Urinary system terms

  • 1,580 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,580
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Robert Adams
    Biology 120
    Urinary System Terms
  • 2. Acute Renal FailureARF
    Sudden renal failure
    Kidneys have suddenly stopped working
    Wastes products, fluids, and electrolytes build in the body
  • 3. 3 Main Causes
    Prerenal
    Intrinsic
    Post renal
    Acute Renal Failure
  • 4. Prerenal
    Sudden serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys
    Heavy blood loss
    Infection or sepsis
    dehydration
    Adaptive response to severe volume depletion and hypertension with structurally intact nephrons.
    Acute Renal Failure
  • 5. Intrinsic
    Response to cytotoxic, ischemic, or inflammatory injuries to the kidney with structural and functional damage
    Damage from medicine, poison, or infection
    People with serious long term health problems are likely to have kidney complications due to medications
    antibiotics, pain meds., blood pressure meds., and dyes used for X-ray
    Acute Renal Failure
  • 6. Post renal
    The obstruction of the passage of urine
    A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys
    Kidney stones
    Tumor
    Injury
    Enlarged prostate
    Acute Renal Failure
  • 7. Symptoms
    Little or no urine
    Bruising easily
    Hand tremors
    Swelling (especially of the legs and feet)
    Seizures
    Loss of appetite
    Nausea, vomiting
    Acute Renal Failure
  • 8. Risk Factors
    Symptoms
    Older adults
    Long term health problems
    Kidney or liver disease
    Diabetes
    Heart failure
    Obesity
    Liver cirrhosis
    Anaphylaxis
    Severe burns
    Anxiety
    Confusion
    Restlessness
    Exhaustion
    Pain in the back below rib cage
    Acute Renal Failure
  • 9. Diagnosis
    BUN blood urea nitrogen
    Creatine clearance
    Urinalysis
    Serum potassium
    Serum creatine
    Ultrasound
    Abdominal CT scan or MRI
    Acute Renal Failure
  • 10. Treatment
    Treatment varies depending on the cause
    Treated by a nephrologist
    Dialysis
    Antibiotics
    Special diets
    Meds. to rid extra fluid
    Meds. to control blood potassium
    Meds. to restore blood calcium levels
    Kidney transplant
    Acute Renal Failure
  • 11. Acute Renal Failure
    Potentially fatal
    May lay to chronic renal failure
    Develops over a few hours or a few days
    Occurs in 5% of hospitalized patients
    Infection accounts for 75% of deaths associated with ARF
  • 12. Blood, Urea, NitrogenBUN
    Test is a measure of the amount of nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea
    Measures renal function
    The liver produces urea as a waste product during the breakdown of protein
  • 13. Why is this test given?
    See if kidneys are working normally
    See the condition of kidney disease
    Test treatment of kidney disease
    Check for sever dehydration
    Blood, Urea, Nitrogen
  • 14. Blood, Urea, Nitrogen
    Patients prepare for this test by abstaining from meat or protein 24 hours prior
    Normal results are 6-20 milligrams per deciliter
  • 15. High BUN Results
    Kidney injury or disease
    Diabetes
    High blood pressure
    Blockage of the urinary tract
    Low blood flow to the kidney
    Acute renal failure
    Dehydration
    Heart failure
    Severe burns
    Addison’s disease
    High protein diet
    Some meds.
    Blood, Urea, Nitrogen
  • 16. Low BUN Results
    Low protein diet
    Malnutrition
    Severe liver damage
    Over hydration
    Severe muscle injury
    Pregnancy
    Cirrhosis
    Blood, Urea, Nitrogen
  • 17. Catheterizationcath
    Urinary catheterization
    Tubing that is inserted into the bladder via the urethra
    Allows urine to drain freely from the bladder for collection
    Permanent or intermittent
    Tubing can be latex, polyurethane, or silicone
  • 18. Types of catheters
    Foley Catheter – retained by means of a balloon at the tip which is inflated with sterile water. Indwelling catheter
    Robinson Catheter – intermittent flexible catheter for short term usage. No balloon tip so it can’t stay in place unaided
    Caude catheter – designed with a curved tip that makes it easier to pass through the curvature of the prostatic urethra
    Hematuria catheter – type of Foley catheter
    Texas Condom catheter – used for incontinent males, and carries a lower risk for infection
    Catheterization
  • 19. When is a patient catheterized?
    Acute or chronic urinary retention
    Orthopedic procedures that limit patient movement
    Need for accurate monitoring of input and output
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia
    Blockage
    Various surgeries involving the bladder and prostate
    Catheterization
  • 20. Procedure for men
    Wash hand, put on gloves
    Clean urethra opening
    Lubricate catheter
    Gently insert and advance catheter
    When you reach external sphincter you will feel resistance, gently continue to advance
    When urine flow starts hold catheter in place while you inflate balloon
    Secure catheter and attach drainage bag
    Catheterization
  • 21. Procedure for women
    Wash hands, put on gloves
    Clean labia and urethral meatus
    Lubricate catheter
    Spread labia and locate urethral meatus
    Slowly insert catheter into meatus
    Gently advance catheter
    When urine flows advance about 2 more inches hold catheter in place and inflate balloon
    Secure catheter and attach drainage bag
    Catheterization
  • 22. Diagnostic Reasons
    Urinalysis
    Collect accurately timed volumes or urine for renal function study
    Monitor urine output
    Install contrast dye for radiography
    Catheterization
  • 23. Therapeutic
    Relieve obstruction to urine flow
    Give meds. Directly to urinary bladder
    Facilitate surgical repair of urethra and surrounding tissues
    Catheterization
  • 24. Risks
    Allergy or sensitivity to materials
    Bladder stones
    Blood infections
    Hematuria
    Urethral injury
    Urinary tract infections
    Kidney damage
    Bladder spasms
    paraphimosis
    Catheterization
  • 25. Cystoscopycysto
    Allows doctor to look inside of the bladder and the urethra
    Used for visual diagnosis
    Can also be used for certain treatments
    Can see areas that can’t be seen through X-ray
    Also called cystourethroscopy
  • 26. Cystoscope
    Lighted instrument that is inserted through the urethra and moved to the bladder
    Sterile water is injected through the scope to help expand bladder and create clear viewing
    Medicine can also be injected through scope
    Tiny instruments can be inserted to collect tissue
    Cystoscopy
  • 27. Types
    Flexible
    Rigid
    Cystoscopy
  • 28. Procedure
    Patient is given a sedation
    IV for meds. and fluids
    Patient lies on back with knees bent, legs apart
    Genitals are cleaned
    Anesthetic is given
    Well lubricated cystoscope is inserted into the urethra and slowly advanced to the bladder
    Instrument can be used to biopsy
    45 min. procedure performed by urologist
    Cystoscopy
  • 29. Risks
    Anesthetic risk
    Temporary swelling of the urethra
    Difficult urination
    Hematuria
    Infection
    Urethra and bladder puncture
    Cystoscopy
  • 30. Not administered if…
    Pregnant
    Allergic
    Bleeding problems
    On blood thinners
    Cystoscopy
  • 31. Why?
    Find cause of hematuria, dysuria
    Urinary frequency
    Urinary inconsistence
    Urinary hesitance
    Urine retention
    Urethra blockage
    Urinary tract infections
    Biopsy
    Remove foreign objects
    Check for stones or tumors
    Diagnose enlarged prostate
    Cystoscopy
  • 32. Preparation
    Sometimes antibiotics
    Nothing by mouth after midnight the evening before
    Cystoscopy
  • 33. Infection that begins in the urinary system
    Most infections involve the lower urinary tract: bladder and urethra
    Infection is more common in women
    Urinary Tract InfectionUTI
  • 34. Types
    Kidney (acute pyelonephritis)
    Bladder (cystitis)
    Urethra (urethritis)
    Urinary Tract Infection
  • 35. Symptoms
    Strong urge to urinate
    Burning sensation when urinating
    Cloudy urine
    Frequent small amounts of urine
    Pelvic and rectal pain
    Strong smelling urine
    Hematuria
    Nausea, vomiting
    Urinary Tract Infection
  • 36. Causes
    When bacteria enters the urethra and begins to multiply
    Infection caused by E. coli
    Sexual intercourse, STD’s
    GI bacteria spread from anus to urethra
    Urinary Tract Infection
  • 37. How is it diagnosed?
    Treatment
    Urinalysis
    Bacteria culture in lab
    Cystoscopy
    Diagnostic imaging
    Antibiotics
    Home urine tests
    Single doses of antibiotics after sex
    Vaginal estrogen therapy
    hospitalization
    Urinary Tract Infection
  • 38. Higher Risk Factors
    Reduce Risks
    Female
    Sexually active
    Using certain birth control
    Undergoing menopause
    Urinary tract abnormalities
    Suppressed immune system
    Using a catheter
    Blockage of the urinary tract
    Drink plenty of liquids
    Wipe front to back
    Empty bladder after sex
    Avoid irritating feminine products
    Urinary Tract Infection