove<br />Immersion<br />At one<br />Absorption<br />
    50. 50. Flow- A state of optimal experience. Flow activities are done for their own sake and not for extrinsic rewards.<br />
    51. 51. Flowis enjoyment, not pleasure.<br />
    52. 52. It does not seem to be true that work necessarily needs to be unpleasant. It may always have to be hard, or at least harder than doing nothing at all. But there is ample evidence that work can be enjoyable, and that indeed, it is often the most enjoyable part of life. <br />Csikszentmihalyi (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.<br />
    53. 53. When?<br />
    54. 54. When?<br />23% several times a day - 15% Never<br />ESM (Experience Sampling Method)<br />Occurs during favourite activity <br />(e.g., gardening, listening to music, cooking, work, driving, etc.)<br />Rarely occurs during passive leisure activities <br />(e.g., watching TV, relaxing)<br />
    55. 55. Where?<br />More often during work than during free time!<br />Work: Has goals, feedback, encourages concentration, matches skill (hopefully)<br />
    56. 56. What?<br />It is not what you do that counts, but how you do it.<br />Activities themselves are not intrinsically enjoyable or not, but you can do it in a way that is intrinsically rewarding<br />
    57. 57. Anxiety, Boredom and Flow(Csikszentmihalyi 1990 - Dots and text added: van Gorp 2006)<br />
    58. 58. harnessing flow<br />Attention:<br />Focus on task<br />Lack of full attention results in<br /><ul><li> lack of appreciation of experience
    59. 59. missed opportunities for creativity & development</li></ul>Creative favourable circumstances<br />Reduce distraction<br />
    60. 60. harnessing flow<br />9 Components<br />Clear goals<br />High degree of concentration on limited field of attention<br />Loss of self-consciousness, the merging of action and awareness<br />A distorted sense of time<br />Direct and immediate feedback, behaviour can be adjusted accordingly<br />Balance between ability level and challenge<br />A sense of personal control over the situation<br />Intrinsically rewarding action resulting in effortlessness of action<br />Focus of awareness is narrowed down to the activity itself<br />
    61. 61. Work Engagement<br />Work engagement<br />Vigor<br /> (energy, persistence, effort)<br />Dedication<br /> (enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, challenge)<br />Absorbtion<br /> (engrossed, time passes, flow)<br />Schaufeli & Bakker (2004)<br />Burnout<br />Exhaustion<br />(draining of mental energy)<br />Cynicism<br />(negative attitude to work)<br />Reduced professional efficacy<br /> (belief that one is no longer effective in fulfilling ones job responsibilities)<br />Lee & Ashforth (1996)<br />
    62. 62. Intrinsic Motivation<br />flow fits with Intrinsic Motivation research<br />IM related to Job satisfaction<br />EM related to depression<br />Mastery Goals enhance IM<br />Performance Goals reduce IM<br />
    63. 63. Summary<br />Motivation is complicated<br />Competing models – but…<br />
    64. 64. “…the recommendations to raise and sustain motivation look alarmingly common-sensical: reinforce performance, create supportive social environments, have clear attainable goals, provide enough resources to do the job, and make sure there is a fit between employee’s and employer’s motives and values.”<br />Furnham (2005: 278)‏<br />
    65. 65. Strategy 1.<br /> Remove sources of de-motivation, and treat people fairly<br />Strategy 2. <br />Ensure an abundance of valued outcomes of work<br />Strategy 3. <br />Set people goals and objectives<br />Strategy 4. <br />Give people feedback<br />Strategy 5. <br />Design jobs in ways that make them rewarding to people<br />The science of motivation<br />
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