Rofrano, Joshua Moped


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Rofrano, Joshua Moped

  1. 1. Josh Rofrano 5/19/10 Moped What are the elements of diffusion? There are four main elements of diffusion: Innovation (typically an idea), Communication (the way the innovation is spread), Time (how long it takes to spread), and Social System. The diffusion of innovation typically has some uncertainty to it and some innovations don't get successfully diffused. A good example of the diffusion in film was when we watched the movie “Road to Wellville” with Anthony Hopkins. I thought it was a good example of diffusion because in the movie, the characters are woefully ignorant of the way the human body works. They don't understand how it functions or what is good/bad for it. The information is basically diffused by a central figure (in the movies case Dr. Kellogg) to the rest of the people. There are also many other anatomical innovations that occur throughout the movie that are meant to compete with Kellogg's notions of health and wellness. For example the European guy who does lewd things with Matthew Brodericks wife (in the movie). What are the elements of the Innovation-Development process? There are six phases in the IDP. Need/problem recognition, Research, Development, Commercialization, Adoption/diffusion, Consequences. The recognition that there even is room for an innovation is the key first step in the process. This is usually recognized by either political or scientific advancements, that allow the innovation to exist and prosper. The second phase is research where a good many of innovations emerge. Typically a small portion of the population is doing this research however it tends to have far reaching consequences and impact. The third stage of the process is development which is where the idea is designed and realized. This is the stage where prototypes might be made, and user testing might be done. This step is crucial to the process because in order for an idea to take shape it must be developed and created. Another step in the process is commercialization which is where the product (when ready of course) is marketed and distributed. The second to last step is Adoption/diffusion which is interesting because this is where the general public decides how they like certain products and ultimately this is where products can be made or destroyed. If the public doesn't like a certain innovation or see's it as “junk” or “useless” then they typically won't adopt it, and the innovation will be unsuccessful and die. The final step of the process is Consequences. I thought that the movie surrogates showed a good use of the Innovation-Development process. In the movie the people are faced with a problem which is that, “How can you keep people safe, in a world that is so dangerous?” They come up with this solution to have basically dolls of themselves walk around in place of them, this way if the doll gets hit by a car, it doesn't matter much because the person isn't physically injured. Bruce Willis's character in the beginning of the movie uses a surrogate but towards the middle changes his mind about the whole situation. He sees that there are unintended consequences that happen, such as people growing lazy and distant from one another. And not living their lives (as he's sees it) to the fullest. This upsets him and long story short SPOILER ALERT he disconnects them.
  2. 2. What is a change agent? A change agent is somebody who influences other peoples decisions towards something that the change agency deems “desirable”. Change agents try to push you towards certain products or innovations for various reasons. Change agents are usually in contact with a group of clients who are usually influenced by their lexical wizardry. Change agents could sell ice cubes to eskimo's. A good example from a movie of a change agent is in the movie Terminator. In them movie terminator there is a large European man (from the future) chasing after a small boy (from the past). The large European man wants to kill the boy so that the future is different. This of course presents a time-travel paradox though that I will discuss at a later time. Long story short SPOILER ALERT, the “terminator” ultimately fails at killing the boy because of another change agent who stops him. This guy was sent back in time by the humans from the future to protect the boy. Although if the humans in the future understood anything about time travel, they would know that because the boy is a man there then, then of course he somehow makes it out alive...which is where the paradox lies. Without delving too much further into this notion of a paradox, it could be argued that the human, is actually an Aide rather than a Change agent. An Aide is similar to a change agent except aides are easy...its a pun. Anyhow, they cost “less” and are generally “easier” to deal with than the change agents. By using this argument we can determine that the human who goes back in time is actually an Aide rather than a full-blown Change Agent. How do Innovations diffuse through organizations? There are a few subprocesses that occur when innovations are diffused through organizations. These subprocesses consist of Initiation, and Implementation. Within these two categories there are further sub-categories. In the initiation stage of the diffusion process there is agenda-setting and matching. Agenda setting is where an organization typically acknowledges that they have a problem, and they need rehab, (or just new innovations) the need is defined. Matching is where they find an innovation that best suits their needs and the adoption is planned and designed. In the Implementation subprocess there is redefining/restructuring, clarifying, and routinizing. Redefining/restructuring is when an innovation is redesigned to fit a certain companies needs and structure more closely. Clarifying is when the company explains the meaning of the new innovation. Routinizing is where an innovation is so engrained in the process of the organization that it becomes routine and second nature, and it loses its separate identity. In class we watched a hilarious movie called, “Pirate Radio.” It was a movie about a bunch of dudes on a boat broadcasting songs on the radio. The movie portrayed the radio disc jockey's as people who were trying to bring innovation to the British people. They were trying their best to diffuse innovations throughout England. It just so happens that the innovation is rock music. The British government could be seen as analogous to the stick in the mud upper management that run companies today. The government was used to doing things a certain way and the youth of the country felt that it was time for a change. What are the attributes of innovations? There are five attributes of innovation: Relative advantage, Compatibility, complexity, trialability, and Observability. Relative advantage refers to how much better the innovation is to the original. Compatibility refers to how consistent the innovation is with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters. Complexity refers to how difficult a product is to use. Trialability
  3. 3. pertains to how much an innovation can be experimented on/with. Finally Observability refers to the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. In the movie I, Robot will smith played a futuristic police officer who has a beef with robots. There is a rouge robot in the mix. This rogue robot broke one of the three rules that govern artificial intelligence. It killed its owner. So for much of the movie, Will Smith plays a police officer who ironically, “doesn't understand” (reference to his early rap song). Any who, this movie does a good job with displaying the various aspects and attributes of innovations. Initially the new robots gave the futuristic humans a relative advantage because they were slightly better than their previous counterparts. They were just as compatible. The new robots weren't any more complex, in fact that was part of their selling point as I recall. The company that made the robots even gave them away in exchange for an older robot model, so the humans were able to try them out. It was very obvious throughout the movie that the robots were easily observable.