Low back dysfunction for acute and chronic injuries


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Stephen Miccio - UCF Senior in Athletic Training

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Low back dysfunction for acute and chronic injuries

  1. 1. Low Back Dysfunction For Acute and Chronic Injuries Stephen Miccio Athletic Training Student University Of Central Florida Exercise, Prevention, and Treatment For You
  3. 3. Statistics • Low back pain is the single leading cause of disability worldwide, according to the Global Burden of Disease 2010. • Back pain is one of the most common reasons for missed work. In fact, back pain is the second most common reason for visits to the doctor’s office, outnumbered only by upper-respiratory infections. • Experts estimate that as many as 80% of the population will experience a back problem at some time in our lives. • Americans spend at least $50 billion each year on back pain—and that’s just for the more easily identified costs
  4. 4. Anatomy
  5. 5. Anatomy
  6. 6. Anatomy
  7. 7. Anatomy
  8. 8. Anatomy How I remember the Spine: Breakfast at 7, Lunch at 12, Dinner at 5, (Man I am Sick of Cooking.)
  9. 9. Anatomy
  10. 10. Anatomy
  11. 11. The Spine • Cervical- C1-C7 (Main function is to support the • weight of the head. The cervical spine has the greatest amount of Range of Motion.) The curvature of the cervical spine is a lordotic curve, looks like a “C” backwards. Thoracic-T1- T12 (Main function is to protect the vital organs housed in the chest.) Each vertebrae has one rib attached to each side forming a protective shield around your vital organs. The curvature of the thoracic spine is known as a kyphotic curve. This looks like a regular “C”
  12. 12. The Spine • Lumbar- L1-L5 ( Contains the largest of vertebrae and holds a lordotic curve just like cervical spine.) The main purpose of the lumbar spine is that it takes on all the weight bearing activities. • Sacral- S1-S2 ( sits below the L5 and is made up of five fused vertebrae. • Coccyx- (is attached to the inferior portion of the sacrum and is commonly referred to as the “tail bone”)
  13. 13. Low Back Pain
  14. 14. Low Back Pain • The lumbosacral strain is the most common type of low back problem. • • • • • Low back pain primarily includes: Lumbosacral strains Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction Herniated Disk Degenerative Disk Disease Coccyalgia Lumbosacral strain may be postural in origin but not always.
  15. 15. Low Back Pain
  16. 16. Low Back Pain
  17. 17. Postural Dysfunctions • Kyphosis- A condition in which there is an overcurvature of the thoracic vertebrae. • Lordosis- Is curvature of the spine in the lumbar and cervical region where the portion of the vertebrae face inward. ( More common in women than men. The fault is often associated with weak abdominal muscles.) • Flat-back posture- Straight back in lumbar and thoracic and minimal flexion in upper thoracic region. • Sway-back posture- Posterior displacement of the upper trunk and an anterior displacement of the pelvis.
  18. 18. Posture
  19. 19. Kyphotic and Lordotic Posture
  20. 20. Flat-Back and Sway-Back Posture
  21. 21. Low Back Pain and The Pelvis • Four Groups of muscles support the pelvis in anterior and posterior alignment: • 1. Low back extensors • 2. Hamstrings • 3. Abdominals • 4. Hip flexors
  22. 22. Lumbar Pain Causes and Common Signs and Symptoms • Signs and Symptoms Include: • • • • • Muscle spasms Swelling along the back Loss of strength and or function of low back musculature Acute/sharp pain in a specific pin point region Dull Ache • Causes: • Overuse of the musculature in the lower back from poor back mechanics, poor lifting, sleeping surface, poor posture standing, sitting, and or even a violent injury where trauma occurred at the low back, such as an automobile accident.
  23. 23. Risks • Any activity/sport/hobby that requires movement such as twisting force at the spine and bending at the waist. Contact sports and hobbies increase the risk of injury. • Common Risks: • • • • • 1. Poor physical strength and flexibility 2. Family history of low back pain 3. Previous back injuries 4. Poor lifting mechanics 5. Prolonged sitting with poor posture.
  24. 24. Prevention • • • • • • • • • • Use proper posture! Sit up straight and stand tall Lift with the knees and legs not the waist. Proper warm up before activity. Keep a healthy active lifestyle and manage a healthy body weight. Keep the hamstrings and low back flexible with stretching. Keep your low back and other surrounding muscles strong and fit for endurance. HEP Cardio Ergonomics!!!
  25. 25. General Treatment • Low back strains with conservative treatment heal within 6 weeks time. • Cortisone shot is only temporary. • Initial Treatment- Rest, medication, and ice. • After initial treatment- Exercises to increase strength and flexibility and train proper posture. • Medication used- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Ibuprofen. • Heat and Cold- Cold relieves pain and inflammation. ( Ice pack, Ice massage 20 minutes on, an hour or so off.) Heat is implemented before stretching and strengthening activities. ( Heat pack, thermal ultrasound)
  26. 26. Strengthening and Stretching • Stretching Exercises
  27. 27. Strengthening and Stretching • Stretching Exercises
  28. 28. Strengthening and Stretching • Strengthening Exercises • (Don’t Forget Core)
  29. 29. Your HW • Take from this presentation: • Knowledge of the curvature of the spine • Correct posture and lifting mechanics • Strengthening and Stretching Exercises • Have an Idea of prevention, risks, signs and symptoms of lumbar pain. • Ergonomics • Utilize the resources you have here at KSC such as the Fitness Center and RehabWorks
  30. 30. Questions? ?
  31. 31. Thank You!
  32. 32. References • Low back pic number 1 http://health-advisors.org/lower-back-muscle-anatomy/ • Low back pic number 2 http://health-advisors.org/back-muscle-anatomy-healthadvisors-org/ • Low back pic number 3 http://thefacesofankylosingspondylitis.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/askyphosis2.jpg?w=320 • Low back pic number 4 http://www.pediatricorthopedics.com/Treatments/Skeletal/Spine/Kyphosis_Lordosis/Lordosis/LK_Pan_S ide.jpg • Low back pic number 5 http://osteomaureen.webs.com/photos/Examples-ofOsteopathic-Patients/Example%204.jpg • Low back pic number 6 http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-MYsAmdtff4/T1xDuLIKj0I/AAAAAAAAALw/RURNbAkGnu4/s1600/Sway%2Bback.JPG • Low back pic number 7 http://www.drkarencann.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/08/Cervical-Lordosis-Diagram.jpg • http://www.acatoday.org/level2_css.cfm?T1ID=13&T2ID=68 • Courtesy Of Google Images • DON’T FORGET TO CITE BOOK