WHAT IS BIOMETRICS? The term biometrics refers strictly speaking to a science involving the statistical analysis of biological characteristics . A biometric is a unique, measurable characteristic or trait of a human being for automatically recognizing or verifying identity."
FEATURES :- Automated method Pattern recognition system Specific physiological or behavioral characteristics
WHY BIOMETRICS? To prevent stealing of possessions that mark the authorised persons identity e.g. security badges, licenses, or properties To prevent fraudulent acts like faking ID badges or licenses. To ensure safety and security, thus decrease crime rates
BIOMETRIC SYSTEM Data Collection Transmission Signal Processing Data Storage Decision
HOW BIOMETRIC WORKS The hardware captures the salient human characteristic The software interprets the resulting data and determines acceptability.
CHARACTERISTICS USED • Fingerprints • Voiceprints • Facial features • Writing patterns • Iris patterns • Hand geometry
FINGERPRINT Traditional finger scanning technique analysis of small unique marks of the finger image known as minutiae. The relative position of minutiae is used for comparison, because no fingers have identical prints, even from the same person or identical twins . Fingerprint matching techniques can be placed into two categories: a) minutiae based b) correlation based
FINGERPRINT Finger-scan biometrics is based on the distinctive characteristics of the human fingerprint A fingerprint image is read from a capture device Features are extracted from the image A template is created for comparison
IRIS SCAN :-EYE internal parts of human eye are very well protected the sight being the most important sensor, the biometric data is also safe and immune to degradation in normal life on the contrary to more external parts like fingertips . They can be divided in two specific technologies: examination of iris and retina patterns.
IRIS Visually examined iris is the colored ring of textured tissue that surrounds the pupil of the eye as shown. The iris consists largely of a system of muscle that expand and contract the pupil in response to changing lighting conditions. After taking a picture of the eye, the system samples the radial and angular variations of each individual iris to form an Iris Code, a digital file that serves as a reference in database.
IRIS RECOGNITION Pattern recognition technique Identification by mathematical analysis of the random patterns. Based upon the qualities of the Iris No two iris are same.
IRIS SYTEM Uniform distributio Stored n templates Reject Pre Feature- Identificatio processing extraction n VerificationIris scan image Accept Iris Iris codecapture comparison localization
IRIS CODE Localization of inner and outer boundaries Pattern of 512 bytes Complete and Compact description More complete than features of DNA
IRIS SCAN Camera at close proximity Captures photograph Uses Infra red light to illuminate High resolution photograph
FACE :- Face recognition technologies analyze the unique shape, pattern and positioning of facial features Face recognition is very complex technology and largely software based. Artificial intelligence is used to simulate human interpretation of faces. The problem with human face is that people do change over time; wrinkles, beard, glasses and position of the head can affect the performance considerably. There are essentially two methods of capture: using video or thermal imaging.
HAND GEOMETRY :- When measuring hand geometry biometrics, three- dimensional image of the hand is taken and the shape and length of fingers and knuckles are measured. The technology does not achieve the highest levels of accuracy but it is convenient and fast to use. On the capture process a user places a hand on the reader, aligning fingers with specially positioned guides.
COMPARISONBiometric Type Accuracy Ease of Use User AcceptanceFingerprint High Medium LowHand Geometry Medium High MediumVoice Medium High HighRetina High Low LowIris Medium Medium MediumSignature Medium Medium HighFace Low High High
APPLICATIONS :- CYBER SECURITY – Cyber security has been built- in signature security management features of Adobe Acrobat software. This software enables the handwritten signature to be included as an electronic signature in any Acrobat portable document format (PDF) file on the web . BIOMETRIC SMART CARD – The information stored in the card is protected by circuits inside the card that perform encryption/decryption of the data in the card.
BIOMETRIC CELLULARS – Fujistu microelectronics hasdeveloped an innovative fingerprint identificationsystem that combines sweep sensor technology withadvanced algorithms to provide a powerful,dependable, easy-to-use authentication for PDAs, cellphones, and other mobile devices. The sensor measurejust 1.28x0.20cm and is powered by sophisticatedalgorithms that generate unique minutiae templatesthat correspond to specific fingerprint features. Asingle fingerprint sweep across the sensor capturefingerprint feature to rapidly authenticate user of cellphones and PDAs.
FUTURE BIOMETRICS :- a) DNA SCANNING b) EAR SHAPE c) KEYSTROKE DYNAMIC SCANNING d) VEINCHECK