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16 report project xpditte 16 report project xpditte Document Transcript

  • A Report on Impact of Project XPDITTEPrepared forLearning Links FoundationPrepared bySambodhi Research and Communications
  • Table of ContentsList of Tables ....................................................................................................................................................... ivList of Figures ....................................................................................................................................................... vAbbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... viEXECUTIVE SUMMARY......................................................................................................................................... 11. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 42. Evaluation objective, design and implementation ....................................................................................... 6 2.1 Key Research Questions ............................................................................................................................ 6 2.2 Methodology............................................................................................................................................. 7 2.3 Target group.............................................................................................................................................. 7 2.4 Study tools ................................................................................................................................................ 7 2.5 Sample....................................................................................................................................................... 73. Features of Intel® Teach Pre Service training ................................................................................................ 9 3.1 Focus of training........................................................................................................................................ 9 3.2 Training components .............................................................................................................................. 10 3.3 Training aspects different from other professional trainings ................................................................. 104. Short term outcomes of the training .......................................................................................................... 12 4.1 Training participant teachers and student teachers............................................................................... 12 4.2 Level of preparation to train student teachers....................................................................................... 12 4.3 Level of preparation to train participant teachers ................................................................................. 13 4.4 Time to conduct Participant teacher training by Master trainers .......................................................... 135. Long term outcomes of the training ........................................................................................................... 15 5.1 Outcomes at attitudinal level ................................................................................................................. 15 5.1.1 Priority level of the teachers to integrate ICT in education........................................................ 15 5.1.2 Future aspirations ....................................................................................................................... 15 5.2 Outcomes at practice level ..................................................................................................................... 17 5.2.1 ICT usage by teacher educators before and after the training ................................................... 17 5.2.2 Extent of ICT usage by teacher educators .................................................................................. 18 5.2.3 ICT usage by student teachers .................................................................................................... 20 5.3 Outcomes at Institutional level ............................................................................................................... 246. Challenges and support to technology integration .................................................................................... 29 6.1 Challenges to ICT integration .................................................................................................................. 29 6.2 Aids to ICT integration ............................................................................................................................ 307. Conclusion and Inferences .......................................................................................................................... 32 7.1 Summarizing findings .............................................................................................................................. 33 ii
  • 7.2 Innovations and future plans .................................................................................................................. 347.3 Inadequacy of ICT infrastructure in schools ........................................................................................... 357.4 ICT skills for career growth ..................................................................................................................... 357.5 Levels of adoption ................................................................................................................................... 36 iii View slide
  • List of TablesTable 1: Study tools used in the study................................................................................................................. 7Table 2: Sample respondents of the study .......................................................................................................... 7Table 4: Components of training ....................................................................................................................... 10Table 5: Aspects of training ............................................................................................................................... 11Table 6: Comparison of ICT usage by teacher educators before and after the training ................................... 17Table 7: Extent of ICT usage by teacher educators ........................................................................................... 19Table 8: Challenges to integrate technology in education ................................................................................ 29Table 9: Support to integrate ICT in education ................................................................................................. 30 iv View slide
  • List of FiguresFigure 1: Cascade model of Intel Teach Pre Service Programme ........................................................................ 5Figure 2: Focus areas of training ......................................................................................................................... 9Figure 3: Extent of applying learning ................................................................................................................. 12Figure 4: Preparedness to train student teachers ............................................................................................. 13Figure 5: Preparedness to train participant teachers........................................................................................ 13Figure 6: Time to conduct Participant teacher training .................................................................................... 14Figure 7: Priority level to integrate ICT in education ........................................................................................ 15Figure 8: Comparison of ICT usage by teacher educators before and after the training .................................. 17Figure 9: Extent of ICT usage by teacher educators .......................................................................................... 18Figure 10: Student teachers delivering technology aided lessons .................................................................... 20Figure 11: Student teachers delivering teaching approaches ........................................................................... 21Figure 12: Percentage of teacher educators assigning at least week long projects ......................................... 22Figure 13: Percentage of teacher educators assigning group projects ............................................................. 22Figure 14: Percentage of teacher educators encouraging student teachers to solve complex problems independently ............................................................................................................................................. 22Figure 15: Status of ICT integration in colleges/institutes ................................................................................ 24Figure 16: Distribution of time spent by student teachers on ICT .................................................................... 24Figure 17: Additional time dedicated beyond curriculum schedule ................................................................. 24Figure 18: ICT weightage in colleges/institutes ................................................................................................. 26Figure 19: Scheduled time in a week for student teachers to work on computer/internet ............................. 26Figure 20: ICT skills of student teachers as challenge ....................................................................................... 29Figure 21: Training design ................................................................................................................................. 32Figure 22: Value addition for teacher educators .............................................................................................. 35 v
  • Abbreviations B.Ed. Bachelors in Education CDs Compact discs COE College of education ICT Information and communication technology ICTE Information and communication technology in education M.Ed. Master in Education MOU Memorandum of understanding NCTE National Council for Teacher Education X-elerated Professional Development for Integration of Technology in Teacher XPDITTE Educationvi
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn order to empower the teacher with technology and associated pedagogic skills, NCTE enteredinto an MOU with Intel® Teach in December 2006 for the joint project of integrating technologyin education: the XPDITTE (X-elerated Professional Development for Integration of Technologyin Teacher Education) project. The project aims to build capacities of teacher educators foreffective use of ICT for communication, collaboration and research activities by mapping Intel®curriculum resources with the needs of the teachers educators and teacher education institutionsand empower the student teachers by preparing them as effective teachers for tomorrow. TheIntel® Teach Pre Service training provides technical assistance for enquiry based learning. Thetraining focuses in integrating technology with education. The learning from the training iscascaded down to Participant teachers and Student teachers by the Master trainers. This studywas commissioned in order to solicit learnings on programme implementation and level ofachievement of outcomes.Evaluation objective, design and implementationThe primary purpose of the study was to capture the outcomes of the interventions on aspectsviz. teacher educators’ technology skills and knowledge of new pedagogical approaches, as wellas improved mastery of content and attitudes toward teaching.At the student teachers end thestudy tried to assess the outcomes with respect to increased knowledge of subjects andtechnological skills, improved attitudes about learning, and the acquisition of professional skills.The study also focused on other possible outcomes such as increased innovativeness incolleges/institutes and increased sharing of resources.The study was based on a cross sectional research design. Both quantitative and qualitativemethods were employed to ascertain the changes and to understand the processes underlying thechanges. It covered 98 colleges/institutions/departments taken across 16 states and 1 unionterritory in India – Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan,Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Andhra Pradesh,Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Kerala.Semi structured questionnaire was administered to 175 teacher educators from 95colleges/institutes/departments, 9 in-depth interviews were scheduled with Head of institutionand 3 focus group discussions were conducted with student teachers to collect the data for thestudy.Features of the trainingThe Intel® Teach Pre-Service program trains the teacher educators to use technology for enquirybased learning in the classrooms. Nearly 80 percent of the sample respondents consider thefollowing components of the training very/completely useful - project based learning, curriculumframing questions-essential, unit and content questions, promoting higher order skills, developing 21st1
  • century skills, managing available technology and resources, enhancing student learning and addressingstudent diversity. Majority of the respondents agree that the training was completely hands-onwork which was not only focused on technology but the application of technology in education.Short term outcomes of the trainingThe preparation of the master trainers and their ability to conduct further trainings are consideredto be the short term outcomes of the training. 56.2 percent of teacher educators consideredthemselves well prepared in cascading down the learning to student teachers level whereas 25percent of the teacher educators find themselves completely prepared. 58.1 percent of the Mastertrainers find themselves well prepared to train Participant teachers while 16.2 percent regardthemselves completely prepared to take the task of training Participant teachers.Long term outcomes of the trainingThe long term outcomes of the training are considered to be changes in attitudes and practicesamong teacher educators and student teachers. These also involve innovations at educator andinstitutional level and the abilities to address the needs of student diversity. • Changes in AttitudeAll the sampled teacher educators have prioritized integrating ICT in education. 63.4 percent ofthe sample respondents show their strong priority in integrating ICT in education. The positiveattitude towards technology integration is also reflected through the future plans of the teachereducators and the role they envisaged for technology in future. • Changes in PracticeAt this level, the outcomes include the extent of technology integration by teacher educators andstudent teachers. The outcomes also comprise of innovations to integrate ICT in curriculum bythe educators and institutes/colleges. At present, all teacher educators are using ICT at varyinglevels as compared to 17.7 percent who did not use ICT in education before training. The teachereducators are increasingly using technology in planning lessons and designing innovative activities,preparing and presenting seminars/workshops/conferences, conducting own research, creating teachinglearning materials, engaging students in usage of technology and in communication and collaborationwith peers and student teachers.ICT usage by student teachersIn 86.3 percent of sampled colleges/institutes, student teachers transact technology aided lessonduring practice teaching. The student teachers are also able to practice teaching approacheswhich are introduced through Intel® Teach Pre Service training. In 88.4 percent of the sampledcolleges/institutes, student teachers use technology during micro/simulated teaching.Outcomes at institutional levelThe attitude and behavior of the teacher educators towards ICT also reflect on the state of ICT intheir respective colleges/institutes. The colleges/institutes are innovating ways to integrate ICT intheir B.Ed. curriculum. 87.3 percent (83 out of 95) of the sampled colleges/institutes have2
  • integrated ICT in their B.Ed. curriculum. In 54.1 percent of the colleges/institutes which haveintegrated ICT in B.Ed. curriculum, student teachers spend 50 hours and more on ICT. 91.5percent (87 out of 95) of the responded colleges dedicate extra time for the student teachers toutilize computer facilities beyond the B.Ed. curriculum schedule. Some of the colleges haveadopted interdisciplinary approach of teaching where the ICT based lectures are delivered onintegrated topics, combining related topics from different subjects. Few colleges have integratedICT in different sections of their curriculum to accommodate technology without additionalburden on student teachers.3
  • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING PROJECT X-PDITTE1. IntroductionNational Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) is a statutory body formulated under Ministryof Human Resource and Development, Government of India; to coordinate and monitor thedevelopment of teacher education in India. NCTE formulates norms and standards with regard todesign, transaction and evaluation of curriculum and other matters concerned with teachereducation to ensure quality of teacher education. In order to empower the teacher withtechnology and associated pedagogic skills, NCTE entered into an MOU with Intel® Teach inDecember 2006 for the joint project of integrating technology in education: the XPDITTE (X-elerated Professional Development for Integration of Technology in Teacher Education) project.Project X-PDITTE is unique public-private collaboration between the National Council ofTeacher Education (NCTE) and Intel® Teach Program. It has been developed by Intel® Teachwith inputs from NCTE.The objectives of the Project XPDITTE areA. To build capacities of teacher educators for effective use of ICT for communication,Collaboration and research activities by mapping Intel® curriculum resources with the needs ofthe teachers’ educators and teacher education institutionsB. To empower the student teachers by preparing them as effective teachers for tomorrow wherein the teacher educators act as facilitators.The curriculum of the project includes themes like: 1. Utilizing Essential Questions to promote effective use of technology in the classroom. 2. Introducing technology tools and strategies that students and teachers can use to enhance learning through research, communication and productivity. 3. Supporting hands-on learning while creating units and evaluation tools that address state and national academic and technology standards. 4. Encouraging pre-service teachers to work in teams, problem-solve and participate in peer review of their units.The project is based on cascade model in which the teacher educators of B.Ed. colleges aretrained on ICT in education and these trained teacher educators also known as Master trainers inturn impart training to the fellow teacher educators who are also known as Participant teachers.These trainings pose reflections on the B.Ed. curriculum and pedagogy and the student teachersare encouraged to use ICT in education.4
  • Th Intel Teach Pre Service Training Th Master trainers Participant Flow of Learning Teachers Student Teachers School Students Figure 1: Cascade model of Intel Teach Pre Service ProgrammeSince the launch, the Program has touched 74 Universities & 10 SCERTs. More than 8000teacher educators in 2000 Teacher Education Institutions across 18 states have been impacted inthe three years of this project. The curriculum is available in 5 Indian languages besides English.Moving forward, Intel® and NCTE has decided to undertake a joint impact study of the projectXPDITTE, which would help in understanding impact on the ground, the challenges andexperiences of the Institutions, Educators and Students and also capture the some best knownmethods which would have emerged during the training or implementation of the project.5
  • CHAPTER 2 Evaluation objective, design and implementation2. Evaluation objective, design and implementationThe main aim of the study is to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of the Intel® Teach Pre-Service Programme in reaching out to the teacher educators and directing them as medium ofchange for use of technology among the future teachers and students. The study tries to capturethe outcomes such as development of teacher educators’ technology skills and knowledge of newpedagogical approaches, as well as improved mastery of content and attitudes toward teaching.At the student teachers side, the outcomes may be increased knowledge of subjects andtechnological skills, improved attitudes about learning, and the acquisition of professional skills.Beyond learning outcomes, ICT may help addressing students with special needs. The study alsofocuses on other possible outcomes such as increased innovativeness in colleges/institutes andincreased sharing of resources.The key objectives of the study are: • To measure knowledge, attitude, behavior and practice level changes among the teacher educators in relation to use of technology • To evaluate the training and its various components like module, curriculum, pedagogy, materials and resources etc given to the teacher educator during the programme implementation.2.1 Key Research QuestionsIn consonance with the research objective, following are the key research questions used in thestudy tools – • What skills set have been developed by the faculty members? • What are the teachers’ views on the training curriculum – skills, knowledge, ICT component, pedagogy component and resources? • What is the need, relevance and usage of these skills in teacher education? • Do the teachers use technology in their teaching practices post training? • How the technology is being used by faculty and students? • What are ICT related needs as felt by teachers, students and head of the institutions? • Is there a need for integrating ICT in B. Ed. curriculum? • What are the enabling factors of ICT integration in teacher education? • What are the barriers to ICT integration in teacher education? • What innovative activities/strategies have teacher educators / institutions used? • What is the way ahead?6
  • 2.2 Methodology The present study is based on a cross sectional research design. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used in the study. While the quantitative analysis measures the change, the qualitative data captures the actual process of the change. 2.3 Target group The target groups for the study are – 1. Teacher educators – They are faculty members of the B.Ed. institutions and primary informants for the study. There are two categories of teacher educators: a) Master trainers: They are the teacher educators who directly participated the Intel® Teach training. b) Participant teachers: They are the teacher educators who are trained by the Master trainers. 2. Head of the Institutions – They are the Directors, Principals or Heads of the department of the colleges/institutes. 3. Student teachers – Student teachers are the students of B.Ed. colleges. 2.4 Study tools The quantitative data from teacher educators was collected through semi structured questionnaires based on the key S.No Target group Survey tools research questions. Most of the 1 Teacher educators Semi structured questionnaire questions were close ended to 2 Head of Institutions In-depth interview bring objectivity to the study. 3 Student teachers Focus group discussion Some of the questions were left Table 1: Study tools used in the study open ended to better understand the processes involved. Information from the head of the institutions was collected through in-depth interviews. Also, focused group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with the student teachers to understand their perspective on the project. 2.5 Sample The sample covers 98 colleges/institutions/departments taken across 16 states and 1 union territory in India – Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, S.No Survey tools Respondents 1 Semi structured questionnaire 175 teacher educators from 95 colleges/institutes/departments 2 In-depth interviews 9 Head of institution 3 Focus group discussions 3 groups of student teachersTable 2: Sample respondents of the study Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Andhra Pradesh, 7
  • Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Kerala. Such geographical coverage ensures representationof diverse views across the country.8
  • CHAPTER 3 Features of Intel® Teach Pre Service training3. Features of Intel® Teach Pre Service trainingThe training focuses on imparting technological skills to teacher educators assisting them in assistenquiry based learning. The training components encompass technological, pedagogical andcurriculum designing inputs. These concepts are introduced involving participation of all thetrainee educators. The present section explores the focus, and various components and aspects ofthe training under Pre Service Programme.3.1 Focus of trainingNearly 90 percent of the respondents accord the training was moderately to highly focused on accordintegration of technology into teaching, providing useful teaching strategies, illustrating effectivetechnological usage with student teachers and providing opportunities for collaboration withother educators.These aspects are essentially useful in promoting 21st century skills and high order thinking heseskills. The training is focused in pedagogy strategies and curriculum framing questions(essential, unit and content questions) so that the teacher educators can easily apply the learningin their classroom sessions. Figure 2: Focus areas of training Provided opportunities to collaborate with other 60.0 28.0 educators Illustrated effective uses of technology with student 58.8 34.3 teachers 54.9 Provided useful teaching strategies 38.9 53.7 Integration of technology into teaching 41.2 0 20 40 60 80 High focus Moderate focus Low focus No focusThe training provides platform where teacher educators of different colleges/institutes acquaintand collaborate in efforts to integrate ICT in education. It is observed that some of the theseinstitutes/colleges have developed as technology leaders and resource centres for other localcolleges/institutes. These resource centres impart ICT trainings to other educators in theircampuses and open their ICT infrastructure for other colleges/institutes. They also collaborate in colleges/institutes.organization or participation in ICT based conferences, workshops or seminars.9
  • 3.2 Training components Not Somewhat Moderately Very Completely Training Components Useful Useful Useful Useful UsefulProject based learning 0.0 2.8 15.4 46.8 34.8Curriculum framing questions-essential,unit and content questions 0.5 4.0 12.5 46.8 36.0Promoting higher order skills 0.0 5.7 15.4 42.8 36.0Developing 21st century skills 0.5 4.0 16.0 44.0 35.4Managing available technology andresources 0.5 5.7 18.8 47.4 27.4Enhancing student learning 0.0 3.4 13.7 50.2 32.5Addressing student diversity 1.7 4.0 21.7 41.1 31.4Table 3: Components of trainingThe Intel® Teach Pre-Service program trains the teacher educators to use technology for enquirybased learning in the classrooms. Nearly 80 percent of the sample respondents consider theabove listed training components very/completely useful. The training instills in them higherorder thinking skills and 21st century skills. The 21st century skills are developed through ICTbased curriculum, which is interdisciplinary, integrated and project-based. The teacher educatorsrealize the usefulness of project-based, interdisciplinary approach for enhancing student learning.They also regard ICT medium is effective in addressing student diversity.ICT has immense potential in addressing the needs of the student diversity. A teacher educator atCh. Devilal College of Education, Haryana has helped a blind student for better learning bymaking use of software that converts text into sound.3.3 Training aspects different from other professional trainingsAs listed in the table 5, on many aspects of the training, the sample respondents consider Intel®Teach training different from other professional development courses which they have attended.Majority of them agree the training was completely hands-on work which was not only focusedon technology but the application of technology in education. Practical exposure clears theconcepts of ICT in education.10
  • Training aspects Percentage Technology aided learning 89.6 Training is almost completely hands-on work 71.7 Training material includes manual and CD 86.1 Focus on pedagogy rather than technology 50.3 Combining technology skills with pedagogy skills 69.4 Curriculum framing questions 71.1 Training allows for peer learning 63.0 Training doesn’t rank or label trainees 45.1 World class research based curriculum 35.8 World class curriculum translated well regional language 51.4 Table 4: Aspects of trainingThe training is also focused on pedagogy and curriculum framing which needs to be revised withthe integration of technology in education. The training on technology assisted pedagogy andpeer learning address the need of 21st century skills. In order to address a wide and diverse groupof teacher educators, the course materials have been translated into 5 regional languages – Hindi,Marathi, Telugu, Kannada and Gujarati.11
  • CHAPTER 4 Short term outcomes of trainings4. Short term outcomes of the trainingThe Intel® Teach Pre Service training prepares the teacher educators to cascade down thelearning to participant teachers and student teachers. The preparation of the master trainers and traintheir ability to conduct further trainings are the short term outcomes of the training.4.1 Training participant teachers and student teachers 55.9 37.7 Using technology in teacher training classes 5.7 54.8 Training student teachers in technology 33.6 integration 9.0 Great extent Moderate extent 53.2 37.2 Small extent Trained Participant Teachers 5.1 Not at all 47.4 39.4 Created digital portfolio 7.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60Figure 3: Extent of applying learningMore than 85 percent of the respondents agree at moderate to great extent that as the outcomes of agreethe training they are training student teachers in technology integration, using technology inteacher training classes and have created digital portfolio. 90.4 percent of the Master trainersagree at moderate to great extent that they have trained Participant teachers for integrating ICT ineducation.The teacher educators are able to apply the learning from the training in their classroom sessionsas well as training Participant teachers This cascading model of training students and Participant teachers. dingteachers is made possible by sound training sessions which prepared them to train further.4.2 Level of preparation to train student teachers25 percent of the teacher educators find themselves completely prepared to train student teachers redin technology integration while 56.2 percent conceived themselves well prepared in cascadingdown the learning to student teachers level.12
  • Figure 4: Preparedness to train student teachers : 2.3 25.0 16.5 56.2 Slightly Prepared Moderately Prepared Well Prepared Completely prepared4.3 Level of preparation to train participant teachers58.1 percent of the Master trainers find themselves well prepared to train Participant teachers rainerswhile 16.2 percent regard themselves completely prepared to take the task of training Participantteachers. Figure 5: Preparedness to train participant teachers : 3.4 16.2 19.7 58.1 Slightly Prepared Moderately Prepared Well Prepared Completely prepared4.4 Time to conduct Participant teacher training by Master trainersNearly 94 percent of the Master trainers conducted Participant teacher training within 6 monthsof completion of their training.13
  • 45.2 percent of the Master trainers were able to conduct the Participant teacher training withinone month of completion of their t training. 45.2 Figure 6: Time to conduct Participant teacher training 50.0 45.0 40.0 35.0 30.0 20.9 25.0 20.0 13.9 13.9 15.0 6.1 10.0 5.0 0.0 Within 1 month After 1 months After 2 months After 3 months After 6 months but before 2 but before 3 but before 6 month month month14
  • CHAPTER 5 Long term outcomes of trainings5. Long term outcomes of the trainingThe long term outcomes of the training are the changes in the attitude and practices amongteacher educators and student teachers. They also involve innovations at educator andinstitutional level and the abilities to address the needs of student diversity.5.1 Outcomes at attitudinal levelIt is observed that the teacher educators and student teachers display positive attitude towardsadoption and usage of ICT in education. Most of them have prioritized integrating ICT in education.education and have future plans to take it further ahead.5.1.1 Priority level of the teachers to integrate ICT in education lAll the sampled teacher educators Figure 7: Priority level to integrate ICT in educationhave prioritized integrating ICT 5.1in education. 63.4 percent of the .sample respondents show their 31.4strong priority in integrating ICT 63.4in education. Only 5.1 percent ofthe sample respondents reflectsmall priority to integrate ICT in Strong Priority Moderate Priorityeducation. The teacher educators Small Priority Not at Allare integrating ICT at variouslevels which is not limited to classroom sessions but also in extracurricular activities, research, lsadministrative activities and other day to day activities.“Instead of ‘one-way’ information flow i.e. teacher addressing a group of passive students, ICT way’based teaching-learning strategies have made this process, a ‘two way’ information flow. These learning ‘two-way’strategies have involved more student teacher interaction, collaboration between students and student-teacherinterdisciplinary approaches. That is why ICT is seen as wonderful knowledge media.” knowledgeA.Srinivas (Teacher Educator, St. Peter’s College of Education, Andhra Pradesh)5.1.2 Future aspirationsThe positive attitude towards technology integration is also reflected through the future plans ofthe teacher educators and the role they e envisaged for technology in future. Some of these .aspirations are listed in the following box:15
  • Teacher educators at Dr. MA Khan College, Pune want to spread computer literacy at ruralareas .Educators at Modern College of Education, Pune are looking forward to bridge the gapbetween the practical and theoretical concepts of ICT and education to make learning easier.Government College of Education, Ambejagoi, Maharashtra, is planning to integratetechnology in education as well as administrative processes .Teacher educators at Ch. Devilal College of Education, Haryana wish to promote the ICTbased research on a larger scale and enhance learning materials to help student diversitiesMGN College of Education, Jalandhar is looking forward to introduce interactiveblackboards and smart classrooms (MGN COE, Jalandhar)Teacher educators are showing interest in attending seminars on ICT in education andpursuing research in ICT related topics in education.“There is need for an attitudinal change among the teachers and students. They should startlooking technology as an investment rather expenditure.”- Dr. Shulbha Natraj, Principal,Waymade College of Education, Gujarat.16
  • 5.2 Outcomes at practice levelAt this level, the outcomes include the extent of technology integration by teacher educators andstudent teachers. The outcomes also comprise of innovations to integrate ICT in curriculum bythe educators and institutes/college institutes/colleges.5.2.1 ICT usage by teacher educators before and after the training Consider as technology leader 25.7 6.8 Regularly make student teachers use ICT 53.1 26.2 Take few lessons using ICT 17.7 21.7 Try few times in using ICT 3.4 27.4 No use of ICT 0.00 17.7 In Percentage 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 After training Before trainingFigure 8: Comparison of ICT usage by teacher educators before and after the trainingThe extent of ICT usage in education by teacher educators has considerably increased after iderablytraining. At present, all teacher educators are using ICT at varying levels as compared to 17.7percent who did not use ICT usage Before training After trainingICT in education before No use of ICT 17.7 0.0training. 53.1 percent of Try few times in using ICT 27.4 3.4teacher educators are Take few lessons using ICT 21.7 17.7regularly making student Regularly m student teachers use ICT 26.2 make 53.1teachers use ICT while Consider as technology leader 6.8 25.725.7 are considered to be Table 5: Comparison of ICT usage by teacher educators before and after the trainingtechnology leader in theirrespective colleges/institutes.The usage of ICT by teacher educators in turn encourages student teachers to use ICT inclassrooms and extracurricular activities.“Being an IT teacher, I used to integrate technology earlier also before Pre Service programme. dBut this programme really benefitted me focusing on pedagogy along with use of technology andhow to combine the two in the interest of students. My critical thinking, planning andcommunication by the use of technology really changed and moreover my student teachers are icationalso benefitted by the knowledge of integrating ICT in classrooms.” (Ms. Shivani Gulati, MGNCollege,Jalandhar)17
  • Sammilani Teachers’ Training College, KolkataThis college in Kolkata perceives ICTE as a medium for interdisciplinary learning. Here, ICT is enot only confined to subject specific but emphasis is laid on developing ICT based lectures onintegrated topics, combining related topics from different subjects for inte integrated learning.Progressing on this approach, the college has introduced ‘Teacher effectiveness program’ usingICT in which 4-5 teacher educators are grouped together to prepare teaching contentencompassing topics from different subjects. The college promotes collaborative and integrated promoteslearning by encouraging the student teachers to work in groups of 4 5 members on the ICTE 4-5projects of their choice vetted by teacher educators.The Principal, Dr Madanmohan Chel, who observes ICT as an essential medium fo effective forteaching, understands the importance of creativity for effective use of ICT in education. Brainstorming sessions have been introduced in the course to inculcate the art of creativity among thestudent teachers. Dr Chel is an active member of All India Science Teachers’ Association, AllBengal Teachers’ Association and Centre for Pedagogical Studies in Mathematics and advocatesfor ICTE in schools through these forums.5.2.2 Extent of ICT usage by teacher educators Less usage No change More usage Always 69.4 68.2 70.00 63.6 60.00 54.9 51.4 50.3 50.00 43.4 45.1 39.4 40.00 33.7 25.7 27.4 30.00 20.00 10.00 4.6 4.6 4.0 4.0 5.7 2.3 0.00 Plan Prepare and Conduct Create Engage Communicate lessons and present own teaching students in and design seminars/ reserach learning usage of collaborate innovative workshops/ materials technology activities conferencesFigure 9: Extent of ICT usage by teacher educators18
  • More than 90 percent of the teacher educators are always/more using ICT for planning lessons and designing innovative activities. They are using interdisciplinary and project based approach of teaching and learning. DAV College of Education for Women, Punjab has developed software on B. Ed. curriculum that describes content, evaluative questions and feedback mechanism. MGN College of Education, Punjab is making use of video recorders to review and improve teaching sessions. It also encourages the use of online journals and e-books among teacher and student fraternity. Sohan Lal College of education has creation a digitized library of teaching materials in form of CDs. The subject matter and lesson plan are created in the form of presentations. More 69.3 percent of the Usage usage Always teacher educators are Plan lessons and design innovative activities 43.4 51.4 always making use of Prepare and present seminars/workshops/conferences 25.7 69.3 technology to prepare Conduct own research 27.4 68.2 and present seminars/ Create teaching learning materials 33.7 63.5 workshops/ Engage students in usage of technology 45.1 50.2 conferences. Communicate and collaborate 39.4 54.9 The increasing use ofTable 6: Extent of ICT usage by teacher educators technology in organizing workshops, conferences and seminars not only helps in executing the plan but establishes a technology savvy image of the colleges/institutes. This also eased in emerging out as an ICT resource centre where knowledge and skills can be shared with other colleges/schools/institutes. 68.2 percent of teacher educators are always making use of ICT to conduct their own research. The exposure to ICTE trainings has opened the floodgate of research opportunities before teacher educators and M.Ed students. Not only are they opting for ICTE as their topic for the research but are profusely benefitted by the availability of knowledge pool in internet. As expressed by many teacher educators, the use of computer has made publishing any knowledge product (handbooks, research paper) an easier task. 63.5 percent of teacher educators are always using technology to create teaching learning materials. They are using projectors, powerpoint presentations and CDs to make the learning 19
  • student centric. Theoretical lectures presented with interesting visuals and pictures in unit plangenerate interest among student teachers and make the learning easier.Around 95 percent of the teacher e educators are always/more engaging the student teachers in theusage of technology. ICT is integrated in both theoretical and practical components of the B.Ed.curriculum. Student teachers are using ICT based lessons during their practice teaching andmicro teaching. They are encouraged to use e books, online journals and educational blogs. e-books,In order to make realize the utility of ICT among student teachers, Pune based Modern Collegeof Education and Arihant College of education engage the student teachers in preparing lessonsusing both traditional and technology assisted approach and comparing the two approaches tounderstand the difference. Around 94 percent of the teacher educators are always/more using internet to communicate andcollaborate with students, peers and colleagues. The emails are increasingly used for the purpose tudents,of communication. Teacher educators and student teachers are also interacting through blogs.The colleges/institutes are updating websites to disseminate the schedule of events or otherinformation.The increasing pattern of ICT usage among teacher educators has translated into increasing useof technology by student teachers. As discussed before, most of the colleges have integrated ICTin their B.Ed. curriculum.5.2.3 ICT usage by student teachers tudentIn 86.3 percent of sampled colleges/institutes, student teachers transact technology aided lessonduring practice teaching. 48.9 50.00 40.00 24.2 24.2 30.00 20.00 10.00 2.6 0.00 All of them Most of them Some of them None Figure 10: Student teachers delivering technology aided lessons :20
  • Of these colleges/institutes where student teachers transact technology aided lessons, around 97percent of the teacher educators assessed that the student teachers were able to deliver effectivetechnology aided lessons during practice teaching. Nearly half of the respondents (48.9 percent)concurred that most of the student teachers under their supervision delivered effective liveredtechnology aided lessons while 24.2 percent accorded all of the student teachers deliveredeffective technology aided lessons.The biggest challenge which the student teachers face in transacting technology aided lessons isthe lack of adequate infrastructure in the schools where they undergo practice teaching. dequateThe student teachers face challenges in delivering technology based lessons during practiceteaching because the schools where they practice lacks adequate infrastructure. The mo mostobscure essential equipment in the schools is projector failing which student teachers can notdemonstrate powerpoint presentations. HGM Azam College of Education, Pune has madearrangements so that student teachers can avail projectors from the college for theirtechnology aided practice teaching sessions. 3.9 The student teachers are also able to 16.4 practice teaching approaches which are 34.0 introduced through Intel® Teach Pre Service training. Nearly 80 percent of 45.7 the teacher educators accorded more than half/all of the student teachers all were able to implement some of the None Less than half did so teaching approaches which include More than half did so All of them did so project based learning, use of essential Figure 11: Student teachers delivering teaching approaches : questions, group work, multiple assessments et cetera.In 88.4 percent of the sampled colleges/institutes, student teachers use technology during studentmicro/simulated teaching. However, during micro/simulated teaching, student teachers do not getsufficient time to make effective use of technical skills.The teacher educators are integrating technology in class through innovative methods. Thestudent teachers are encouraged to work in small groups on projects that may run for a week ormore. They are also expected to solve complex problems on their own under teacher educators’ educators stguidance. These approaches promote 21 century skills among the student teachers. tury21
  • Most of the teacher educators make student 1.7 5.8 teachers work on projects that run for a week or 17.3 more. 17.3 percent of the total respondents assign 32.4 such projects to student teachers on weekly basis, 42.2 42.2 percent assign on monthly basis while 32.4 percent assign 1-2 such projects in a year. Working 2 on such projects that take week or more induces Never 1-2 times a year 2 creativity, student centric learning and Monthly Weekly inquisitiveness among student teachers. DailyFigure 12: Percentage of teacher educators assigning at least geweek long projects The Teacher educators are frequently making 3.5 the student teachers work in small groups. 37 9.8 percent of the total respondents assign the 19.7 projects to student teachers on weekly basis 29.5 37.0 percent assign on monthly basis while 9.8 29.5 percent assign on daily basis. The group assignments help in managing the resources optimally, and support peer learning and Never 1-2 times a year 2 collaboration Monthly Weekly Daily 3.5 Figure 13: Percentage of teacher educators assigning group : projects 15.0 22.0 20.8 The Student teachers are encouraged to solve 38.2 complex problems on their own under the guidance of teacher educators. This approach . inculcates critical thinking and problem solving skills among the student teachers. Never 1-2 times a year 2 15 percent of the respondents assign their Monthly Weekly student teachers to solve complex problem on Daily their own on daily basis, 20.8 percent on weekly basis and 38.2 percent on monthly Figure 14: Percentage of teacher educators encouraging : basis. 22 percent of educators encouraged to student teachers to solve complex problems independently 22
  • work on complex problems 1-2 times a year.The colleges/institutes are increasingly using group based assignments and project basedlearning. The teacher educators are innovating different methods to apply such approaches. Ateacher educator in GVM College of Education, Goa divides the class into groups andassigns them different topics. The groups of student teachers search the relevant material ontheir respective topics on internet and prepare presentations which are presented in the class.This approach inculcates collaboration and communication skills, problem solving skills,critical thinking and creativity among the student teachers.23
  • 5.3 Outcomes at Institutional level The attitude and behavior of the teacher educators towards ICT also reflect on the state of ICT in their respective colleges/institutes. The colleges/institutes are innovating ways to integrate ICT in their B.Ed. curriculum. The next section presents the ICT status in the sampled colleges/institutes and the efforts made in the direction. 4.8 2.4 8.5 87.3 percent (83 out of 95) of the sampled 13.2 colleges/institutes have integrated ICT in 56.6 their B.Ed. curriculum. Of these 83 14.5 colleges/institutes, 13.2 percent of the colleges/institutes have introduced ICT as a part of one paper and 56.6 percent have imbibed ICT as a compulsory paper. 14.5 As an Add on course As a compulsory paper percent have integrated ICT as an optional As optional paper As part of one paper paper while rest of them have added ICT as part of paper, project or practice As part of project Any other teaching. Figure 15: Status of ICT integration in colleges/institutes : In 54.2 percent of the colleges/institutes 14.5 which have integrated ICT in B.Ed. 48.2 curriculum, student teachers spend 50 um, 22.9 hours and more on ICT. Around 31 8.4 6.0 percent of them have scheduled 30 to 40 hours on ICT curriculum for their student teachers. In 14.5 percent of these colleges/ More than 50 hours 50 hours institutes, less than 30 hours have been 40 hours 30 hours chalked out for ICT. The major e Less than 30 hours challenge is the already packed schedule Figure 16: Distribution of time spent by student teachers on ICT : of B.Ed. curriculum which leaves little scope to additional time for ICT. However, colleges/institutes have 51.7 innovated ways to provide adequate More than 2 hours time to student teachers on ICT. 1 to 2 hours 41.4 91.5 percent (87 out of 95) of theo Less than 1 hour 6.9 responded colleges dedicate extra time 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 for the student teachers to utilize computer facilities beyond the B.Ed.Figure 17: Additional time dedicated beyond curriculum schedule tional curriculum schedule. In 51.7 percent of 24
  • these 87 colleges/institutes the student teachers spend on an average more than 2 hours and in41.4 percent the student teachers avail 1-2 hours in a week on computer facilities beyondtimetable schedule.Some of the colleges have adopted interdisciplinary approach of teaching where the ICT basedlectures are delivered on integrated topics, combining related topics from different subjects. Fewcolleges have integrated ICT in different sections of their curriculum to accommodatetechnology without additional burden on student teachers. A case highlighting innovations foradopting ICT by a college is presented in the box below.GVM College of Education, Goa – Innovation for adoption of ICTEThe faculty of GVM COE participated in training by Intel® Teach program in the year 2002.With the signing of MoU with Intel® Teach, the college management had a challenge tointegrate the ICTE curriculum in their course. Also, the inadequacy of required infrastructureand the existing workload of the curriculum mirrored a need for innovative way ofintegrating ICTE in the course. The college met the challenge by infusing the Intel®curriculum components in staggered manner. The Intel® curriculum is assimilated across theB.Ed. course in five different components namely- General orientation, Subject wise unitplanning during methodology classes, Intel® modules (MM presentation, internet and otherresources, evaluation rubrics, grade book, student data base, unit portfolios), Educationaltechnology classes and School wise portfolio implementation during block teaching. The ICTbased lessons and activities amount to 18.5 percentages of the total marks of the syllabus. Asthe numbers of computer systems were limited in the college, the student teachers made useof the computer laboratory of GVM School located in the same campus and the nearby cybershops. During block teaching, the student teachers have been finding difficulty in deliveringtheir IT based lessons due to inadequacy of infrastructure in the schools. This has led to aninnovative idea, in which the batch of school students is split into smaller groups andexposed to IT based lessons in the nearby cyber shops.As a result of the initiative and support from the principal and the management, the college,at present boasts of a new campus with a computer library supported by 20 computer systemsand internet connectivity. From the session 2009-2010, the student teachers have startedenrolling in the Online Intel® Teach Essential program. In the current batch of session 2010-2011, all student teachers are enrolled for the program which gives them a professional edge.The ICT has broadened the area of expertise and prospects for the student teachers. One suchexample is a student teacher who is serving in Cyber Crime department of Goa Police.Over the years, the Intel® Teach program trained faculty have imparted the ICTE trainings to200 Master trainers. The Master trainers have further disseminated the trainings totaling to25
  • 3000 ICTE trained teachers.Professor Louis Vernal, Principal of the college is a visionary and pioneer in integrating ICTwith education. He foresees a future where teaching is not only limited to transacting the elessons but infusing the skills to acquire, organize and apply the knowledge and ICT wouldplay an important role. On the issue of inadequacy of infrastructure in the schools whereteachers are not able to apply the ICTE skills, he is of the opinion that the future state of eachersinfrastructure in the schools are going to improve and the pool of ICTE proficient teachers atthat point would be available to apply their skills.Out of the 83 colleges/institutions whichhave integrated ICT in B.Ed. curriculum, 1.242.6 percent have weightage on ICT 15<ICT Weightage<=20between 5 to 10 percent while 8.5 percent 8.5have ICT weightage between 10 to 15 10<ICT Weightage<=15 42.6percent. 41.4 percent of 5<ICT Weightage<=10colleges/institutes reported to have less 41.4than or equal to 5 percent of ICT ICT weightage<=5weightage. GVM College of Education, 6.1Goa has emerged as a leader in Weightage not fixedintegrating ICT in its B.Ed. curriculumwith 18.5 percent weightage dedicated to 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00ICT based lessons and activities. Figure 18: ICT weightage in colleges/institutes :Most of the colleges have integrated IC in ICTboth theory and practical components of their curriculum.The practical exposure is necessary to illustrate the use of ICT in education. All 98 sampledcolleges/institutes provide time and facilities to student teachers for working oncomputer/internet. 54.7 percent of the colleges/institutes More than 2 hour 54.7 provision more than 2 hours in a week 1 to 2 hour 36.8 for students to work on computers/internet. 36.8 percent Less than 1 hour 8.4 dedicate 1 to 2 hours in a week and 8.4 Do not get time to spend 0.0 percent can afford less than an hour in a week for student teachers to work on wo 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 computers/internet.Figure 19: Scheduled time in a week for student teachers to work on :computer/internet26
  • At the next higher level, few institutes/colleges are mulling ways to reach the community. Theyare innovating designs to address the needs of student diversity. Few are exploring ways tospread the ICT skills at the bottom of the pyramid. One such leader among these colleges/institutes is Waymade College of Education, Gujarat.Waymade College of Education, Anand – A pioneer in ICT in educationIt was in early 2000s that Dr Shulbha Natraj, Principal, Waymade COE realized the competitionin the education sector staged by other institutions in Anand. She envisioned an entirely new pathfor institution which snakes the modern realm of education and the institution has emerged as aresource centre for the local colleges and schools. Supported by Intel® Teach program, sheparticipated in a training in 2001 which not only honed her ICT skills blended with education butresulted in a paradigmatic attitudinal shift which carved the path of the institution for rest of theyears. Over the years, the college has hinged on the platform provided by Intel® Teach toshowcase their skills and expertise and commanded a goodwill in the education sector.Recently, she participated as a resource person in the program iBLD (ICT Blended LearningDesign) initiated by the government of Gujarat.The ICT enabled environment in the college has created positive shifts in knowledge, skills andattitude among teacher educators and student teachers. The internet is serving as a huge pool ofknowledge resource which is used by teacher educators and student teachers in research anddaily practices. The crucial skills of using curriculum framing questions acquired in the Intel®Teach program enabled the college to modify their curriculum four times since 2004 to keepabreast with the latest. The ICT skilled student teachers of the college are easily placed in theschools and related organizations. Those who opt for higher studies (Master in Education) arefound to be at ease during the course. The college recruitment policy clearly states the need forICT competent teachers and a mandatory undertaking to gain ICT skills during incumbency ifthe new entrant is not ICT skilled; a remarkable fact indicating the extent to which the collegehas imbibed ICT in its system. By 2004-05, the teacher educators had developed their teachingmaterial in line with ICT. The college is not only using ICT in teaching sessions but theadministrative department is also expected to use ICT in their daily tasks.The ICT in education has introduced the concept of sharing the knowledge and Waymade COEis voluntarily treading this path. The college has emerged as the resource centre where theteaching materials uploaded by the teacher educators are utilized by other colleges. The alumnihave created and disseminated the electronic version of teaching materials to the schools forready reference. The Intel® Teach program trained teachers are the resource persons and havebeen consistently involved in imparting trainings to teachers of other colleges. The collegeorganizes a 4 day training program in ICT based education for school teachers.The college has also initiated the community outreach program during summer vacations. Under27
  • this program, a batch of 40 children hailing from less privileged families is exposed to basictraining on ICT.The principal, Dr Natraj who is an active resource person for community outreach program has avision for future. She is an advocate for higher order thinking and experimentation basedlearning in education. She envisages a pivotal role of ICT in promoting these reforms ineducation.28
  • CHAPTER 6 Challenges and support to t technology integration 6. Challenges and support to technology integration There are challenges and support in the p path to technology integration. The study tries to explore the factors responsible for these challenges and support. These factors include infrastructure status in institutes/colleges, support of the management, administration, and head of institu institution, availability of technical support and adequate computer skills among educators and student hnical teachers. Strongly No Strongly Challenges disagree Disagree opinion Agree agree Managing student teachers on computers 26.3 49.7 5.7 17.7 0.6 Not enough computers 35.4 42.3 2.9 17.1 2.3 Inadequate access to internet 38.1 46.3 1.7 12.0 2.3 Insufficient Class/Lab time 25.1 52.0 4.6 14.3 4.0 Lacking sufficient computer skills 36.0 51.4 2.9 9.7 0.0 Many student teachers lack adequate computer skills 12.6 30.9 13.1 40.6 2.9 Inadequate administrative support 40.6 46.3 7.4 4.6 1.1 Inadequate technical support 37.1 46.3 5.7 10.9 0.0 Student teachers do not have sufficient time and infrastructure 27.4 42.3 5.1 22.3 2.9Table 7: Challenges to integrate technology in education 6.1 Challenges to ICT integration The biggest challenge in integrating technology with education is the lack of adequate computer skills among student teachers. 40.6 percent of sample respondents agree that the inadequate computer skills among student ng teachers slow down the pace of technology integration. Strongly agree 2.9 The challenge is taking all the Agree 40.6 student teachers together because the level of ICT knowledge and No opinion 13.1 skills varies among them. Some of Disagree 30.9 the student teachers do not have Strongly disagree 12.6 computer background and start as computer beginners in B.Ed. 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 course. At times reluctance among Figure 20: ICT skills of student teachers as challenge the few student teachers in using 29
  • ICTE may be observed and a programme as short in duration and vast as B.Ed. may not proveenough to bring attitudinal change among them.However, it is acknowledged that the self motivated student teachers help in propelling ICT byendeavoring initiatives. These student teachers make use of ICT in classroom sessions andparticipate in ICT based workshops, seminars and quiz. They also make use of technology inorganizing workshops, conferences and seminars.6.2 Aids to ICT integration Strongly No StronglyEnablers disagree Disagree opinion Agree agreeSupport of Principal/Director/Management 0.6 1.1 2.3 45.7 50.3Adequate number of computers 1.1 5.7 5.1 47.4 40.0Adequate access to internet 1.1 6.9 5.1 43.4 42.9Adequate time for ICT in timetable 1.7 6.3 6.9 42.3 42.3Access to computers/internet beyond scheduled time 0.6 4.0 5.7 49.1 40.0Strong computer skills 0.0 1.7 5.1 49.1 43.4Many student teachers have adequate computer skills 2.3 17.1 14.3 41.1 24.6Adequate administrative support 0.6 3.4 4.0 45.7 45.7Adequate technical support 0.6 5.7 4.0 44.0 45.1Institution encourages innovations in ICT 0.6 1.7 1.7 49.1 46.3Table 8: Support to integrate ICT in educationAs shown in the table, the sample respondents reflect adequate support from their managementin integrating technology. It is also observed that the colleges/institutes where the Head of theinstitutions or the Head of the departments are the leaders in ICTE receive strong support inintegrating ICT with education. The strong computer and pedagogical skills of the trainedteachers with support from Head of institution/department has brought changes in the curriculumand pedagogy. The course schedule is maneuvered to allow student teachers to spend adequatetime on computers. There are some colleges/institutes where computer laboratories remain openafter the scheduled time. The administrative support is also fully available to accommodate anynecessary adjustments. In fact, there are few colleges/institutes where the administrative work isencouraged to be computerized.Most of respondents are satisfied with the state of infrastructure (computer systems and internetfacility) in their respective colleges/institutes. However, there is always a scope forimprovement. The state of infrastructure has gradually improved over the years. While someinstitutes/colleges have acquired the optimum level of infrastructure some are in the stage ofimprovement. Some respondents also realize the need for better technical support so that theycan utilize their resources in best possible way. This can be achieved by employing technicalsupport on full-time basis.30
  • The institutions/colleges are also open to innovations in the area of ICT. These diverseinnovations embellish the scope of ICT in education. These innovations are self driven andhighlight a positive attitude towards ICT in education.H G M Azam College of Education, PuneThis college based in Pune has grown over the years into a resource centre for ICT.The college is mulling to transform into e-campus which would involve no paper transaction.Every administrative and teaching process will be transacted through ICT.Lack of infrastructure in the schools during practice teaching is always a nightmare for thestudent teachers. The college has overcome this challenge by providing projectors to thestudent teachers which they can carry to their respective schools during practice teaching.In order to make the faculty comfortable with IT, the college of education has mademandatory for all their teacher educators to attend state government certified IT program,also known as MS-CIT (Maharashtra State Certificate in Information Technology)31
  • CHAPTER 7 Conclusions and Inferences7. Conclusion and InferencesThe Intel® Teach Pre Service training intends to provide technical assistance for enquiry basedlearning. The training focuses in integrating technology with education. The learning from thetraining is cascaded down to Participant teachers and Student teachers by the Master trainers.The training aims to promote higher order thinking skills and develop 21st century skills byproviding technical and pedagogical solutions. As the outcomes of the training, it is expected touse Project based learning approach to enhance student learning, instill creativity,inquisitiveness, collaboration and communication skills and critical thinking skills. Sinceintegration of technology demands changes in the curriculum, the training also focuses oncurriculum framing questions – essential, unit and content questions.The framework below explains the training logic.Th Technical Skills Intel Teach Pre 21st Century Skills Pedagogical Skills Service Training • Critical Thinking Curriculum & • Communication Content • Collaboration • Creativity • ICT Skills • Professional SkillsFigure 21: Training designThe training is different from other professional trainings. It imparts technology aided learningand involves active participation of all participants. The training curriculum is the product ofworld class research which is translated into 5 different regional languages – Hindi, Marathi,Telugu, Kannada and Gujarati; to address the vast and diverse pool of educators.As the result of the trainings, there have been changes at attitudinal and practice level among theteacher educators. They are endeavoring to integrate technology with education. As a result, thestudent teachers are increasingly using ICT in their curriculum and beyond. This has led tochanges at institutional level where colleges/institutes are integrating technology not only incurriculum but also in administrative activities and beyond.32
  • 7.1 Summarizing findingsShort term outcomes of the training • More than 85 percent of the respondents agree at moderate to great extent that as the outcomes of the training they are training student teachers in technology integration, using technology in teacher training classes and have created digital portfolio. • 56.2 percent of the Teacher educators conceived themselves well prepared in cascading down the learning to student teachers level. • 58.1 percent of the Master trainers regarded themselves well prepared to train Participant teachers. • Around 94 percent of the Master trainers conducted Participant teacher training within 6 months of completion of their training.Long term outcomes of the trainingAttitudinal level • All the sampled teacher educators have prioritized integrating ICT in education. 63.4 percent of the sample respondents show their strong priority in integrating ICT in education. • The teacher educators aspire to use ICT for enhancing student learning and addressing student diversity by integrating ICT at various levels of teaching. Many of the teacher educators are involved in research on ICT in education and guiding the M.Ed. students on ICT based research.Practice level • The extent of ICT usage in education by teacher educators has considerably increased after training. • 53.1 percent of teacher educators are regularly making student teachers use ICT while 25.7 are considered to be technology leader in their respective colleges/institutes. • More than 90 percent of the teacher educators are always/more using ICT for planning lessons and designing innovative activities. • 69.3 percent of the teacher educators are always making use of technology to prepare and present seminars/ workshops/ conferences. • 68.2 percent of teacher educators are always making use of ICT to conduct their own research. • 63.5 percent of teacher educators are always using technology to create teaching learning materials. • Around 95 percent of the teacher educators are always/more engaging the student teachers in the usage of technology. • Around 94 percent of the teacher educators are always/more using internet to communicate and collaborate with students, peers and colleagues.33
  • ICT usage by Student teachers • In 86.3 percent of sampled colleges/institutes, student teachers transact technology aided lesson during practice teaching. • Nearly 80 percent of the teacher educators accorded more than half/all of the student teachers were able to implement some of the teaching approaches which include project based learning, use of essential questions, group work, multiple assessments et cetera. • In 88.4 percent of the sampled colleges/institutes, student teachers use technology during micro/simulated teaching. • It is also found that the student teachers are increasingly working in small groups on at least a week long projects and are encouraged to find the solutions of the complex problems on their own under Teacher educators’ guidance.ICT status in colleges/institutes • 87.3 percent of the sampled colleges/institutes have integrated ICT in their B.Ed. curriculum. Off these, 56.6 percent have imbibed ICT as a compulsory paper. • In 54.1 percent of the colleges/institutes which have integrated ICT in B.Ed. curriculum, student teachers spend 50 hours and more on ICT. • 91.5 percent of the responded colleges dedicate extra time for the student teachers to utilize computer facilities beyond the B.Ed. curriculum schedule. In 51.7 percent of these 87 colleges/institutes, the student teachers spend on an average more than 2 hours. • Out of the 83 colleges/institutions which have integrated ICT in B.Ed. curriculum, 42.6 percent have ICT weightage between 5 to 10 percent. • All 98 sampled colleges/institutes provide time and facilities to student teachers for working on computer/internet. • 54.7 percent of the colleges/institutes provision more than 2 hours in a week for students to work on computers/internet.7.2 Innovations and future plansThere have been innovations at various levels which have been discussed earlier in differentsections. The colleges/institutes have innovated ways to integrate ICT in B.Ed. curriculumwithout putting extra burden on the student teachers. Colleges/institutes like Sammilani Collegeof Education, GVM College of Education, Goa and others have integrated technology across andamong core subjects with emphasis on interdisciplinary learning. Few colleges have assimilatedICT fully into their administrative processes.The innovations are also at pedagogical level. The teacher educators are innovating ways topromote project based learning and encouraging the student teachers work in small groups. They34
  • are using different channels like CDs, e books, online journals, educational blogs, e-mails, e-books, e powerpoint presentations and others to promote t use of ICT in education. the The innovations are also addressing the student diversity. Ch. Devilal College of Education, Haryana, has made use of technology for a blind student. The colleges/institutes are also innovating ways to manage ICT infrastructure for student teachers. H.G.M Azam College of Education, Pune provides projectors to student teachers so that they can transact technology aided lessons during practice teaching. Because of unavailability of ICT infrastructure in the schools, the student teachers of GVM College of teachers Education, Goa, make use of internet cafés to deliver technology assisted lectures to the school students during practice teaching. The teacher educators and student teachers perceive bright future in ICT based education. Several educators are researching on the use of ICT in education. Teacher educators are contemplating ways to spread computer literacy among the masses. Few of the Teacher educators aspire to spread ICT in rural areas. H.G.M Azam College of Education, Pune has bee been working on applying ICT for distance education. 7.3 Inadequacy of ICT infrastructure in schools f During study it is commonly observed that the schools where student teachers visit for practice teaching lack adequate ICT infrastructure. This poses challenge to present ICT skills and transact to technology assisted lessons during practice teaching. However, there has been a gradual improvement in the overall state of ICT in education sector and with the trained pool of future teachers, the transition towards technology integrated education will be smooth and successful at technology every level. 7.4 ICT skills for career growth 70 62.9 62.9 percent of the teacher educators 60 50 consider Intel® Teach Pre Service training 40 30.9 as very valuable addition in their 30 professional career. The training equips e 20 them with technical and pedagogical skills 5.7 10 which are valuable in teaching. 0 Many teacher educators and M.Ed. Somewhat Valuable Very Valuable Valuable students are pursuing research on ICT based topics. They are also making use ofFigure 22: Value addition for teacher educators : technology for publishing books and research papers. 35
  • The student teachers are realizing the benefits of ICT skills during their placements. The studentteachers are easily inducted in education industry due to their technical skills. An interestingexample is of student teacher at GVM College of Education, Goa, who is serving in Cyber Crimedepartment of Goa Police.“Technology has opened prospects for the student teachers. Those having ICT skills are gettingplaced in schools as computer teachers.” (Fr. P Prabhakar, Principal St Mary’s CentenaryCollege of Education, Vishakhapatnam)7.5 Levels of adoptionIt is observed that the colleges/institutes are at different degrees of adoption of technology. Thisis a transition phase where early movers are striving to reach the higher levels of technologyintegration and those which have recently started are creating infrastructure and environmentadequate for ICT integration. There are initial challenges moving on the path of technologyintegration but with right guidance and zeal colleges/institutes have reached to the positionwhere they are leveraging on technology.GVM College of Education, Goa, at present, possesses a well equipped computer library withinternet connectivity. The ICT is integrated across different subjects and weigh 18.5 percentof the total curriculum. The college is considered to be technology leader among B.Ed.colleges/ institutes. However, a decade ago, it did not own a computer library and used toshare it with GVM School in the same compound. The journey of the college in the lastdecade can be related to other colleges/institutes which are at different milestones oftechnology integration.36