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Methods of Teaching


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This file is about common methods of teaching.

This file is about common methods of teaching.

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  • 1. Summary: Teaching Methods Class B – Regular | Every Tuesday & Thursday, 16.00 – 18.00 Group 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rachmat Wahidi RiskiAgustina Rita Damayanti Isniati Ida Murni 0906102020069 0906102020011 0906102020005 0906102020059 0906102020078 Supervisor: Dra. EndangKomariah, M.Pd.
  • 2. THE GRAMMAR—TRANSLATION METHOD This Grammar—Translation Method is present because the people believe that language is written or a grammar. Because of that, its function is helping students in reading or understanding foreignlanguage literature. Furthermore, students can understand the grammar of the target language. This method is quite old and has been used by teachers many years. It is also knows as Classical Method because it was used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek. Talking about the rule of the teacher and the students, they are very old. It means the teacher is the authority in that class. The students do what the teacher asks to do. For example, when a teacher asks the student to repeat after him, the students do it. For that reason, the students learn what the teacher knows. This method does not use the target language while in the classroom, but native language. The students learn grammar and vocabulary of the target language through this process. These areas of language are emphasized in this method. Knowing the purpose of language, we will find nine techniques in this method. These are: Translation; Reading Comprehension Questions; Antonyms/Synonyms; Cognates; Deductive Rule; Teaching Methods (TEFL) Fill-in-the-Blanks; Memorization; Use Word in Sentences; and Composition. 2
  • 3. THE DIRECT METHOD The Direct Methods believe that language is spoken, to communicate, and culture. Because of that, language learning by this method is directly and cognitive. Students and teachers are learning target language without translation to native language, so that is why the method is directly. If someone do not know how to say something in target language, it is possible to use gestures. This method put emphasis on the class to be active. The teacher and the students are like partners in the teaching or learning process. It is because they help each other in correcting the errors that happened during learning process. For instance, when a student reads a text aloud and makes a mistake, the teacher gives a choice between the wrong and the correct one. Student: The book is in the table. Teacher (gives a choice): Is the book is in the table or on the table? Student (correct his sentence): The book is on the table. This method believes that the purpose of language learning is communication, so that in the class students must ask questions about the lessons. When the teacher asks a question to students, they should answer it in a full sentence. A proverb is usually used in the class due to his method is also about culture. The students discuss how the speakers of that language live. For example, a teacher gives students, ―Time is money.‖ Students will talk about this in order to understand that Americans value punctuality. They will compare this attitude with their own view of time. In this method, students are asked to use the language, not to demonstrate their knowledge about the language. They are asked to use oral and written skills. It is shown in the Dictation technique—the teacher reads the passage for three times, and the students write what the teacher said. After knowing the purpose of the language learning, we can find the appropriate techniques in Direct Method. These are Reading Aloud, Question and Answer Exercise, Selfcorrection, Conversation Practice, Fill-in-the-Blank Exercise, Dictation, Map Drawing, and Paragraph Writing. THE AUDIO—LINGUAL METHOD The Audio—Lingual Method was developed during World War II in the United States. At that time, the method was used to learn target languages quickly for military purposes. Because of that, the Audio—Lingual Method has different goal from the Grammar Teaching Methods (TEFL) 3
  • 4. Translation Method, and the Direct Method as well. The goal is to make learners learn the specific target language quickly; even they do not be prepared. Language defined by the method is a set of habits; spoken; listening before speaking. In speaking of language skill, this method emphasize the structure, it is similar to the Grammar Translation Method. As a consequence, the model of syllabus is generally structural. In addition, vocabulary is also emphasized in this method. In the class, teacher is like an orchestra leader, while students are imitators of the teacher‘s model. Teacher is controlling and directing the language behaviour of the students. Also, the students follow the teacher‘s directions and respond as accurately and quickly as possible. Some characteristics of the method are vocabulary and structures are presented through dialogues. The dialogues are learned through imitation and repetition. It is known as technique of drills. In addition, the error which students make should be precluded if possible through the teacher‘s awareness, where the students will have difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say. In speaking of the techniques, there are several ones that can be used in this method: Dialog Memorization; Backward Build-up Drill; Repetition Drill; Chain Drill; Single-slot Substitution Drill; Multiple-slot Substitution Drill; Teaching Methods (TEFL) Transformation Drill; Question-and-Answer Drill; Minimal Pairs; Complete the Dialog; and Grammar Game. 4
  • 5. THE SILENT WAY It is a teaching style that was developed around the 1970s. It involves using Cuisenaire rods (or coloured blocks), and phonetically coloured word charts made up of the most common words in English, as the teaching aids. It is called The Silent Wayfor the reason that it is designed to have the teacher speaking as little as possible. The objective of The Silent Way Method of language teaching is for students to work as independent language learners. The teacher speaks very little when using this method. The role of the teacher is to draw the learners‘ attention to the way that they are going about the act of learning. The teacher facilitates the students‘ discoveries and helps the students to gain insight into the functioning of the language. In order to use this method some specific materials are required. A Sound/Colour Wall Chart: made up of different colour rectangles in which each colour represents a phoneme or sound of the English language. Word Wall Charts: words are written using the same colour code as the sound/colour wall chart suggests. These charts display the structural vocabulary of the language. Spelling Charts: These charts are referred to as the Fidel. They show the possible spellings for each phoneme and they use the same colour code as the sound/colour wall chart. Rods: these are cards containing sounds, which correspond to the sound/colour wall chart. These rods allow students to create words using phonemes. The teacher to help guide the class as they vocalize the sounds should use a pointer. A pointer can also help to teach which syllable has the stress on it by tapping that syllable harder than the others tap. This aids in the development of proper pronunciation of words in the target language. The Silent Way uses a structural syllabus, and structures are constantly reviewed and recycled. And the goal is to help beginning-level students gain basic fluency in the target language, with the ultimate aim being near-native language proficiency and good pronunciation. Speaking of error correction, teacher will often give students time to correct their own mistakes before giving them the answer to a question. Teachers also avoid praise or criticism, seeing thatit can discourage students from developing self-reliance. Evaluation is carried out by observation, and the teacher may never set a formal test since the teacher‘s silence frees him to attend to his students and to be aware of these needs. The needs will be apparent to a teacher who is observant of his students‘ behaviour. Some of techniques that can be used in this method are as follow: Sound-colour chart; Teacher Silence; Peer Correction; Teaching Methods (TEFL) Rods; Self-correction Gestures; Word Chart; 5
  • 6. Fidel Charts; and Teaching Methods (TEFL) Structured Feedback. 6
  • 7. SUGGESTOPEDIA Georgi Lozanov, who originator of this method, believes that language learning can occur at a much faster rate than what ordinarily transpires (Larsen-Freeman, 1986). To achieve thisfaith, Lozanov developed a language method named Suggestopedia whose goal is to speed up the process by which students learn to use a foreign language for normal communication. In the process of teaching/learning, students should be comfortable. Perfectly, easy chairs, soft lighting, and music areavailable to support this process. Also, posters displaying grammatical information are hung in the wall, and changed every week. There are two processes in presenting dialogue. In the first major phase (receptive phase), teacher reads the dialogue, matching his voice to the rhythm, and pitch the music. In this way, the whole brain will be activated. The students follow the target language dialogue as the teacher reads it out loud. During the second concert, the students relax while the teacher read the dialogue at a normal of speed. Like the previous method, this one emphasizes the vocabulary. The more vocabulary students acquired the more success of the method. Grammar is also dealt with explicitly, but minimally. This method more focused on speaking communicatively. Students also read the target language, and write it. Evaluation is conducted on students‘ normal performance in the class, not through formal test. Error correction is done in the last period of the class. Some of techniques are as follow: Classroom Set-up; Positive Suggestion; Visualization; Role-play; Choose a New Identity; Teaching Methods (TEFL) First Concert; Second Concert; First Activation; and Second activation. 7
  • 8. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING In this kind of method, the teacher should consider his students as a ―whole persons.‖ It means he do not only consider their feelings and intellect, but also the understanding of the relationship among students‘ physical reactions, instinctive protective reactions and desire to learn. The developer of the method takes these principal from Counselling-Learning approach, which explained by Charles Curran. The users of this method believe that language is for communication. In the process of language learning, teacher should be as counsellor for his students. Teacher should understand his students‘ problems and try to solve them. That is why the relationship between teacher and student is very important. The method‘s aim is student learn how to use the target language communicatively. First, the teacher—as counsellor—teaches his students how to say something in target language, for example, ―Good morning!‖ At the first time students would find difficult to pronounce it. Teacher corrects them if there is any error while waiting for they would be independent. Grammar points, pronunciation patterns, and vocabulary are underlined in this method. But, the most important skills to be achieved are identifying and speaking the language. Then, students proceed to the next skill, reading. The evaluation is expected the students should know the progress of their own (selfevaluate). It means no certain evaluation is set in this method. To conclude, the techniques related to this method are: Tape-recording Student Conversation; Transcription; Reflection on Experience; Teaching Methods (TEFL) Reflective Listening; Human Computer™; and Small Group Tasks. 8
  • 9. THE TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE METHOD This method begins with the listening skill because of listening comprehension is the most important. The idea of focusing on listening comprehension comes from observing how children acquire their mother tongue. A baby spends many months listening to people speaking around him before he starts speaking. None tells the baby that it must speak. The baby chooses to speak after he is ready. The goal of teachers who use the method is the importance of having their students enjoys their experience in learning to communicate in a foreign language. Students unswervingly do what the order given to them after they understood. To begin with, teacher acts as director of all students‘ behaviour. The students are imitators of his non-verbal model. At a specific time, several students are asked to speak to take over the teacher. One of characteristics of this method is modelling. The teacher issues commands to a few students, then performs the actions with them. Later, the same students demonstrate that they can understand the commands by performing them alone. After learning to respond to some commands, they are asked to read and write them. As soon as a student is ready to speak, he turns out to be the issuer of the commands. The method emphasizes grammar and vocabulary as well. These are embedded within imperative. The imperative are single words and multi-word chunks. This is because the method eases learners—in this case, youngchildren—to be understood. Teacher assesses his students by observing their actions. Formal evaluation can be executed by commanding individual student to perform a single action. If a student makes errors, teacher can be tolerant to him. The minute the student becomes more advanced, teacher can correct more minor errors. The techniques used in the method are all instructing techniques. They are: Using Command to Direct Behaviour; Role Reversal; and Action Sequence. THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH The Communicative Approach concentrates on having students more able to communicate perfectly and fluently. The method supposes that it is insufficient for students to merely have knowledge of target language forms, meaning, and functions. They should be Teaching Methods (TEFL) 9
  • 10. capable of applying this knowledge in negotiating meaning, so that the meaning becomes clear through speaker and listener. From these concentration, we can see that the method have the students become communicatively competent (being able to use the language appropriate to a given social context). To do this, students need knowledge of the linguistic forms, meanings, and functions. They need to know how many forms can be used to perform a function; to choose from among these the most appropriate form; and must be able to manage the process of negotiating meaning with their discussers. In the method, the teacher is a facilitator. He is also a manager of the class activities. His duty is to promote communication. He plays as an advisor, answering questions from students—since they are as communicators, and monitoring their performance. At some time, he might be as a co-communicator: participating in the communicative activity along with the students. Language functions areconcentrated. And the functional syllabus is used in this method. Students will learn some expressions in speaking, e.g. make a request, ask permission, or something else. Teacher not only evaluates student‘s accuracy, but also their fluency. Form errors can be tolerated and are seen as a natural product of the development of communication skills. Techniques in using the method are as follow: Authentic Materials; Scrambled Sentences; Language Games; Teaching Methods (TEFL) Picture Strip Story; and Role-play. 10
  • 11. THE NATURAL APPROACH The Natural Approach (NA) is a product of Stephen Krashen. The most striking proposal of the NA theory is that adults can still acquire second languages and that the ability to ‗pick up‘ languages does not disappear at puberty.The theory behind the NA implies that adults can acquire all but the phonological aspect of any foreign language, by using their ever-active LAD. What makes adults different from children is their abstract problem solving skills that make them consciously process the grammar of a foreign language. Therefore, adults have two paths to follow: acquisitionand learning. Though, children have only one: acquisition(Kiymazarslan, 1995). Krashen regards ‗communication‘ as the main function of language. The focus is on teaching communicative abilities. The superiority of ‗meaning‘ is emphasized. There are also five theories of language learning: The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis: adults have two different ways of developing competence in second languages: Acquisition and learning. The Natural Order Hypothesis: the acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predicted progression. The Input Hypothesis: this hypothesis relates to acquisition, not to learning. Krashen claims that people acquire language best by understanding input that is a little beyond their present level of competence. The Monitor Hypothesis: adult second language learners have two means for internalizing the target language. The first is ‗acquisition‘ which is a subconscious and intuitive process of constructing the system of a language. The second means is a conscious learning process in which learners attend to form, figure out rules and are generally aware of their own process. The Affective Filter Hypothesis: input must be achieved in low-anxiety contexts in view of the fact that acquirers with a low affective filter receive more input and interact with confidence. The filter is ‗affective‘ because there are some factors which regulate its strength. These factors are self-confidence, motivation and anxiety state. The syllabus underlying the Natural Approach is topical and situational. It is a semantic or notional syllabus, as said by Krashen (1985:55)―A series of topics that students will find interesting and the teacher can discuss in a comprehensible way.‖ There are three roles of teacher. Firstly, the teacher is the primary source of input that is understandable to the learner. Secondly, the teacher creates a friendly classroom atmosphere where there is a low affective filter. Thirdly, the teacher chooses the most effective materials and employs a rich mix of classroom activities.Oppositely, the language acquirer is regarded as a processor of comprehensible input. Teaching Methods (TEFL) 11
  • 12. CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) helps students relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in the hard work that learning requires.Berns (2001) recognises the strategies for implementing contextual teaching and learning includes: Problem-based learning. An approach that engages learners in problem-solving investigations that integrate skills and concepts from many content areas. This approach includes gathering information around a question, synthesizing it, and presenting findings to others. Cooperative learning. An approach that organizes instruction using small learning groups in which students work together to achieve learning goals. Project-based learning. An approach that focuses on the central concepts and principles of a discipline, involves students in problem-solving investigations and other meaningful tasks, allows students to work autonomously to construct their own learning, and culminates in realistic products. Service learning. An approach that provides a practical application of newly acquired (or developing) knowledge and skills to needs in the community through projects and activities. Work-based learning. An approach in which workplace, or workplace-like, activities are integrated with classroom content for the benefit of students and often businesses. There are also 7 components in this method: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Constructivism. Inquiry. Questioning. Modelling. Learning community. Authentic assessment. Reflection. Teaching Methods (TEFL) 12
  • 13. COOPERATIVE LEARNING Cooperative Learning (CL)is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. It is only under certain conditions that cooperative efforts may be expected to be more productive than competitive and individualistic efforts. Those conditions are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Positive Interdependent (sink or swim together). Face-to-Face Interaction (promote each other‘s success). Individual & Group Accountability. Interpersonal & Small-group Skills. Group Processing. Spencer Kagan introduces the activities which support the Cooperative Learning includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Jigsaw. Think—Pair—Share. Three-step Interview. Round Robin Brainstorming. Three-minutes Review. Numbered Heads Together. Team Pair Solo. Circle the Sage. Partners. The researcher has examined and obtained the advantages in using CL: Students who engage in cooperative learning learn significantly more, remember it longer, and develop better critical-thinking skills than their counterparts in traditional lecture classes. Students enjoy cooperative learning more than traditional lecture classes, so they are more likely to attend classes and finish the course. Students are going to go on to jobs that require teamwork. Cooperative learning helps students develop the skills necessary to work on projects too difficult and complex for any one person to do in a reasonable amount of time. Cooperative learning processes prepare students to assess outcomes linked to accreditation. Teaching Methods (TEFL) 13
  • 14. BIBLIOGRAPHY Cooperative Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2011, from Dease, A. (n.d.). Contextual Teaching and Learning Theory. Retrieved December 13, 2011, from theoriesincareertech: ory Kiymazarslan, V. (1995). The Natural Approach: What Is It? Retrieved December 13, 2011, from Natural Approach Web Site: Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York, United States of America: Oxford University Press. Teed, R., McDaris, J., & Roseth, C. (n.d.). What is Cooperative Learning? Retrieved December 14, 2011, from Science Education Research Center: Teaching Methods (TEFL) 14
  • 15. Scenario: Cooperative Learning Focus: Listening 1. Greeting. Teacher greets students. 2. Introduction materials. Teacher explains about topic ‗Listening to the song.‘ 3. Forming group. Teacher divides students into several groups of three or four. 4. Giving the materials. Teacher gives a piece of paper for each group. Teacher asks them to take a look to the paper for three minutes. While teacher turns on the song, students complete the blank words with lyric they listen to the song for 2 times repetitions. 5. Asking students‘ opinion. Teacher allows students to discuss the moral lesson from the song. Students are also learned the pronunciation varianceswhich the vocalist used and students used. No specific words in the text are focused. 6. Closing. Teacher ends the teaching and learning process by concluding the materials. Teaching Methods (TEFL) 15