An Introduction to Biodigestors
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An Introduction to Biodigestors

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A report describing the Biodigestor, using the anaerobic digestion method of fermentation for cooking fuel both for single homes, and at a much larger scale for municipal AD plants serving whole ...

A report describing the Biodigestor, using the anaerobic digestion method of fermentation for cooking fuel both for single homes, and at a much larger scale for municipal AD plants serving whole towns. The renewable energy advantages and the ability to produce a fertilizer are also described.

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    An Introduction to Biodigestors An Introduction to Biodigestors Document Transcript

    • AN INTRODUCTION TO BIODIGESTORS RENEWABLE BIOGAS FROM DIY SCALE TO MUNICIPAL GIANTS STEVE LAST Environmental Engineer IPPTS Associates steve@anaerobic-digestion www.anaerobic-digestion.com
    • AN INTRODUCTION TO BIODIGESTORS implied, in regard to the merchantability,An Introduction to accuracy, or acceptability of the information.the Biodigestor IntroductionThe Biodigestor: Producingbiogas and fertilizer in sizes Inside this report, you will learn:varying from a renewable #1. What is a Biodigestor? Aenergy system for the biodigestor is a digester used forhuman waste/food waste of organic waste otherwise known as a bio-digester. We describe it to you in itsa single dwelling, to simplest form.massive municipal wasteAnaerobic Digestion plants #2 Produce Your Own Biogas - Aserving a whole town Way to Neutralize Waste and Produce Useful Energy: Many people who live in the suburbs mow their lawns once aBiodigestors are available across a week and produce a lot of cut grass.very wide range of scales, but they Some people grow their own foodall have in common the same natural (vegetables) in their gardens, needreaction at their heart - which is that fertilizer and produce some wasteof “fermentation” or Anaerobic biomass. Some have septic tanks andDigestion. In this report we will leech fields to neutralize wastewater.introduce you to the biodigestor, and Find out how you might have one simpleits many advantages. solution to utilizing all our biodegradable waste and make something useful of it?DISCLAIMER: This information isprovided "as is". The author, publishersand marketers of this information #3. The Advantages ofdisclaim any loss or liability, either Biofertilizers Produced fromdirectly or indirectly as a consequence Biodigestors: Find out howof applying the information presented bio-based industries, and the bioherein, or in regard to the use and technologies associated with them, areapplication of said information. No increasing at a greater pace around theguarantee is given, either expressed or world. In India, this addresses global 2
    • warming. Other factors include the #5. Home Made Biogas - Thequest for energy alternatives, concerns Next Big Thing in Energy Costabout health and food safety, and the Saving: With so many people who arenecessity to extend non-petroleum keen to save money and are handy atbased methods to grow both new and DIY, homemade biogas is the next mostexisting crops. obvious way after insulation and solar panels to save on gas bills. Making#4. Low Cost Biogas Digesters biogas at home entails the use of a longBring Big Advantages to forgotten technology (forgotten in theFarmers: Biogas digesters are often west at least) known as anaerobicconsidered to be something new by digestion, or AD. The secret of digestingthose in the developed nations, organic waste materials in the absencehowever, they have been widely used of oxygen and simply piping thefor many years in developing countries, methane biogas produced to a cookingespecially India and China, as firewood stove. Learn more about home biogasfor cooking becomes scarce. Learn production…more about such bio-digestion methodshere. Articles: # 1 What is a Biodigestor? A biodigestor is a digester used for organic waste otherwise known as a bio-digester. In its simplest form it comprises a closed container, airtight and waterproof (called the reactor), in which organic material is deposited to ferment (animal and human excrement, plant waste, may be included). During fermentation gas is produced (methane) and a fertilizer rich in organic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is the remaining material (known as digestate), and also cutting the polluting potential of the waste. 3
    • decreasing the chemical oxygen demand COD and biological oxygen demand BOD up to 90% (depending on design conditions and operation). Certain conditions must be controlled, such as: pH, pressure and temperature so as to obtain optimum performance. The simple home biodigestor is a simple to implement with inexpensive materials and is being introduced in isolated ruralThis system may also include a loading communities and developing countrieschamber and a means of storing of the to get the double benefit of providingwaste (water or solid materials) prior to energy to the poor and solvingthe reactor, a device for capturing and environmental problems such as thestoring, biogas pressurizing and deforestation of large areas for use forpost-treatment chambers (filter and firewood for cooking, and to make forstones, algae, drying, etc.) at the reactor proper sanitary (healthy) managementoutlet. of both human and animal waste.The phenomenon occurs because whenbiodigestion occurs a group of bacterial #2. Produce Your Ownorganisms known as “anaerobic” are Biogas - A Way topresent in the material, acting on theorganic waste from vegetable to animal, Neutralize Waste andproducing a gas mixture rich in methane Produce Useful Energy(CH4), called biogas, which is used asfuel . Many people who live in the suburbs mow their lawns once a week andAs a result of this process the reactor produce a lot of cut grass. Some peoplewill generate a waste with a high grow their own food (vegetables) in theirconcentration of nutrients and organic gardens, need fertilizer and producematter (ideal as fertilizer) that can be some waste biomass. Some have septicapplied fresh, and a big advantage is tanks and leech fields to neutralizethat the anaerobic treatment largely wastewater.eliminates odors and the proliferation offlies.One of the most importantcharacteristics of the bio-digestion is toreduce the pollution potential of animaldroppings and human detritus, 4
    • Small underground biodigesters (called biogas pits) are used commonly in China. Over 5 millions biodigesters are continuously operated there, and the biogas produced is used mainly for cooking, but also to produce electric power in gensets and lighting! Yes, gas lamps are used even now as you read this article, while in Europe and United States gas lamps are not used for about 100 years. If you think that biogas production isWouldnt it be great if we could have rocket science, youre mistaken. Simpleone simple solution to utilizing all our biodigester can be made of steel drumbiodegradable waste and make and large rubber inner tube. The onlysomething useful of it? common thing with such biodigester and rockets is the shape of the steel drum.Well, actually we do, and we have for Total cost of such a plant could beseveral years... The solution is called a below $100, as you only need one steelbiodigester. drum, one or more inner tubes, one or two hydraulic valves, and some pipesIt is the one system that allows us to with fittings.neutralize waste and produce twovaluable products You can also build a larger, underground biodigester, that would be digestate (fertilizer) and able to work all-year-round. [Note: In cold climates effectiveness may be low.] biogas (natural gas substitute). Biodigestion requires higherBiogas consists of methane and carbon temperatures and because of that thedioxide. The methane is the valuable biogas plant needs to be insulated.part of biogas as it is easily combustible Because of that the steel-drum-typeand highly caloric. The methane is also would work only in the summer andthe main component of the natural gas, probably in the spring and fall.and because of that the biogas issomewhat of a natural gas substitute. Building your own biogas plant is simple and affordable. Take a look at thisIn some cases it is used to produce so article and make your own DIYcalled Substitute Natural Gas, by adding biodigester, produce biogas and savedirectly to the pipeline or by adding only money.the methane part after purification. Krzysztof Lis is a MSc in mechanical 5
    • engineering. The food business is market-obsessed, producing new yield to reply to tradeArticle Source: interest. In urban nations, and more securely-paced lifestyles, take a hike down any grocery gangway and you will#3. The Advantages of see new crop that involveBiofertilizers Produced multi-functional "super foods," foods marketed to the aging population,from Biodigestors organic foods, and organized-to-eat crop.Bio-based industries, and the biotechnologies associated with them, are Fuel has been the focal meaning for bioincreasing at a greater pace around the industry cyst and the focus of much ofworld. In India, this addresses global the discussions regarding the best fuelswarming. Other factors include the and the best technologies for producingquest for energy alternatives, concerns them. Bio fuels may be dense fuels,about vigor and food safety, and the liquid fuels, or gaseous fuels. Wood andnecessary to extend non-petroleum agricultural pellets, compressed kindlingbased pathways to new and existing and bio-burn are all fixed bio fuels.crop. Liquid bio fuels are fashioned fromOne would be hard-pushed to spot a many different technologies. Bio dieselmarket that exists without the help of a is shaped from oil seeds throughbio product. They are used in transesterification or bookagriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, petrochemical technologies. Ethanol isthe manufacturing of food and fashioned through fermentationchemicals, transportation and squander technologies with starch grains. Ethanolmanagement, and remediation. In is also created with biomass or publicSaskatchewan, we can look at bio durable litter through gasification andproducts by idea about F5: food, supply, catalysis technologies.fiber, fuel and fertilizer. The fertilizer industry has conventionally been based on mining and petrochemical technologies. It would be interesting to find a way to recycle fertilizers back to where they are consumed. Bio fertilizers may simplify this. Bio fertilizers may be formed from byproducts resulting from the bio digestion of compost. Bio fertilizers may also be created through the pyrolysis of chicken compost. 6
    • Saskatchewan has a fantastic chemicals and gas, liquid, and sturdyopportunity to strengthen its bio fuels; and developing an integratedproducts and bio energy industries. A cattle function that produces horses,wide variety of biomass feedstocks; ethanol and bio gas.including re-forested hardwood andsoftwood, agricultural food, feed grains Finding conduct to tap into theand feed - are grown in the area, and advantages within Saskatchewan is onlytheres a similarly thick breadth of imperfect by our creativity. Keepbiomass residues that may be used. looking, as these advantages will become more prevalent in the impending. Sikko Sprayers Pvt. Ltd. has been functioning since 1996 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat State. Within a span of ten years, the company has successfully achieved its target in Bio Pesticides and became number one unit in the Country. Article Source: #4. Low Cost Biogas Digesters Bring BigBiomass residues produced from theproduction of feedstocks compose Advantages to Farmersforestry residues such as slash piles,sawdust, bark, copse chips and liquid Biogas digesters are often considered tounused from pulp mills, and agricultural be something new by those in theresidues such as straw, husks, and developed nations, however, they havemeal. Agricultural and forestry residues been widely used for many years inmay supply fiber, fuel, and fertilizer developing countries, especially Indiaproducts. and China, as firewood for cooking becomes scarce. Other countries fromThe diversity found in Saskatchewan Honduran farmers to the tiny Southopens possibilities for the strategic Pacific island nation of Tuvalu, are ablegrowth of bio refineries. Bio refineries to harness the methane gas createdlook at businesses that are profitable naturally from decomposing manure andand make them even more so by other organic materials.deriving value from what would beconsidered barren, or residues.Examples embrace with chicken muckto create fueling and fertilizers; usingtimber powder, pulp mill, cattle andagricultural residues to deliver 7
    • and more farmers around the world are beginning to install a biogas digester. Biogas digesters are usually built underground to protect them from temperature variations and also to prevent accidental damage. They not only perform the necessary actions required to keep the bacteria happy and creating the biogas, but designs suitable for farms and communities have been devised for the developing nationsBesides producing the fuel gas, these which are able to be replicated usingbiogas digesters (using the process of items that are cheap, easy to source,anaerobic digestion) have the added and easy to assemble.potential benefit of producing a highnutrient slurry fertilizer and providing The typical developing nation biogasbetter sanitation on farms. digester is constructed in a pit which is excavated by a trained laborer withThe win-win process goes even further assistance from one or more membersthough because the emission of of the household or community. A verypollution from the digester is very much common design for biogas digesterslower than without the digester, as well, has a volume of 8m3, some are largerso they can help to reduce river and at 10-15m3, and provide enough gas forgroundwater pollution at the same time. a two-ring stove and a light.A functional biogas digester systemapplies the science of microbiology andinvolves the development of renewableenergy.With biogas technology, the farm orcommunity/human waste (called slurry)is stored in specially constructedcontainers while being digested. Biogasdigester systems can accommodatemanure handled as a liquid, slurry, orsemisolid depending on the type ofreactor design used. Biogas digesterstake the biodegradable feedstock, and A biogas digester can function well onconvert it into two useful products: gas human and animal waste. We know ofand digestate (solid and liquid). Both of one Anaerobic Digester which is basedthese are useful, and this is certain to upon pig farming, and is built below thebe one of the main reasons why more pigsty. The pigsty is insulated, and the 8
    • digester produces some heat as well, It has been reported that in India awhich helps to keep both the pigs and domestic biogas digester unit capable ofthe biogas digester in the warm producing energy for an entire familysconditions both need during cold winter cooking needs can be installed forweather. between R5 000 and R8 000, that is less than 200 US Dollars. Facilities bestA biogas digester consists of one or suited for biogas digester systemsmore airtight reservoirs into which a typically have stable year-round manuresuitable feedstock such as cow dung, production, and collect and feed thehuman waste, or even abattoir waste, is digester with manure daily.placed, either in batches or bycontinuous feed. It is mixed and thesolid and liquid digestate is removed on #5. Home Made Biogas -a regular basis. The methane bubbles to The Next Big Thing inthe surface, and in the simplestsystems, it is stored as a big bubble Energy Cost Savingabove the liquid. In more sophisticated With so many people who are keen tosystems the methane is stored in save money and are handy at DIY,separate tanks, for use when needed. homemade biogas is the next most obvious way after insulation and solarThere is an enormous potential for panels:benefit from the increased use ofanaerobic digestion in Africa. AnAGAMA Energy fact sheet estimates Save money on cooking fuelthat in South Africa there are 400,000households with two or more cows and Follow a green and sustainableno electricity that could make use of lifestylebiogas digesters. An article dating backto30 November 2005, in the Rwandan Do it all without sacrificing thenewspaper The New Times states that convenience and comfort of modernthe Institute for Scientific Research and living.Technology in Kigali plans to installsome 1,500 biogas digesters by 2009 inthe Imidugudu settlements. These arevillages where rural Rwandans wererelocated after the genocidal wars of themid-1990s.Worldwide, about 16 million householdsuse small-scale biogas digesters,according to Renewables 2005: GlobalStatus Report, a study by theWorldwatch Institute. Making biogas at home entails the use 9
    • of a long forgotten technology (in the fibrous materials which are the materialwest at least) known as anaerobic left over after digestion are wonderful asdigestion, or AD. The secret of digesting fertilizer and soil improvement media fororganic waste materials in the absence gardeners and fruit and vegetableof oxygen and simply piping the growers.methane biogas produced to a cookingstove, has long been in use in India andChina. Such plants have been run usingcommunity solid and liquid waste feedmaterials, and have been around formore than 200 years.However, the DIY method catching onright now, is now much more advancedthan those plants. Furthermore, its useby those that are developing these themost successful home biogas plantshas allowed it to be refined into a highlyefficient and modern two stagethermophilic biogas productiontechnique, similar to those used in largescale commercial biogas digestorplants. This DIY system utilizes wastessuch as food waste and other highcalorific biomass wastes available to Once you have successfully trialed DIYhouseholders. home made biogas for cooking, there is also a natural progression available forThese new home biogas systems are you in the future to go further andmuch quicker to produce biogas and introduce electricity production from thismore efficient in the quantity they biogas source. Quite naturally theproduce per kilogram of organic industry (given a chance to get on withfeedstock produced, when compared management and administration duties)with the traditional systems of the east. will develop more sophisticated and efficient uses for the renewable (someThey are also cheap to build using would say "alternative") energymass-produced "off the shelf" plastic produced by AD.tanks. A two stage digester capable ofbeing maintained at the required very Those who start now and gain thewarm (thermophilic) temperatures necessary AD Plant operational skills,should cost no more than $200 for by building and operating homemadematerials. biogas plants, will soon find themselves very much in demand to design andWhat is more, the remaining liquid and build more plants for their friends and 10
    • acquaintances. foresight and ingenuity man can, and will, be able to develop cheapWe would also point out that as renewable energy to replace fossilgovernments move forward over the fuels.next twenty or so years anaerobicdigestion will become commonplace at Furthermore, we can develop our ownall levels, and a huge amount of organic biogas plants, and have our ownwaste (now completely unused) will be renewable energy - forever.utilized every day, for home madebiogas production. FINALLY REVEALED: (in the words of Farook who hasAre you thinking more about building adigester to produce home biogas created his own home biogasmethane? Then make sure you read on system)to the end. "Heres How You CanWrapping up... Generate Your OwnIn this report, weve shown you: FREE, Clean, Power What a Biodigestor is. Gas in Your Own How it is possible to produce your Backyard From Food own biogas to neutralize waste and produce useful energy. Wastes!" You now appreciate the advantages of the biofertilizers produced by biodigestors. How a digester can help farmers. You have a grasp on home-made biogas and the energy cost savings it can provide. However, this is just the beginning.You have learned how renewableenergy can be made from a hugevariety of organic materials and in thisreport we will show you that with 11
    • technology has been around for a very long time now. And its still being used by countries such as China, India and Vietnam, but many such systems are not practical to build and use anywhere. And whats the reason you may ask! But, the good news is that I have a solution for you! How About A Portable Biogas Generator That Could Completely Eliminate Your Gas Bill And Use Food Waste Instead ? Ive finally succeeded in creating a small size portable Biogas generator for average home users in mind. The generator you will learn to build is very portable and it requires only a small amount of space. You can easily buy these parts at your local hardware store or buy them online and construct your own. Now you too can learn to utilize thisFarook (the creator of his own home technology and build it anywhere at your house and use only your food waste tobiogas system), says that “If you are sick produce cleaner fuels for your cookingand tired of high gas bills and thinking about needs!.what you can do... besides scream at your"friendly" local gas company!” For more information aboutThen you will be glad to know that...you can themake your very own power gas Generatorfor powering your heaters and cookingyour food and kiss your power gas Firedigester Home Biogascompany goodbye!! System, CLICK HERE! “Yes, You Can Make Your Also, if youd like to know more about how mankind can find and use Own Biogas for Power!!” previously unimagined sources ofSome of you might already know that this organic materials and other ways to 12
    • wean mankind off fossil fuel "Very few people are aware of thedependency, then you may find the revolution which has taken place in thefollowing special report useful: waste management industry over the last 10 years or less. There are many “so called" new technologies which areSPECIAL REPORT: being implemented which not only divert waste away from landfills veryIs it Possible to be Green successfully, but also produce energy and by recycling an ever increasingand to Produce range of materials, and provide rawRenewable Energy materials, which reduces the need for destroying our landscapes to mine andProfitably from Biomass quarry fresh raw materials.”in the IndustrializedNations? Did you know that the waste management industry can be a great career opportunity especially as theAccording to Steve Last, author of The industry is continuing to grow whenand also owner of the popular website, many others are stagnating?the answer is yes! "There are waste management jobs now"So many people support recycling and in just about every discipline, and if youfollowing a “green” lifestyle out of a are not aware of these opportunities yousense of duty, without understanding may be missing a great careerthe very large potential benefits when opportunity”; Steve Last tells us.sustainable business practices arefollowed through", Steve Last tells us. Steve points out that the waste industry is definitely still “hiring”, so if you knowWhy most people struggle to anyone who is unemployed and knowsappreciate the importance of energy little of the scope for work in thefrom waste and how “zero waste” industry, we suggest that you pass thisisn’t just a worthy goal – it makes report on to them.senseAccording to Steve Last, theres a Did You Know Thatreason why so many people strugglewith the idea of waste facilities which You Can Find Outproduce energy in their district andobject to almost all proposals which the About the Otherwaste industry puts forward to recycle Methods throughand treat their waste, is a lack ofknowledge, and vision... which Energy and Recycled Materials 13
    • Incineration to MBTs, MRFs,are Created from Anaerobic Digestion andWaste, without the Composting,Danger of Raising the then you are bound to find our ebook even more so!Cost of Our FoodSupplies, by Reading This ebook includes concise information on each technology plus very broadAbout the “Waste indicative costs for each type of facility.Technologies”? Buy now at our lower price of £12.99 (GBP) - about $20 US (also: buy it easily in your own currency). An Introduction to Waste Technologies Click here to buy now! http://www.ebooks.waste-technologies.c o.uk/ and you can be downloading it in the next 5 minutes - available at any time. 30 day money back guarantee.If you found this report interesting, or you were trying to find out about Waste Technologies, from 14
    • Get Regular News of unsubscribing is never more than a click away. Biogas Developments in Your Email! If you would like to give it a try, just click on the link below, and fill Are you aware that you could out the simple form. be receiving our Anaerobic Digestion News? http://www.feedblitz.com/f/?Sub=8 8884 It’s FREE! (Tip: If your settings prevent this working, copy and paste the link text into you browser’s address panel.) See also: www.anaerobic-digestion.com/downl oads for more biogas information. Sign up now for our biogas news blog, and we will send you an email version of each blog article every time we update our blog. We have been running it since 2006, and we have over 900 subscribers. It’s also completely free, and we always include an “unsubscribe” button in every email, so 15Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)