Fracking - Oil Shale Gas vs Biogas


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Fracking and the use of oil shale for energy is explained and discussed in detail. Society must consider using this bountiful energy supply. But, is it an acceptable risk to do so? We compare

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Fracking - Oil Shale Gas vs Biogas

  2. 2. FI LR HAL ECG A S V S NI OGA SO S A K I B G :Special Fracking Report: Oil further shall be deemed to have read and accepted the following terms.Shale Gas vs Biogas forRenewable Energy Terms of Use: No Liability: this book is supplied “as is” and without liability. AllWith much of the world once again (May warranties, express or implied, are hereby2012) teetering on recession, and a potential disclaimed. The information provided doesenergy bonanza sitting beneath our feet in not constitute advice of any kind.the form of vast oil shale gas reserves, darewe use them, or not? Let’s make no mistake © 2012 by IPPTS Associates.about it a new era of cheap energy would getworld economies off the hook, and allowmany nations to claw their way back out of Introductionausterity like nothing else can do on earth. Inside this report, you will learn:The engineering and technically mindedcommunity owes it to the poor of the world to What Is Fracking And Shouldconsider oil shale use very carefully. Can itbe used without disastrous effects on the We Be Nervous About It: What is fracking? It probably is a term new toenvironment or not? many people but its definitely becoming a popular topic in the media. Fracking is aIn this special report we have set out to use controversial process used to extract gasresources available on the web to compile a from shale rock formations foundreport with contributions from a number of thousands of feet below the earths crust.authors on this subject. We then sum up our The process involves drilling into theview, and in the final special report section surface of the earth and then triggeringwe have some further information about our small explosions to crack and shatter thepreferred natural gas source. hard shale rock in order to release the gas contained inside.Disclaimer Fracking and Tar Sands :Reasonable care has been taken by theauthors to ensure that the information Fracking is not a good thing if were tryingpresented in this book is accurate. to reduce global warming causes andHowever, the reader by reading on any Cover Image by InlandWest 2
  3. 3. impacts, unless all the carbon dioxide is stating it "may cause earthquakes" - wellcaptured and stored by sequestration. We like I said, not a revelation here.provide a background on hydraulicfracturing and its likely environmental Fracking - Is It Worth Risking Ourimpacts. Water Supply:The Bottom Line – Water is our most precious resource.Is Fracking Really Safe? Without it, we would cease to exist. Out of all the water on earth, only 2.5% is freshIn the last few years, with the increasing water and less than 1% is available for yourdemand for unique resources of energy, human consumption (since much of it is inscientists and big companies are turning glacier form).their heads and money on shale reserves,sedimentary formations that seem tom hold Now let’s get started with the reported articlesthe future of energy: natural gas. With and the body of this report:recent turn of events and with the majornetworks and independent film makers, **********************they take like on the technology calledfracking for oil. Dont be misled, this is not Whatthe song. It has been highlighted in acontroversial documentary and now a lot of Is Fracking And Should Webuzz is directed towards this technology. Be Nervous About ItHow is it good? What makes it ideal forextraction? The biggest question would What is fracking? It probably is a term newhave to be: is fracking for oil a safe to many people but its definitely becomingpractice? a popular topic in the media. Fracking is a controversial process used to extract gasMore Fracking Earthquakes - from shale rock formations foundNew Report and Research on Oil thousands of feet below the earths crust. The process involves drilling into theand Gas Fracking from UK surface of the earth and then triggering small explosions to crack and shatter theOur Think Tank has previously mentioned hard shale rock in order to release the gasthe challenges with fracking and ground contained inside. Sand, water and manywater, and the potential earthquake issues. highly corrosive chemicals are forced intoMost of the problems can be easily the rock at high pressure allowing the gasmitigated depending on the geological and crude oil to flow out before beingmake-up of the regions where such extracted by energy companies. Theresources are. There was a heavy hitting process can be used to create new sourcesarticle recently in the UK about fracking of oil and gas or to enlarge existing 3
  4. 4. operations. The drilling can be carried out With current technology its impossible forvertically but horizontal drilling is more alternatives to become the primary sourcecommon. of energy. Additionally, no one ever talks about the toxic ingredients that go intoThe name fracking comes from a longer manufacturing solar panels and thename for the process, hydraulic fracturing. batteries used to power electric carsThe rock is theoretically fractured and this (another inconvenient truth).is often referred to as a frac job. Fracking is causing many heated debatesThe process is highly controversial mostly between concerned individuals and energydue to the "unknown" as experts cannot companies. Currently energy companies areagree on just how dangerous the technique looking into ways of creating longer andis. A primary concern is that fracking uses deeper cracks in the earth allowing moremany carcinogenic chemicals and the fear gas to be extracted. This will obviouslyis that these chemicals may potentially find lower the extraction cost of the gas, thistheir way into natural water sources and has caused uproar among opponents andpose a major threat to the users. Industry environmentalists. In general the idea ofexperts however point out that drinking using these aggressive techniques willwater is generally found within a few always cause fear mongering and handhundred feet of the surface whereas most wringing because of the unknown long-termfracking is taking place several thousand consequences.feet below the surface. Fracking is not likely to go away any timeLeft wing geologists have recently stated soon as energy companies see it as athat the fracking process was a probable cost-effective way of extracting more andcause in the triggering of two minor more natural gas. As new processesearthquakes off the English coast. The continue to evolve concerns will continue toenergy industry obviously denies the linger and even grow. As we have said thereprocess is at fault and blames bad are always concerns over any new processpractices as opposed to a bad technique. and they will either eventually diminish orThe extraction of shale gas using fracking there will be a major disaster like theis also being seen as a potential cause of opponents are predicting. Only time willfurther global warming as shale gas is tell and as it is with most things we arefound in many locations and is often seen bound to continue to push the boundariesas a cheaper alternative to renewable until someone finds an sources. The truth is that naturalgas has a much smaller carbon foot print Fracking has created a tremendousthan either coal or oil so its a great resurgence in drilling activity in the U. S.solution for reducing pollution. Those who in areas such as the Bakken Oil Field whichfantasize about wind and solar replacing has billions of barrels of oil which werefossil fuels have never done their research. unrecoverable without it. These 4
  5. 5. developments along with the creation of the the fracture opens, other materials areOil ETF has made oil investing a popular sometimes added to prevent the fracturestrend in this past decade. from closing - especially when the injection processed has ended.Article Source: Not all wells are the same; some are very_R_Peterson permeable whereas others are low volume wells, depending on the type of rock andB. Fracking and Tar Sands geologic structures. And example might be shale for low permeability and sandstoneIntroduction for high permeability; the former uses 20,000 to 80,000 gallons of fluid whileFracking is not a good thing if were trying the latter can use up to 2-3 million gallonsto reduce global warming causes and of fluid per well. There can beimpacts. I provide a background on environmental issues in the disposal of thishydraulic fracturing and environmental fluid.impacts. Examples in NatureWhat is Hydraulic Fracturing or "Fracking"? "Veins" can be caused by seismic activityHydraulic fracturing is the process of which leads to variations in stress levels ofcreating fractures in rock with the purpose the rock. Differing volumes of fluids can beof releasing a fluid under pressure. This pumped into fractures during earthquakes."fluid" is usually gas or petroleum as far as The fluids (usually containing minerals)the fossil fuel industry is concerned. These can create a vein when pushed up throughfractures also occur naturally as in the case rock and then can harden and crystallize;of "veins" or "dikes", where magma from sometimes a rock will appear one color anddeep within the earth flowed towards the there will be a stripe of some other materialsurface. in the rock.Oil and gas companies create their own The formation of a "dike" is similar to thatfracturing of a rock layer with the sole of a vein. The difference is that the fluidpurpose of extracting fuel. A bore hole is filled cracks are molten rock, or magma.drilled into the geologic formation which Sometimes in sedimentary rock with a lotcontains the oil/gas. Then a highly of water content steam will be found at thepressurized fracking fluid is pumped into leading edge of the magma. Obviously thisthe hole leading to new channels in the feature would be more common in activerock and hence, allows for extraction of geologic regions such as areas near thefossil fuels. boundaries of the continental plates or along the "ring of fire".As the fluid is injected down the hole and 5
  6. 6. Fracking to Release Fossil Fuels carbon dioxide) added to the mixture. In addition to the fluids and equipment toAs mentioned earlier "fracking" or propel the fluid, there is transportation and"hydraulic fracturing" is using pressurized storage of the fluid and the resulting fuel.fluid to expand cracks in rock to release oilor gas from underground reservoirs. These The Marcellus Shale formation is one of thereservoirs are typically found in porous latest targets for fracking. This formationsandstones, limestones, or dolomite rocks. extending from West Virginia and OhioSometimes the deposit can be found in eastward through Pennsylvania into Newshale or coal beds. The oil/gas formations York State has had its share of news worthycan be retrieved from as deep as 1.5 - 6.1 stories, from estimated economic impactskm (5,000-20,000 feet). Sometimes the and jobs, to taxation, to environmentalformation just needs to be tapped and the concerns.pressure alone will allow it to shoot to thesurface. Other times a conduit needs to be Environmental Concernsformed to draw the fossil fuels to thesurface. There are plenty of environmental concerns when it comes to hydraulic fracturing, fromThe fracture is created when pumping the contamination of ground water, pollution offracking fluid at sufficient rates to exceed the air and global warming impacts, tothe fracture gradient of the rock. As the spills and mishandling of waste in the wellfracture grows, permeable material (like location and health effects.sand) is added to the hole to stabilize thewell. The fuel can then be drawn upwards While the EPA has been aware of somethrough the porous material. possible contamination issues, there was doubt among officials (from testimony atMost hydraulic fracturing is performed in Senate Hearing Committees) that thevertical wells. But the latest technology fracking process itself has affected groundallows for horizontal wells also. The lateral water. The EPA studies were criticized fordrill hole can extend up to nearly 3 km (2 being too narrow in scope, such asmi) in some cases. Vertical wells usually concerns about water quality contaminatedare only 15-90 meters (50-300 ft) deep. from transporting fracking fluids, some fishHydraulic fracturing is employed by 90% of kills and even documented acid burns.natural gas wells in the United States. Private well owners have complained about contamination. In 2005 hydraulicThe fracturing fluid is a combination of fracturing was exempted by the U. S.water, chemical additives, and proppants Congress from any regulation under the(granular substances such as pellets or Safe Drinking Water Act!sand that help the fluid do its work). Inaddition there are sometimes gels, foams The reports of contamination of waterand compressed gases (i.e., nitrogen or began to increase as fracking heated up. 6
  7. 7. One amazing example took place in the Tar Sandstown of Dimrock, PA with a report of 13private wells found to be contaminated with The Canadian Tar Sands, the Keystonemethane. And one of them actually blew Pipeline controversy, and the basics ofup. The local gas company was ordered to environment preservation are covered here.compensate the homeowners although theycontinued to deny responsibility. There What Are Tar (Oil) Sands Anyway?have even been reports of radiation infracking fluids that were released into These geological features are not thenearby rivers. typical fossil fuel deposit that you usually think of. Most are familiar with coal, oil,Beyond ground water and possible surface and gas. Tar sands are a naturally occurringpollution, there are the emissions of mixture of sand, clay, water, and a dense orgreenhouse gases which are the leading viscous form of petroleum. This mixturecauses of global warming and air pollution has the appearance, odor, and color ofat the surface. The emissions from the "tar", hence the common name. These oilnatural gas development and production sands are found in extremely large amountsinclude particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur in Canada and Venezuela.oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonmonoxide. Other emissions linked to The tar sands are then mined anddevelopment include methane, ethane and processed to extract the oil-rich materialvolatile organic compounds (VOCs). The and then refined into oil. Extracting the oilVOCs have been implicated in causing a is more complex than typical recovery asrange of health issues - from respiratory the process not only requires extraction andillness to neurological problems, birth separation systems to remove the oil sludgedefects and cancer. from the clay, sand, and water, but also requires special dilution with lighterAlthough natural gas burns cleaner than oil hydrocarbons (since so thick) to make itor coal and it is supposed to help lessen transportable by warming, an amount of methane istypically released by these wells. And the A lot of the worlds oil is in the form of tarmethane over short time periods is actually sands, this is estimated to amount to 2worse than coal or oil due to how potent trillion barrels! However not all of this oil isthis greenhouse gas is (20-25 times more recoverable. Tar sands are found in manypotent than CO2). The methane gradually areas of the world (such as the Middlebreaks down and has a lifetime in the East), however by far the largest depositsatmosphere of around 8-9 years (CO2 lasts are in Alberta Canada and Venezuela. Therearound 100 years). So even if natural gas is are even some tar sand deposits in theburned efficiently, its carbon footprint is state of Utah.still worse than coal or oil for timescalesless than 50 years. A Little Industry Background 7
  8. 8. At this time oil is not produced from tar trucks carry up to 320 tons of tar sand persands on a significant commercial level in load.the United States. Only Canada has alarge-scale commercial oil sands industry. After the sands are transported to a facility,The industry, centered in Alberta, produces hot water extraction is used to separate themore than one million barrels of synthetic oil sludge from the sand, water, andoil per day, or approximately 40% of minerals. The resulting mixture is fed intoCanadas oil production. The output from an extraction plant where agitation occurs.the Alberta-centered tar sands industry is This releases oil and causes air bubblesgrowing rapidly. Around 20% of U. S. that attach to the oil droplets. Thesecrude oil comes from Canada, with a large droplets that float to the surface are thenamount of this coming from the tar sands. skimmed off. Further processing leads to synthetic crude oil.Recently prices for oil have risen tosufficient levels and technologies to extract Around two tons of oil sands are needed tothe oil from sands have improved to the produce one barrel of oil. After the oil ispoint to make production from oil sands extracted, the used sand and other materialcommercially attractive. are then returned to the mine, which is eventually reclaimed.The oil sands reserves have only recentlygotten the headlines due to this Other methods exist beyond strip miningcombination of oil price and improved such as: steam injection, solvent injection,technologies. As long as these factors line and "fire floods" - in which oxygen isup in a favorable way for industry we will injected and part of the resource is burned.continue to see oils sands remaining front Steam injection is the favored news. One of the latest current projects is theAs alluded to earlier getting the oil from the Keystone Pipeline. This pipeline is toraw form to the usable form is no small transport synthetic crude oil from the oilundertaking. There is a lot involved in the sands of northeastern Alberta, Canada toprocess as will be covered next. several locations in the United States. The locations include refineries in Illinois,Extraction & Processing Overview distribution hubs in Oklahoma and proposed refineries along the Gulf Coast ofThe oil sands can be extracted using open Texas. Basically there is an operational XLmining at the surface. New methods of the pipeline and possible expansion segments1990s improved the efficiency of the to the pipeline.mining which reduces the cost. Thesystems use large hydraulic and electrically The Keystone pipeline has faced lawsuitspowered shovels to dig the sands up and from oil refineries, environmentalload them into gigantic dump trucks. The organizations, and members of United 8
  9. 9. States Congress. The latest clash was wikipedia)between some members of Congress andPresident Obama over legislation that If youd like to learn more please check outwould put approval of the expansion XL my site: SurviveClimateChangepipeline on the fast track to development.The President pushed back a decision until Im a meteorologist with a Masters in2013. Of course environmental Meteorology. Besides weather, I also have aorganizations have their own concerns and passion for climate change andthis will be covered in the next section. environmental issues. I hope to share my enthusiasm in my writing on these subjectsEnvironmental Concerns & Conclusions and offer suggestions on how to live in a more "earth friendly" way. If you have anyMining and processing the oil sands wreaks questions or comments, I can be reachedhavoc on the environment. The strip mining at affects wildlife and ecosystemsand leftover by products and pollution from Article Source:the strip mining can soak into the ground supply and run off into rivers and _M_Flatleystreams. There is a large amount of dirtywater that is produced from the process; The Bottom Line –only some can be recycled. Is Fracking Really Safe?Some of the worst impacts are on the airhowever. Getting the oil from the oil sands In the last few years, with the increasingwith steam injection and refining leads to demand for unique resources of energy,major global warming impacts. In fact this scientists and big companies are turningprocess leads to two to four times the their heads and money on shale reserves,amount of greenhouse gases per barrel of sedimentary formations that seem tom holdthe end-product of refined oil as that the future of energy: natural gas. Withproduced when extracting conventional oil. recent turn of events and with the major networks and independent film makers,If you include the final numbers, from oil they take like on the technology calledsands extraction to combustion you can see fracking for oil. Dont be misled, this is notthat this is one of the major causes of the song. It has been highlighted in aglobal warming; the emission is 10 to 45% controversial documentary and now a lot ofmore greenhouse gases than regular oil! buzz is directed towards this technology. How is it good? What makes it ideal forObviously, as far environmental awareness extraction? The biggest question wouldis concerned, this is not the way to go if we have to be: is fracking for oil a safeare serious in reducing the causes of global practice?warming. (Sources: and 9
  10. 10. Fracking is a technology that has been water supply. However, with the increasingaround for more than 60 years already and demand for natural gas, more and morebasically, it is a method of extracting wells are being made using this technologynatural gas and oil from various cracks or and because of the demand, the mainvents deep underground by channeling a problem is defective construction. Thisreinforced well strategically on the ground, means that at the end of the day, anyan d pumping in water, chemicals and sand structure that has not been made withunder very high pressure, causing the gases precision and does not follow standards forto become released, driving them upwards creating proper wells will end upfor extraction. As said, water, sand and contaminating any underground waterchemicals are used. Chemicals are used to source in the area.prevent corrosion on the well surface,preventing the equipment from getting Is it safe? Fracking for oil can be started ascontaminated. a common technology. With anything that requires utilizing natural resources, thereIn the last few years, companies will always be risks. Fracking for oil in theimplementing this procedure to their Marcellus Shale is becoming an importantextraction plants or oil wells have seen no aspect for the energy industry but it isrecords of any form of gas emissions and necessary to be careful and safe with thechemical release into the immediate water utilization if chemicals and creation ofsystems outside the well. There are risks wells to prevent risks at the end of the day.with the implementation of the wells, andthat is a fact. The well should be perfectly For more information on Marcellus Shale,implemented from every step of the way in you can visit Marcellus Shale Frackingorder for the gases to prevent from mixingup with clean water but that aspect is not Article Source:limited only to fracking for oil. The fact is any methodology that requires digging _Mike_Johnpast the water source is subject to risk ifnot implemented properly. The technology More Fracking Earthquakes -itself is not the cause why leakage couldhappen that could eventually contaminate New Report and Research on Oilthe waters. and Gas Fracking from UKThe process of fracking or hydraulic Our Think Tank has previously mentionedfracturing has been around for a long time the challenges with fracking and groundalready but it was a used mainly in water, and the potential earthquake issues.marginal economies where natural gas is Most of the problems can be easilynot as profitable but the manner of mitigated depending on the geologicalextracting gas did not cause drastic make-up of the regions where suchdamage or any form of problems to the resources are. There was a heavy hitting 10
  11. 11. article recently in the UK about fracking in the past show that, a few larger thanstating it "may cause earthquakes" - well small quakes too. Weve had some frackinglike I said, not a revelation here. Still, quakes in the US already not major ones,perhaps we might discuss this for a just small stuff and of course, we must usemoment? our science to do it right and study the areas we do this very carefully first. I haveThere was an interesting article recently on no doubt that the oil and gas industry isthe Forbes Blog on June 1, 2011 titled well on top of this issue."British Fracking Causes Earthquake - WhatNow?" which was posted in the energy Indeed, Chris comments are correct incategory "Energy Source - How We Power citing the publics concern, conspiracythe World" by Chris Rhodes. In the article theories, and shades of what will be called;Chris makes some great points; "a cover-up" of information on the subject, and no doubt used by environmentalists as"Hydraulic fracturing has made another another tool to attack Big Oil. There areunwelcome appearance in the media, with risks and rewards in anything we do when itreports in the U. K. that the procedure may comes to energy, whether for ourcause earthquakes. Fracking involves the transportation needs or powering up ourinjection of water containing a surfactant civilizationand various other chemicals under highpressure into a source rock e.g. shale, Nuclear has seen recent challenges in thecausing the latter to fracture and release Japanese quake and Tsunami doublenatural gas (principally methane). It is whammy. Oil has terrorist issues, pipelinehoped that fracking will provide 45% of U. problems, and terrorists after refineries, notS. gas by 2035, although the jury remains to mention dealing with less than stellar"out" on its safety aspects." ethical nations around the world. Natural Gas is not without worry either, for instanceIndeed, I think weve all instinctively known the pipeline explosion and fire in the bayall along that Fracking can in some area recently. Giant wind turbines createinstances cause Earthquakes merely ultrasound and mess up aviation radars.because it is loosening up rock, most likely Solar Power manufacturing uses an etchingnot large ones if the industry is careful solution which is 17,000 times worse thanwhere they work and exercises caution, CO2 for the atmosphere. Hydro iswhich of course is in their best interests challenged by droughts, damns, floods, etc.thus, you can consider it to be the norm,safety first. So, I do not think this will be We are going to have to deal with the cardssuch a huge issue. we have until the research available helps improve these problems and challenges.Weve also known that drilling oil without Please consider all this.putting something back in can beproblematic, numerous smaller earthquakes Lance Winslow is the Founder of the Online 11
  12. 12. Think Tank, a diverse group of achievers, photographs, Dr. Emoto has found thatexperts, innovators, entrepreneurs, water exposed to positive influencesthinkers, futurists, academics, dreamers, produces beautiful, perfectly formedleaders, and general all around brilliant crystals, while water exposed to negativityminds. Lance Winslow hopes youve produces ugly, malformed crystals. Dr.enjoyed todays discussion and topic. Emotos study suggested that becausehttp://www. - Have an humans are primarily composed of waterimportant subject to discuss, contact Lance and much of the earths surface is coveredWinslow. in water, the power to change the essence of water means that humans have theArticle Source: power to evoke change on a global or personal scale, by way of water. If these_Winslow controversial studies are accurate, than is it possible that water is (in some fashion atFracking - Is It Worth Risking least), alive?Our Water Supply What if we no longer had access to fresh drinking water, what would we do? If thisWater is our most precious resource. was the case, we would have to useWithout it, we would cease to exist. Out of advanced filtering methods to convert saltall the water on earth, only 2.5% is fresh water into drinking water, but many arguewater and less than 1% is available for your that it would not be the same. If wehuman consumption (since much of it is in consider fresh water to be in some wayglacier form). "alive" would the converse be true by saying that filtrated salt water would beWith the world’s population hitting almost considered "dead"? If so, what affect would7 billion in 2011 and our bodies drinking "dead" water have on our bodies?themselves containing 70% water, it would Would filtrated salt water lose the watersseem that the most critical of all valuable nutrients?environmental concerns should be toensure the safety and protection of our There are an exhaustive variety of factorsmost critical and life sustaining resource, and contaminants that threaten our waterWATER. supplies and "fracking" is one of them! Since 1947, when the process ofWater is so priceless and unique that its "fracking", "hydraulic fracturing" ortopic has been studied by Japanese "hydrofracking was first introducedscientist Dr. Masaru Emoto who has been commercially, (to stimulate gas and oilresearching this new field of science by wells) by companies like Halliburton, it hasfreezing samples of water that have been been used extensively worldwide ever to either positive or negative The process of fracking sped up thewords, emotions and music. Through extraction process making both oil and gas 12
  13. 13. more readily accessible and profitable. leak out during the fracturing process, making natural gas leave more of aThere is a wealth of natural gas trapped greenhouse gas footprint on the earth thanunderground, but what depths are we the traditional offender, coal.willing to go to extract it? Whether you are a proponent for or againstFracking is a process by which sand, water fracking, the use of natural gas over coal orand chemicals are injected into dense rock believe that fracking can be hazardous tolayers and shale creating cracks that allow human and animal health, is reallynatural gas trapped inside to flow to the irrelevant. What is important is how far areearths surface. There are a number of we willing to go to extract the natural gas orenvironmental and human health concerns oil for human use? Is it worth riskingassociated with "fracking"such as: contaminating our water supply?contamination of ground water, risks to airquality, the risk of gases and hydraulic Written by Suzanne Edwards "Making thefracturing chemicals reaching the surface, world greener one reader at a time"and the potential for the mishandling ofwaiste. Article Source: number of chemicals identified in _A_Edwardsfracturing fluid are hazardous chemicals(such as ethylene glycol and toluene which Wrapping up...are toxic to humans) that may cause healthrisks that range from rashes to cancer. In this report, weve shown you:Some people living near fracking sites havereported abnormalities in their water (such What Is Fracking And Should We Beas dark colored grease, sediment and Nervous About Itfloating debris) as well as attempting to Fracking and Tar Sandslink their health concerns to tap water that The Bottom Line – Is Fracking Reallyhas been contaminated from the fracking Safe?process. More Fracking Earthquakes - New Report and Research on Oil and Gas FrackingAlthough natural gas is known as being a from UKclean burning fuel and according to the Fracking - Is It Worth Risking Our WaterEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) Supplygenerates only about half as muchgreenhouse gas as coal, Cornel University On balance, we consider that fracking isEcology and Environmental Biology too high a risk to take and despite theProfessor, Robert Howarth argues that limitations on the amount of biogas whichmethane which is 20 times more effective can currently be generated, based uponat trapping heat than carbon dioxide,can 13
  14. 14. currently available biomass, and waste them today from an ever increasing rangeproduction of organic waste materials, of biogas plant technology providers...However, that does not mean that there is "Prospective AD Plant buyers, particularlyno solution to the current problem of in the agricultural sector, but alsoenergy needs as biogas can produce much commercial clients in the growing foodmore of our energy needs, and should be waste digestion sector, fear that theirseen as being the better option, and it can project will cost them far too much and runbe made in much larger quantities than is out of their control, with fancy controlproduced today, in the UK. equipment and over specified and complex systems."In the rest of this special report we willdiscuss biogas methane production. Steve Last has set out to conquer this perception with a uniqueSPECIAL REPORT: approachIs It Possible To Produce "We tell intelligent clients who don’t mindBiogas, Without Losing a bit of technical reading, how to operate their biogas plant before we start. If theyPrecious Earnings on Process start out by knowing “what they need toDowntime? do”, then remaining in control over “how they do it”, is much easier.According to Steve last, an environmental Unlike some other Anaerobic Digestionprocess engineer and owner of the popular plant partners and turnkeywebsite, the contractors", Steve Last tells us that allanswer is yes! the technical detail is “on the table”, from the start. That way, the buyer can assess,“Many biogas plant operators tell us that a accept, or reject the technical details frombiogas plant is much more like owning a a point of knowledge.cow than a tractor, and a badly behavedcow at that", Steve tells us. Steve Last focuses on the unique approach of providing accessible information first,Why most people struggle and if you like it; “bringing the client up to speed in the technology, from theAccording to Steve Last , theres a reason start”, firstly to give the client thewhy so many people struggle with the idea confidence that he will be knowledgeablethat if done right an anaerobic digestion enough about the product he is buying toplant will deliver fuel bill remain in firm control of his technicalbusting power, despite so much evidence advisors from start to finish , and secondlyto the contrary, and help being offered to so that he gets a feel for what operating an 14
  15. 15. AD plant is like, because it isn’t like“buying a tractor”, and if the AD and Biogasindustry sells on that proposition,unsatisfied clients may well be theresult.To learn more about Steve Last’s solution,and his story,visit .What others are saying aboutSteve’s IPPTS Associates website…KT: “Great site, well done, lots of good infofor anyone looking at Anaerobic Digestionto perform a number of services. I havealso studied AD … and it is veryinteresting.Witchaya K: I’m come from Thailand and To download Steve’s free report on how tofinding the information about anaerobic operate a biogas plant godigestion in the rural village. Im studying to,in master degree and making the project the anaerobic digestion. Thank you. ow-to-operate-an-anaerobic-digestion-plant – it’s all there!A. G: Biogas production from any viablesource is an obvious path in a petro-energy ----------------------------stressed economy. My field of interest ison-site wastewater treatment, given GHG Are you receiving yourconcerns carbon sequestering and energyproduction potential is subject to scrutiny Anaerobic Digestion News?right now. Comment: Relevant, wellpresented and thus good. 15
  16. 16. browser’s address panel.) Sign up for our biogas news blog, and we will send you an email version of each blog article every time we update our blog. We been running it since 2006, and we have over 900 subscribers. It’s also completely free, and we always include an “unsubscribe” button in every email, so unsubscribing is never more than a click away. If you would like to give it a try, just click on the link below, and fill out the simple form. 8884 (Tip: If your settings prevent this working, copy and paste the link text into you 16Powered by TCPDF (