What is a Supercomputer?What is a Supercomputer?Supercomputer is a broad term for one ofSupercomputer is a broad term for one ofthe fastest computer currently available.the fastest computer currently available.Super computers were designed and builtSuper computers were designed and builtto work on extremely large jobs that couldto work on extremely large jobs that couldnot be handled by no other types ofnot be handled by no other types ofcomputing systems.computing systems.
History of SupercomputersHistory of Supercomputers The history of supercomputing goes backThe history of supercomputing goes backto the 1960s when a series of computersto the 1960s when a series of computersat Control Data Corporation (CDC) wereat Control Data Corporation (CDC) weredesigned bydesigned by Seymour CraySeymour Cray to useto useinnovative designs and parallelism toinnovative designs and parallelism toachieve superior computational peakachieve superior computational peakperformance.performance. TheThe CDC 6600CDC 6600, released in 1964, is, released in 1964, isgenerally considered the firstgenerally considered the firstsupercomputersupercomputer
CDC 6600CDC 6600
History of SupercomputersHistory of Supercomputers(cont’d)(cont’d) Cray then developed the CDC 7600 inCray then developed the CDC 7600 in1970.1970. Cray-1 supercomputers project started inCray-1 supercomputers project started in1972 and finished in 1974 and was twice1972 and finished in 1974 and was twiceas fast as the 7600 with a vector speed ofas fast as the 7600 with a vector speed of80 MFLOPS.80 MFLOPS.
History of SupercomputersHistory of Supercomputers(cont’d)(cont’d) In 1990 Cray successful build Cray-4 theIn 1990 Cray successful build Cray-4 thefastest supercomputer in the world atfastest supercomputer in the world ataround 10 gigaflopsaround 10 gigaflops
Measurement of Speed :Measurement of Speed :Supercomputers speed are measured inSupercomputers speed are measured infloating point operations per secondfloating point operations per second(FLOPS) in units of :(FLOPS) in units of : megaflops (MFLOPS)megaflops (MFLOPS) gigaflops (GFLOPS)gigaflops (GFLOPS) teraflops (TFLOPS)teraflops (TFLOPS)
Uses of supercomputers :Uses of supercomputers : scientific simulationsscientific simulations Molecular Dynamics SimulationMolecular Dynamics Simulation analysis of geological dataanalysis of geological data nuclear energy researchnuclear energy research Computational fluid dynamicsComputational fluid dynamics Weather forecasting and meteorologyWeather forecasting and meteorology Aerodynamic researchAerodynamic research Probabilistic analysisProbabilistic analysis
HardwareHardware While the supercomputers of the 1970sWhile the supercomputers of the 1970sused only a fewused only a few processorsprocessors, in the 1990s,, in the 1990s,machines with thousands of processorsmachines with thousands of processorsbegan to appear and by the end of thebegan to appear and by the end of the20th century, massively parallel20th century, massively parallelsupercomputers with thousands of "off-supercomputers with thousands of "off-the-shelf" processors were the norm.the-shelf" processors were the norm. Supercomputers of the 21st century canSupercomputers of the 21st century canuse over 100,000 processors.use over 100,000 processors.
Operating System :Operating System : modernmodern massively parallelmassively parallelsupercomputers typically separatesupercomputers typically separatecomputations from other services by usingcomputations from other services by usingmultiple types ofmultiple types of nodesnodes, they usually run, they usually rundifferent operating systems on differentdifferent operating systems on differentnodes, e.g. using a small and efficientnodes, e.g. using a small and efficientlightweight kernel on compute nodes, butlightweight kernel on compute nodes, buta larger system such as a Linux-derivativea larger system such as a Linux-derivativeon server and I/O nodes.on server and I/O nodes.
ArchitectureArchitecture Approaches to supercomputerApproaches to supercomputerarchitecture have taken dramatic turnsarchitecture have taken dramatic turnssince the earliest systems were introducedsince the earliest systems were introducedin the 1960s. Early supercomputerin the 1960s. Early supercomputerarchitectures pioneered by Seymour Crayarchitectures pioneered by Seymour Crayrelied on compact innovative designs andrelied on compact innovative designs andlocal parallelism to achieve superiorlocal parallelism to achieve superiorcomputational peak performance.computational peak performance. However, in time the demand forHowever, in time the demand forincreased computational power ushered inincreased computational power ushered inthe age of massively parallel systemsthe age of massively parallel systems
Systems with a massive numberSystems with a massive numberof processors use one of twoof processors use one of twopaths:paths: In first approach, e.g. in grid computingIn first approach, e.g. in grid computingthe processing power of a large number ofthe processing power of a large number ofcomputers in distributed, diversecomputers in distributed, diverseadministrative domains, is used wheneveradministrative domains, is used whenevera computer is available.a computer is available.
In another approach, a large number ofIn another approach, a large number ofprocessors are used in close proximity toprocessors are used in close proximity toeach other, e.g. in a computer cluster.each other, e.g. in a computer cluster. In such a centralized massively parallelIn such a centralized massively parallelsystem the speed and flexibility of thesystem the speed and flexibility of theinterconnect becomes very important andinterconnect becomes very important andmodern supercomputers have usedmodern supercomputers have usedvarious approaches ranging fromvarious approaches ranging fromenhanced Infiniband systems to three-enhanced Infiniband systems to three-dimensional torus interconnects.dimensional torus interconnects.
What do you mean byWhat do you mean byCluster ComputersCluster ComputersCluster computers are two or moreCluster computers are two or morecomputers working parallel to achievecomputers working parallel to achievegreater performances. Cluster computersgreater performances. Cluster computersbreakup work among the computers in thebreakup work among the computers in thecluster.cluster.
Cluster Computers (cont’d)Cluster Computers (cont’d) Each computer in the cluster is a cpu itselfEach computer in the cluster is a cpu itselfwith its own processor, memory, and disk.with its own processor, memory, and disk. The computers communicate with eachThe computers communicate with eachother via an interconnecting bus.other via an interconnecting bus.
What are Multi-ProcessorWhat are Multi-ProcessorComputersComputersA multi-processor computer has 2 or moreA multi-processor computer has 2 or morecpus. Each processor is capable of runningcpus. Each processor is capable of runningdifferent program simultaneously (truedifferent program simultaneously (truemultitasking).multitasking).
Multi-Processor (cont’d)Multi-Processor (cont’d) The cpus all shared the other parts of theThe cpus all shared the other parts of thecomputers: memory, disk system, bus, etc.computers: memory, disk system, bus, etc. Cpu communicate via memory and the systemCpu communicate via memory and the systembus.bus. Cheaper than cluster computers but does notCheaper than cluster computers but does notperform as well.perform as well.
From top 500 supercomputers the 3 topFrom top 500 supercomputers the 3 topranked supercomputers are:-ranked supercomputers are:- RANK NO.1:-JAGUARRANK NO.1:-JAGUARSUPERCOMPUTERSUPERCOMPUTER RANK NO.2:-ROADRUNNERRANK NO.2:-ROADRUNNER RANK NO.3:-TENNESSEE’s KRAKENRANK NO.3:-TENNESSEE’s KRAKEN
FEATURES OF JAGUARFEATURES OF JAGUARSUPERCOMPUTERSUPERCOMPUTER Cray XT computer systemCray XT computer system 2.595 petaflops peak theoretical2.595 petaflops peak theoreticalperformanceperformance 255,584 processing cores255,584 processing cores System memory: 362 terabytesSystem memory: 362 terabytes Unmatched input/output bandwidth to readUnmatched input/output bandwidth to readand write files: 284 gigabytes per secondand write files: 284 gigabytes per second
ADVANTAGES OF JAGUARADVANTAGES OF JAGUARSUPERCOMPUTERSUPERCOMPUTER High speed(1.759Petaflop)High speed(1.759Petaflop) Greater performanceGreater performance.. High data transfer rate(284gb/s)High data transfer rate(284gb/s) High system memory(362tb)High system memory(362tb)
DISADVANTAGES OFDISADVANTAGES OFJAGUAR SUPERCOMPUTERJAGUAR SUPERCOMPUTER Required large area.Required large area. Very costlyVery costly($19.5 million).($19.5 million). Required more electricity.Required more electricity. Large no . of chips(37,376chips).Large no . of chips(37,376chips).