PLATO PLATO  (427-347 B.C.):  the founder of the first university,  the Academy
“ The school in Athens”, (Raphael Sanzio)
<ul><li>Both of Plato’s parents were members of old and distinguished Athenian families. </li></ul><ul><li>The war between...
<ul><li>The death of Socrates was the turning point in Plato’s career.  Politics to  Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>There co...
<ul><li>One of the most brilliant of all the students at the Academy was  Aristotle  (been studying there for 19 years or ...
<ul><li>The Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 10 books </li></ul><ul><li>No plot/the entire discussion takes place i...
<ul><li>The entire conversation takes place in the house of Cephalus, an old and wealthy businessman.  </li></ul><ul><li>S...
The Allegory of the Cave Prisoners are chained to face the wall of the cave.   They see only the shadows on the wall.
The prisoners hear the echoes of voices and see the shadows of the artifacts, and they mistake these echoes and shadows fo...
One prisoner is unchained, turned around, and force to look at the true source of the shadows.
The prisoner is getting out of the cave, facing the real world.
Finally, he is able to see the sun (the allegory of enlightenment).
Got beaten up by his angry friends.   Republic Book VII, Section 19
The Simile of the Line
<ul><li>The meaning of the allegory of the cave </li></ul><ul><li>The cave  = the realm of belief </li></ul><ul><li>The da...
<ul><li>Theory of Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract qualities, like Beauty, Goodness. </li></ul><ul><li>A quality is  somet...
<ul><li>The FORMS are eternal and unchanging .  </li></ul><ul><li>The things that share Forms: change (Beautiful things be...
The Analogy of the Sun Sight  Knowledge The Sun Goodness Light Truth allows the eyes to see allows the mind  to know
 
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Week 4 Platos Metaphysics

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Week 4 Platos Metaphysics

  1. 1. PLATO PLATO (427-347 B.C.): the founder of the first university, the Academy
  2. 2. “ The school in Athens”, (Raphael Sanzio)
  3. 3. <ul><li>Both of Plato’s parents were members of old and distinguished Athenian families. </li></ul><ul><li>The war between the city states of Athens and Sparta was in full progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic government-the rule of the many VS Oligarchic government-the rule of the chosen few. </li></ul><ul><li>Plato were disgusted with the political situation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The death of Socrates was the turning point in Plato’s career. Politics to Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>There could be no end to corruption until men came to understand the purpose of life and of society. </li></ul><ul><li>In 386 B.C Plato founded the Academy , the very first university, designed to be primarily a training school for philosophers-rulers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>One of the most brilliant of all the students at the Academy was Aristotle (been studying there for 19 years or so). </li></ul><ul><li>3 Periods of Platonic Dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>1. Early </li></ul><ul><li>2. Middle </li></ul><ul><li>3. Later </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 10 books </li></ul><ul><li>No plot/the entire discussion takes place in a single room </li></ul><ul><li>An examination of the Good Life. The perfect life could be led only under the perfect conditions--in perfect society, the Ideal State . </li></ul><ul><li>The Republic = ‘State’, ‘Civil Society’ </li></ul><ul><li>Politics, Education, art and poetry, metaphysics </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The entire conversation takes place in the house of Cephalus, an old and wealthy businessman. </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates, Cephalus, Polemachus (the son of Cephalus), Thrasymachus (the Sophist), Glauson and Adeimantus (Plato’s elder brothers) </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is at the center of discussion, and we might take it that his view are Plato’s own views. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Allegory of the Cave Prisoners are chained to face the wall of the cave. They see only the shadows on the wall.
  9. 9. The prisoners hear the echoes of voices and see the shadows of the artifacts, and they mistake these echoes and shadows for reality.
  10. 10. One prisoner is unchained, turned around, and force to look at the true source of the shadows.
  11. 11. The prisoner is getting out of the cave, facing the real world.
  12. 12. Finally, he is able to see the sun (the allegory of enlightenment).
  13. 13. Got beaten up by his angry friends. Republic Book VII, Section 19
  14. 14. The Simile of the Line
  15. 15. <ul><li>The meaning of the allegory of the cave </li></ul><ul><li>The cave = the realm of belief </li></ul><ul><li>The daylight world = the realm of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun = The Form of Goodness </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Theory of Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract qualities, like Beauty, Goodness. </li></ul><ul><li>A quality is something that is common to a number of different things. </li></ul><ul><li>This quality or FORM does not exist only in the objects which shares the quality; it also has an independent existence of its own. </li></ul><ul><li>FORM cannot be seen or touched/ can understood only by the mind , by pure thought. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The FORMS are eternal and unchanging . </li></ul><ul><li>The things that share Forms: change (Beautiful things become ugly, just men become unjust, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>The Forms are truly real . Only something that never changes is real. </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary objects around us (tables, tree and so on) are ‘ imperfect copies’ of the FORMS </li></ul><ul><li>The FORMS = TRUE KNOWLEDGE </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Analogy of the Sun Sight Knowledge The Sun Goodness Light Truth allows the eyes to see allows the mind to know

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